Advertisement

Archimedes Influence in Science and Engineering

  • Thomas G. ChondrosEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the History of Mechanism and Machine Science book series (HMMS, volume 11)

Abstract

Archimedes (ca. 287–212 BC) was born in Syracuse, in the Greek colony of Sicily. He studied mathematics probably at the Museum in Alexandria. Archimedes made important contributions to the field of mathematics. Archimedes discovered fundamental theorems concerning the center of gravity of plane geometric shapes and solids. He is the founder of statics and of hydrostatics. Archimedes was both a great engineer and a great inventor, his machines fascinated subsequent writers, and he earned the honorary title “father of experimental science”. Archimedes systematized the design of simple machines and the study of their functions and developed a rigorous theory of levers and the kinematics of the screw. His works contain a set of concrete principles upon which mechanics could be developed as a science using mathematics and reason. His contribution separates engineering science from technology and crafts, often confused for matters arrived at empirically through a process of long evolution. His works have influenced science and engineering from the Byzantine period to the Industrial Revolution and the New Era.

Keywords

Industrial Revolution Great Inventor Rigorous Theory Simple Machine Byzantine Period 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Archimedes-Apanta, (The Works of Archimedes) Vol. 1, On the Sphere and the Cylinder, Kaktos Publications, Athens, 2002 [in Greek].Google Scholar
  2. Archimedes-Apanta, (The Works of Archimedes) Vol. 2, Measurement of the Circle, Conoids and Spheroids, Spiral Lines, Kaktos Publications, Athens, 2002 [in Greek].Google Scholar
  3. Archimedes-Apanta, (The Works of Archimedes) Vol. 3, Planes in Equilibrium, Quadrature of the Parabola, The first and second book On Floating Bodies (Peri ton ochumenon - de Corporibus Fluztantzbus), Kaktos Publications, Athens, 2002 [in Greek].Google Scholar
  4. Archimedes-Apanta, (The Works of Archimedes) Vol. 4, Stomachion, The Method (Pros Eratostenis Efodos, Book of lemmas, The Cattle Problem (Problems Bovinum), Kaktos Publications, Athens, 2002 [in Greek].Google Scholar
  5. Archimedes-Apanta, (The Works of Archimedes) Vol. 5, Eutocius’ commentaries to Books, Kaktos Publications, Athens, 2002 [in Greek].Google Scholar
  6. Archimedes-Apanta, (The Works of Archimedes) Vol. 6, References, Kaktos Publications, Athens, 2002 [in Greek].Google Scholar
  7. Bell, E.T., Men of Mathematics, Penguin, London, 1965.Google Scholar
  8. Bendick, J., Archimedes and the Door of Science, Bethlehem Books, Ignatius Press, Warsaw, ND San Francisco, 1995.Google Scholar
  9. Chondros, T.G. “Archimedes (287-212 BC)” in History of Mechanism and Machine Science 1, Distinguished Figures in Mechanism and Machine Science, Their Contributions and Legacies, Part 1. 2007 Edited by Marco Ceccarelli, University of Cassino, Italy, Springer, The Netherlands, ISSBN 978-1-4020-6365-7. pp. 1-30.Google Scholar
  10. Chondros, T.G., “Deus-Ex-Machina” Reconstruction and Dynamics, International Symposium on History of Machines and Mechanisms, Proceedings HMM2004, Edited by Marco Ceccarelli, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004, pp. 87-104. Cicero (106-43 BC), De Re Publica, Book I, Sections 21-22.Google Scholar
  11. De Solla Price D., Gears from the Greeks The Antikythera Mechanism - A Calendar Computer from ca. 80 B.C., Science History Publications, New York, 1975.Google Scholar
  12. Dijksterhuis, E.J., Archimedes, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1987.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. Dimarogonas, A.D., History of Technology, Symmetry Publ., Athens, 1st Ed., 1976.Google Scholar
  14. Dimarogonas, A.D., The Origins of Vibration Theory, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 140 (2), 1990, 181-189.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  15. Dimarogonas, A.D., The Origins of Experimental Physics. Transactions of the Academy of Athens, 48, 1990, 231-245.Google Scholar
  16. Dimarogonas, A.D., The Origins of the Theory of Machines and Mechanisms. In: Proceedings 40 Years of Modern Kinematics: A Tribute to Ferdinand Freudenstein Conference, Minneapolis, MN, 1991, pp. 1-2 to 1-11.Google Scholar
  17. Dimarogonas, A.D., Mechanisms of the Ancient Greek Theatre. In: Mechanism Conference, Proceedings ASME, Mechanism Design and Synthesis, DE-46, 1992, pp. 229-234.Google Scholar
  18. Dimarogonas, A.D., The Origins of Engineering Design. In: ASME Design Engineering Conferences, Albuquerque NM, DE-Vol. 63, Vibrations of Mechanical Systems and the History of Mechanical Design, 1993, pp. 1-18.Google Scholar
  19. Dimarogonas, A.D., On the Axiomatic Foundation of Design. In: ASME Design Engineering Conferences, Albuquerque, NM, DE-Vol. 53, Design Theory and Methodology, 1993, pp. 253-258.Google Scholar
  20. Dimarogonas A.D., Journal of Integrated Design and Process Science, 1, 54-75, Philosophical Issues in Engineering Design, 1997.Google Scholar
  21. Dimarogonas, A.D., Machine Design A CAD Approach, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2001.Google Scholar
  22. Dimarogonas, A.D., History of Technology, Macedonian Publications, Athens, 2001.Google Scholar
  23. Drachmann, A.G., 1963. The Mechanical Technology of Greek and Roman Antiquity, Munksgaard, Copenhangen, Denmark.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. Drachmann, A.G., Fragments from Archimedes in Heron’s Mechanics, Centaurus 8 (1963), 91-146.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  25. Eureka, The Journal of the Archimedeans, 53, 1994.Google Scholar
  26. Heath, T.L., The Method of Archimedes Recently Discovered by Heiberg; A Supplement to the Works of Archimedes, 1897, Cambridge 1912.Google Scholar
  27. Heath, T.L., History of Greek Mathematics, The Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1921; Dover, New York, 1981.Google Scholar
  28. Heath, T.L., The Works of Archimedes, Dover Publications, New York, 2002.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  29. Heiberg, I.L., Archimedis Opera Omnia,I-III CVM COMMENTARIIS EVTOCII, STVGARDIAE IN AEDIBVS B.G. TEVBNERI MCMLXXII, Stuttgart, 1972.Google Scholar
  30. Koetsier, T.H., Blauwendraat 2004 International Symposium on History of Machines and Mechanisms, Proceedings HMM2004, The Archimedean screw-pump. A note on its invention and the development of the theory. 10.1007/1-4020-2204-2-15. Editor M. Ceccarelli. 181-194.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  31. Landels, J.G., 2000 Engineering in the Ancient Word, Berkley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, revised editionGoogle Scholar
  32. Lazos, C.D., Archimedes: The Ingenious Engineer, Aiolos Publishers, Athens, 1995 [in Greek].Google Scholar
  33. Mechanical Engineering The American Society of Mechanical Engineers magazine Mechanical Engineering Design 2004.Google Scholar
  34. Netz, R., The Shaping of Deduction in Greek Mathematics, Cambridge University Press, UK, 1999.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Netz, R., The Works of Archimedes, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2004.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  36. Pappus of Alexandria (4th century AD), Mathematical Collections, Kaktos Publications, Athens, 2002 [in Greek].Google Scholar
  37. Plutarch (AD 45-120), Parallel Lives: Marcellus (Translation by John Dryden (1631-1700)), Kaktos Publications, Athens, 2002 [in Greek].Google Scholar
  38. Rihll, T.E., 2000 www.swan.ac.uk/classics/staff/ter/grst/-big.htmGoogle Scholar
  39. Rorres, C. and H.G. Harris, A Formidable War Machine: Construction and Operation of Archimedes’ Iron Hand. Symposium on Extraodinary Machines and Structures in Antiquity. Olympia Greece. 2001.Google Scholar
  40. Rossi, C. and F. Russo, A reconstruction of the Greek-Roman repeating catapult, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 2010, Vol. 45, pp. 36-45.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Saccheri’s Girolamo, Euclides Vindicatus, Chelsea Publishing Company, New York, 1986. Stamatis, E., Archimedes-Apanta Vols. 1-3. Technical Chamber of Greece, Athens, 1973 [in Greek].Google Scholar
  42. Soedel, W. and Foley, V., Ancient Catapults, Scientific American, 240, 1979, 120-128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Soedel, W. and Foley, V., Catapults, Surviving Greek and Roman Texts Reveal the Remarkable Level of Mathematical and Engineering Skill That Went into the Development of These Early Ballistic-Missile Launchers, Scientific American, 1979, 150-160.Google Scholar
  44. Schneider Ivo Archimedes-Ingenieur, Naturwissenschaftler und Mathematiker, Erträge der Forschung, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1979, 177-196.Google Scholar
  45. Simms, D., Archimedes the Engineer History of Technology, Vol. 17, Continuum International Publishing Group, London, 1995, pp. 45-111.Google Scholar
  46. Simms, D., Archimedes’ Weapons of War and Leonardo, The British Journal for the History of Science, 21 1988, 195-210.zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  47. Vitruvius, M.P., 1st Century AD. De Architectura, v. 7.Google Scholar
  48. Whitehead, A.N., An Introduction to Mathematics, Williams & Norgate, London, 1911, Oxford University Press, 1958.Google Scholar
  49. Zrnić N., K. Hoffmann, S. Bošnjak 12th IFToMM World Congress, Besançon (France), June 18-21, 2007. A note on the history of handling in ports: from ancient to medieval cranes.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dynamics and Machine Theory LaboratoryUniversity of Patras, GreecePatrasGreece

Personalised recommendations