Modalities of Review
In reviewing legislative norms, two major modalities can be distinguished. The first relates to the stage when review first becomes possible during the legislative process, while the second relates to whether norms may be reviewed in an abstract or concrete setting. These modalities can obviously have a far-reaching effect on the scope of judicial review by determining when and how legal norms are scrutinised. This chapter investigates the distinguished modalities of review in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and South Africa. Do these systems employ abstract review of bills and/or abstract or concrete review of legislation? And what may be the reasons for any differences found?