Advertisement

An Agent-Based Modelling Application of Shifting Cultivation

  • The An Ngo
  • Frances Drake
  • Linda See
Chapter

Abstract

This paper outlines an agent-based modeling application of shifting cultivation for an upland village in Vietnam, which was developed to improve the management of shifting cultivation and aid forest protection. The model consists of household and land agents situated in a dynamic social, economic and political environment. Adaptation of the agents to changes in policy is incorporated through a trade-off between economic gains and social responsibility, which affect the subsequent decision-making process. The basics of the model are described including the validation process and the results in a business as usual scenario.

Keywords

Land Cover Personal Preference Land Tenure Household Agent Field Selection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge the support of the Vietnamese Government and the School of Geography, University of Leeds, in funding this research project.

References

  1. Angelsen, A. (1995). Shifting cultivation and deforestation: A study from Indonesia. World Development, 23, 1713–1729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown, D. R. (2005). A spatiotemporal model of shifting cultivation and forest cover dynamics. Ithaca: Cornell University.Google Scholar
  3. Brown, D. R. (2006). Personal preferences and intensification of land use: Their impact on southern Cameroonian slash-and-burn agroforestry systems. Agroforestry Systems, 68, 53–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Campbell, D. J. (1995). Aggregation and regularity: An inclusive one-tailed nearest-neighbour analysis of small spatially patchy populations. Oecologia, 106, 206–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Castella, J.-C., Pheng Kam, S., Dinh Quang, D., Verburg, P. H., & Thai Hoanh, C. (2007). Combining top-down and bottom-up modelling approaches of land use/cover change to support public policies: Application to sustainable management of natural resources in northern Vietnam. Land Use Policy, 24, 531–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chambers, R. (1994). The origins and practice of participatory rural appraisal. World Development, 22, 953–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clement, F., & Amezaga, J. M. (2009). Afforestation and forestry land allocation in northern Vietnam: Analysing the gap between policy intentions and outcomes. Land Use Policy, 26, 458–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Conklin, H. C. (1957). Hanunoo agriculture: A report on an integral system of shifting cultivation in the Philippines. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  9. Conklin, H. C. (1961). The study of shifting cultivation. Current Anthropology, 2, 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Costanza, R. (1989). Model goodness of fit: A multiple resolution procedure. Ecological Modelling, 47, 199–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crano, W. D. (1995). Attitude strength and vested interest. In R. E. Petty & J. A. Krosnick (Eds.), Attitude strength: Antecedents and consequences. Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  12. Crooks, A. T., & Heppenstall, A. J. (2012). Introduction to agent-based modelling. In A. J. Heppenstall, A. T. Crooks, L. M. See, & M. Batty (Eds.), Agent-based models of geographical systems (pp. 85–105). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  13. District People Council of Ky Son. (2007). The master plan of Ky Son district from 2007 to 2020. Nge An, Ky Son People Council.Google Scholar
  14. Do, D. S. (1994). Shifting cultivation: Its social, economic and environmental values relative to alternative land-use (IIED forestry and land use). London: International Institute for Environment and Development.Google Scholar
  15. Dvorak, K. A. (1992). Resource-management by West-African farmers and the economics of shifting cultivation. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 74, 809–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fox, J., Dao, M. T., Rambo, A. T., Nghiem, P. T., Le, T. C., & Leisz, S. (2000). Shifting cultivation: A new old paradigm for managing tropical forests. BioScience, 50, 521–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fresco, L., Huizing, H. G. J., Keulen, H. V., Luning, H., & Shipper, R. (1990). Land evaluation and farming systems analysis for land use planning – FAO guidelines. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
  18. Geist, H. J., & Lambin, E. F. (2001). What drives tropical deforestation? A meta-analysis of proximate and underlying causes of deforestation based on subnational scale case study evidence (LUCC Report Series No. 4). Louvain-la-Neuve: University of Louvain.Google Scholar
  19. Gilruth, P. T., Marsh, S. E., & Itami, R. (1995). A dynamic spatial model of shifting cultivation in the highlands of Guinea, West-Africa. Ecological Modelling, 79, 179–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Haggith, M., Muetzelfeldt, R., & Taylor, J. (2003). Modelling decision-making in rural communities at the forest margin. Small-Scale Forest Economics, Management and Policy, 2, 241–258.Google Scholar
  21. Hall, C. A. S., Tian, H., Qi, Y., Pontius, G., Cornell, J. (1995). Modelling spatial and temporal patterns of tropical land use change. Journal of Biogeography, 22(4/5), 753–757.Google Scholar
  22. Huss, W. R. (1988). A move toward scenario analysis. International Journal of Forecasting, 4, 377–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Institute for Ethnic Minority Affairs. (2005). Research on policies for fixed cultivation and sedentarisation in Vietnam: Within the framework of Programme 135 investment. In N. T. Le, H. D. Le, V. T. Nguyen, & V. H. Do (Eds.), Final report for DFID. Hanoi: Department for International Development, UK (DFID).Google Scholar
  24. Jakobsen, J., Rasmussen, K., Leisz, S., Folving, R., & Quang, N. V. (2007). The effects of land tenure policy on rural livelihoods and food sufficiency in the upland village of Que, North Central Vietnam. Agricultural Systems, 94, 309–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jepsen, M. R., Leisz, S., Rasmussen, K., Jakobsen, J., Moller-Jensen, L., & Christiansen, L. (2006). Agent-based modelling of shifting cultivation field patterns, Vietnam. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 20, 1067–1085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kerkhoff, E., & Sharma, E. (Eds.). (2006). Debating shifting cultivation in the Eastern Himalayas: Farmers’ innovation as lessons for policy. Kathmandu: Quality Printers Pvt. Ltd.Google Scholar
  27. Le, Q. B. (2005). Multi-agent system for simulation of land-use and land cover change: A theoretical framework and its first implementation for an upland watershed in the Central Coast of Vietnam. Gottingen: ZEF.Google Scholar
  28. Le, Q. B., Park, S. J., Vlek, P. L. G., & Cremers, A. B. (2008). Land-Use Dynamic Simulator (LUDAS): A multi-agent system model for simulating spatio-temporal dynamics of coupled human-landscape system. I. Structure and theoretical specification. Ecological Informatics, 3, 135–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. MARD (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development). (2007). Vietnam forestry development strategy for the period of 2006–2020. Agriculture Publisher, Hanoi, pp. 124.Google Scholar
  30. Ngo, T. A. (2009). Simulating spatial patterns of shifting cultivation. Unpublished PhD thesis, School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds.Google Scholar
  31. Ngo, T. A., See, L. M., & Drake, F. (2009). An agent-based approach to simulating the dynamics of shifting cultivation in an upland village in Vietnam. European Journal of GIS and Spatial Analysis, 19(4), 493–522.Google Scholar
  32. Ostrom, E. (1999). Institutional rational choice: An assessment of the IAD framework. In P. Sabatier (Ed.), Theories of the policy process. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  33. Russell, S., & Norvig, P. (1995). Artificial intelligence: A modern approach. Englewood: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  34. Shanks, E., Bui, D. T., Nguyen, T. K. N., Maxwell, O., & Duong, Q. H. (2003). Community driven development in Vietnam: A review and discussion platform. Hanoi: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  35. Spencer, J. E. (1966). Shifting cultivation in Southeastern Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  36. Sulistyawati, E., Noble, I. R., & Roderick, M. L. (2005). A simulation model to study land use strategies in swidden agriculture systems. Agricultural Systems, 85, 271–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tran, D. V. (2006). Indigenous fallow management with Melia azedarach Linn in northern Vietnam. In M. Cairns (Ed.), Voices from the forest integrating indigenous knowledge into sustainable upland farming. Washington, DC: RFF Press.Google Scholar
  38. Tran, D. V., Nguyen, V. Q., & Mai, V. T. (2005). Decentralisation process and its impacts on livelihoods of ethnic minority groups: A study on decentralisation process in forest management in northern and north central uplands of Vietnam. Hanoi: The Agricultural Publishing House.Google Scholar
  39. van den Bergh, J. C. J. M., Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A., & Munda, G. (2000). Alternative models of individual behaviour and implications for environmental policy. Ecological Economics, 32, 43–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vuong, X. T. (2001). Changing land policies and its impacts on land tenure of ethnic minorities in Vietnam. In K. Suryanata, G. Dolcemascolo, R. Fisher, & J. Fox (Eds.), Policy frameworks for enabling successful community-based resource management initiatives. Hawaii: East-West Center.Google Scholar
  41. Wada, Y., Rajan, K. S., & Shibasaki, R. (2007). Modelling the spatial distribution of shifting cultivation in Luangprabang, Lao PDR. Environment and Planning B-Planning & Design. 34, 261–278.Google Scholar
  42. Watters, R. F. (1971). Shifting cultivation in Latin America. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization.Google Scholar
  43. Wilensky, U. (1999). NetLogo. [online]. Accessed 1 Nov 2007. Available from World Wide Web: http://ccl.northwestern.edu/netlogo/
  44. Wilkie, D. S., & Finn, J. T. (1988). A spatial model of land use and forest regeneration in the Ituri forest of northeastern Zaire. Ecological Modelling, 41, 307–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wooldridge, M. (2002). An introduction to multi-agent systems. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental ManagementHanoi University of AgricultureHanoiVietnam
  2. 2.School of GeographyUniversity of LeedsLeedsUK
  3. 3.International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)LaxenburgAustria

Personalised recommendations