• Louis G. Pol
  • Richard K. Thomas
Part of the The Springer Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis book series (PSDE, volume 13)


Migration, or geographic mobility, is the third component of population change (along with fertility and mortality). Migration is the most dynamic and complex of the three population processes, as well as the most difficult to measure. While death occurs once to each individual and the average number of births per woman in the United States is about two, migration is a much more frequent event for most Americans. Recent estimates indicate that the typical American moves 20 times between birth and death, although there is now clear evidence that the level of residential mobility is actually declining (U.S. Census Bureau 2000; Kulkarni and Pol 1994). About 17% of the population changes residence each year (down from 20% in the 1940s), and over a 5-year period more than 45% of the population moves.


Census Bureau Residency Training Immigrant Population Illegal Immigrant Migration Data 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Trends in tuberculosis – United States, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 60(11), 333–337.Google Scholar
  2. Center for Economic Development and Business Research, Wichita State University. (2010). Characteristics of immigrants. Downloaded from URL:
  3. Kulkarni, M., & Pol, L. (1994). Migration expectancy revisited: Results for the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Population Research and Policy Review, 13, 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Livingston, G. (2009). Hispanics, health insurance and health care access. Downloaded from URL:
  5. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1922). Statistical abstract of the United States, 1922. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office [table 65].Google Scholar
  6. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1932). Statistical abstract of the United States, 1932. Washington, DC: U.S Government Printing Office [Table 86].Google Scholar
  7. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1953). Statistical abstract of the United States, 1953. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office [table 105].Google Scholar
  8. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1985). Statistical abstract of the United States, 1985. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office [table 125].Google Scholar
  9. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2000, June). Geographical mobility (Update). Current Population Reports (P20-531). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  10. U.S. Census Bureau. (2003). Domestic migration across regions, divisions and states: 1995–2000. Downloaded from URL:
  11. U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). Current population survey. Annual social and economic supplements, March 2007. Downloaded from URL:
  12. U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). Statistical abstract of the United States, 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Printing Office [table 5].Google Scholar
  13. U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). Annual inmigration, outmigration, net migration, and movers from abroad for regions: 1980–2011. Downloaded from URL:

Additional Resources

  1. U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports. Google Scholar
  2. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Yearbook of Immigration Statistics. Google Scholar
  3. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. Statistical yearbook. Washington, DC: U.S. Govern­ment Printing Office.Google Scholar
  4. U.S. Internal Revenue Service, County-to-County Migration.,, id=212695,00.html

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louis G. Pol
    • 1
  • Richard K. Thomas
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Business AdministrationUniversity of NebraskaOmahaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Sociology & AnthropologyThe University of MississippiOxfordUSA

Personalised recommendations