• Carl Kirkwood


Tests such as ELISA that use antibodies against a mixture of norovirus strains are available commercially but lack specificity and sensitivity. RT-PCR assays are the most commonly used methods to detect noroviruses. PCR assays are targeted at conserved regions on either the polymerase or capsid genes. A variety of methods are described in the literature, however, no single assay is able to detect all known norovirus genogroups because of the high genetic variation. Here we describe two different RT-PCR assays [1–4].


Capsid Gene Hunter Virus Primer G2F3 Human Genogroup 
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  1. 1.
    Bull RA, Tu ETV, McIver CJ et al (2006) Emergence of a new norovirus genotype II.4 variant associated with global outbreaks of gastroenteritis. J Clin Microbiol 44:327–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hansman GS, Katayama K, Maneekarn N et al (2004). Genetic diversity of norovirus and sapovirus in hospitalized infants with sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in Chiang Mai, Thailand. J Clin Microbiol 42:1305–1307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jiang X, Huang PW, Zhong WM et al (1999). Design and evaluation of a primer pair that detected both Norwalk-like and sapporo-like caliciviruses by RT-PCR. J Virol Methods 83:145–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kojima S, Kageyama T, Fukushi S et al (2002) Genogroup-specific PCR primers for detection of Norwalk-like viruses. J Virol Methods 100:107–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Enteric Virus Research GroupMurdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children’s HospitalParkvilleAustralia

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