The Demography of Race and Ethnicity in The Netherlands: An Ambiguous History of Tolerance and Conflict

  • Melissa F. Weiner
Part of the International Handbooks of Population book series (IHOP, volume 4)


The Netherlands is known worldwide for their tolerance and multiculturalism. In addition to their permissive drug and prostitution policies and early adoption of gay marriage legislation, the country has long acted as a “Promised Land” for religious refugees and, more recently, implemented explicit multicultural policies of the 1980s and 1990s to promote immigrant immigration. Thus, The Netherlands has long been a receiving nation for immigrants, particularly those seeking religious freedom and opportunities in a thriving trade-based economy. This history, combined with the Dutch history of colonialism, resulting in migrants from former colonies, and their recruitment of “guest workers” in the 1960s and 1970s, has resulted in considerable racial diversity among the population, as well as significant stratification and conflict. Recently, like much of Europe, Dutch popular and political discourse has shifted to the right alongside a corresponding enactment of restrictive immigration policies that reversed many of their multicultural policies. This chapter highlights the history of race, racial diversity, and racism in The Netherlands that laid the foundation for its diversity today. Following this historical overview, the chapter addresses current demographic and socioeconomic trends, contemporary immigration policies, and racial attitudes and concludes with speculation of the nation’s racial future.


Racial Identity Dutch Government Dutch Society Racial Attitude Immigrant Integration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Ahmad, A. N. (2004). Home front. Mute, 1(27), 30–32.Google Scholar
  2. Ali, A. H. (2008). Infidel. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  3. Alkan, M. (2001). Parents, racism and education: Some issues relating to parental involvement by Turkish and Moroccan Communities in The Netherlands. Paper presented at the European Network About Parents in Education conference, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  4. Balibar, E. (1991). Is there a ‘neo-racism’? In E. Balibar & I. Wallerstein (Eds.), Race, nation, class: Ambiguous identities (pp. 17–28). London: Verso.Google Scholar
  5. Bartels, D. (1986). Can the train ever be stopped again? developments in the Moluccan community in The Netherlands before and after the Hijackings. Indonesia, 42, 23–45.Google Scholar
  6. Bartels, D. (1990, March 16–18). From Black Dutchmen to White Moluccans: Ethnic metamorphosis of an East Indonesian minority in The Netherlands. Paper presented at the conference on Maluku Research, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Honolulu.Google Scholar
  7. Bartels, E. (2003). Moroccan girls and youth literature in The Netherlands: A way to broaden the boundaries? Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 23(1), 147–162.Google Scholar
  8. Bijl, P. (2012). Colonial memory and forgetting in The Netherlands and Indonesia. Journal of Genocide Research, 14(3–4), 441–461.Google Scholar
  9. Blakely, A. (1993). Blacks in the Dutch world: The evolution of racial imagery in the modern society. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bobo, L., Kleugel, J. R., & Smith, R. A. (1997). The crystallization of a kinder, gentler, antiblack ideology. In S. A. Tuch & J. K. Martin (Eds.), Racial attitudes in the 1990s: Continuity and change (pp. 15–40). Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
  11. Böcker, A. (2000). Paving the way to a better future: Turks in The Netherlands. In H. Vermeulen & R. Penninx (Eds.), Immigrant integration: The Dutch case (pp. 153–177). Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.Google Scholar
  12. Bonilla-Silva, E. (1997). Rethinking racism: Toward a structural interpretation. American Sociological Review, 62(3), 465–480.Google Scholar
  13. Bonilla-Silva, E. (2000). ‘This is a white country’: The racial ideology of the western nations of the world-system. Sociological Inquiry, 70(2), 188–214.Google Scholar
  14. Bonilla-Silva, E. (2006). Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in the United States. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  15. Boog, I., van Donselaar, J., Houtzager, D., Rodrigues, P., & Schriemer, R.. (2006). Monitor Rassendiscriminatie 2005 [Racial discrimination monitor 2005]. Leiden: Universiteit van Leiden.Google Scholar
  16. Bovenkerk, F. (2000). The other side of the Anne Frank story: The Dutch role in the persecution of the Jews in World War Two. Crime, Law and Social Change, 34(3), 237–258.Google Scholar
  17. Bovenkerk, F., Gras, M. J. I., Ramsoedh, D., Dankoor, M., & Havelaar, A. (1995). Discrimination against migrant workers and ethnic minorities in access to employment in The Netherlands (International Migration Papers 4). Geneva: International Labor Office.Google Scholar
  18. Brown, A.-K. (2012). Trapped by narcissism: A disillusioned Dutch society. Macalester International, 30(1), 22–46.Google Scholar
  19. Brug, P. (2006). The diversity challenge: The representation of ethnic minorities in the Dutch educational system. In W. R. Allen, M. Bonous-Hammarth, & R. T. Teranishi (Eds.), Higher education in a global society: Achieving diversity, equity and excellence (pp. 149–158). Amsterdam: Elsevier JAI.Google Scholar
  20. Buruma, I. (2007). Murder in Amsterdam: The death of Theo Van Gogh and the limits of tolerance. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  21. Cain, A. (2007). Social mobility of ethnic minorities in The Netherlands: The peculiarities of social class and ethnicity. Delft: Eburon.Google Scholar
  22. Cain, A. (2010). Ambiguous citizenship as impediment to social mobility in The Netherlands: The case of Afro-Caribbean Dutch. Journal of Contemporary Thought, 32, 141–156.Google Scholar
  23. Carle, R. (2006). Demise of Dutch multiculturalism. Society, 43(3), 68–74.Google Scholar
  24. Central Bureau voor Statistiek. (2010). Jaarrapport Integratie 2010. The Hague: CBS.Google Scholar
  25. Central Bureau voor Statistiek. (2013).
  26. Cheng, S., Martin, L., & Werum, R. (2007). Adult social capital and track placement of ethnic groups in Germany. American Journal of Education, 114(1), 41–74.Google Scholar
  27. Corn, C. (1999). The scents of Eden: A history of the spice trade. New York: Kodashna International.Google Scholar
  28. Cornell, S., & Hartmann, D. (2007). Ethnicity and race: Making identities in a changing world (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press.Google Scholar
  29. Croes, M. (2006). The Holocaust in the Netherlands and the rate of Jewish survival. Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 20(3), 474–499.Google Scholar
  30. Crul, M. (2007). The integration of immigrant youth. In M. M. Suárez-Orozco (Ed.), Learning in the global era: International perspectives on globalization and education (pp. 213–231). Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  31. Crul, M., & Doomernik, J. (2003). The Turkish and Moroccan second generation in The Netherlands: Divergent trends between and polarization within the two groups. International Migration Review, 37(4), 1039–1064.Google Scholar
  32. Crul, M., & Holdaway, J. (2009). Children of immigrants in schools in New York and Amsterdam: The factors shaping attainment. Teachers College Record, 111(6), 1476–1507.Google Scholar
  33. Crul, M., & Schneider, J. (2009). Children of Turkish immigrants in Germany and The Netherlands: The impact of differences in vocational and academic tracking systems. Teachers College Record, 111(6), 1508–1527.Google Scholar
  34. Dalstra, K. (1983). The South Moluccan minority in The Netherlands. Contemporary Crises, 7, 195–208.Google Scholar
  35. Dates, J. L., & Barlow, W. (1993). Split image: African Americans in the mass media (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Davis, K. (2009). Black is beautiful in European perspective. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 16(2), 99–101.Google Scholar
  37. de Graaf, W., & van Zenderen, K. (2009). Segmented assimilation in The Netherlands? Young migrants and early school leaving. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 32(8), 1470–1488.Google Scholar
  38. de Haan, M., & Elbers, E. (2005). Reshaping diversity in a local classroom: Communication and identity issues in multicultural schools in The Netherlands. Language and Communication, 25(3), 315–333.Google Scholar
  39. de Hond, M. (2013, October 22). Aanpassen uiterlijk Zwarte Piet is wens Amsterdammers en GroenLinks Stemmers. Scholar
  40. de Leeuw, S., & Rydin, I. (2007). Migrant children’s digital stories: Identity formation and self-representation through media production. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 10(4), 447–464.Google Scholar
  41. de Vos, M. (2009). The return of the canon: Transforming Dutch history teaching. History Workshop Journal, 67(1), 111–124.Google Scholar
  42. De Zwart, F., & Poppelaars, C. (2007). Redistribution and ethnic diversity in The Netherlands: Accommodation, denial and replacement. Acta Sociologica, 50(4), 387–399.Google Scholar
  43. Den Uyl, M., & Brouwer, L. (2009). ‘Mix, just mix and see what happens’: Girls in a super-diverse Amsterdam neighborhood. In S. Alghasi, T. H. Eriksen, & H. Ghorashi (Eds.), Paradoxes of cultural recognition: Perspectives from Northern Europe (pp. 201–218). Farnham: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  44. Doomernik, J. (1998). The effectiveness of integration policies towards immigrants and their descendants in France, Germany and The Netherlands. Geneva: ILO.Google Scholar
  45. Drescher, S. (1994). The long goodbye: Dutch capitalism and antislavery in comparative perspective. The American Historical Review, 99(1), 44–69.Google Scholar
  46. Driessen, G. (2000). The limits of educational policy and practice? The case of ethnic minorities in The Netherlands. Comparative Education, 36(1), 5–72.Google Scholar
  47. Driessen, G. W. J. M., & Bezemer, J. J. (1999). Backgrounds and achievement levels of Islamic schools in the Netherlands: Are the reservations justified? Race Ethnicity and Education, 2(2), 235–256.Google Scholar
  48. Emmer, P. (1972). History of the Dutch slave trade. The Journal of Economic History, 32(3), 728–747.Google Scholar
  49. Engbersen, G., & van der Leun, J. (2001). The social construction of illegality and criminality. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 9(1), 51–70.Google Scholar
  50. Entzinger, H. (2003). The rise and fall of multiculturalism: The case of The Netherlands. In C. Joppke & E. Morawaska (Eds.), Toward assimilation and citizenship: Immigrants in liberal nation states (pp. 59–86). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  51. Essed, P. (1991). Understanding everyday racism: An interdisciplinary theory. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  52. Essed, P. (1993). The politics of marginal inclusion: Racism in an organisational context. In J. Wrench & J. Solomos (Eds.), Racism and migration in western Europe (pp. 143–156). Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  53. Essed, P. (2002). Cloning cultural homogeneity while talking diversity: Old wine in new bottles in Dutch work organizations. Transforming Anthropology, 11(1), 2–11.Google Scholar
  54. Essed, P., & Nimako, K. (2006). Designs and (Co)incidents: Cultures of scholarship and public policy on immigrants/minorities in The Netherlands. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 47(3–4), 281–312.Google Scholar
  55. Essed, P., & Trienekens, S. (2008). Who wants to feel white?’ Race, Dutch culture, and contested identities. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31(1), 52–72.Google Scholar
  56. Euwals, R., Dagevos, J., Gijsberts, M., & Roodenburg, H. (2007). Immigration, integration and the labour market: Immigrants in Germany and The Netherlands (IZA Discussion Paper No. 2677). Available at: Accessed 12 Feb 2011.
  57. Feagin, J. R. (1987). The continuing significance of race: Antiblack discrimination in public places. American Sociological Review, 56(1), 101–116.Google Scholar
  58. Feagin, J. R. (2006). Systemic racism: A theory of oppression. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  59. Feagin, J. R. (2009). The white racial frame: Centuries of racial framing and counter-framing. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  60. Foote, T. W. (2004). Black and white Manhattan: The history of racial formation in colonial New York City. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Frankenberg, R. (1993). White women, race matters: The social construction of whiteness. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  62. Fredrickson, G. M. (1971). The black image in the white mind: The debate on Afro-American character and destiny, 1817–1914. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  63. Fredrickson, G. M. (1981). White supremacy: A comparative study in American and South African history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Gabriel, J. (1998). Whitewash: Racialized politics and the media. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Ghorashi, H. (2009). National identity and the sense of (non-) belonging: Iranians in the United States and The Netherlands. In S. Alghasi, T. H. Eriksen, & H. Ghorashi (Eds.), Paradoxes of cultural recognition: Perspectives from Northern Europe (pp. 75–88). Farnham: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  66. Ghorashi, H. (2010). From absolute invisibility to extreme visibility: Emancipation trajectory of migrant women in The Netherlands. Feminist Review, 94(1), 75–92.Google Scholar
  67. Ghorashi, H., & van Tilburg, M. (2006). When is my Dutch good enough? Experiences of refugee women with Dutch labour organisations. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 7(1), 51–70.Google Scholar
  68. Gramberg, P. (1998). School segregation: The case of Amsterdam. Urban Studies, 35(3), 547–564.Google Scholar
  69. Grever, M., Haydn, T., & Ribbens, K. (2008). Identity and school history: The perspective of young people from The Netherlands and England. British Journal of Educational Studies, 56(1), 76–94.Google Scholar
  70. Grinstein, H. B. (1947). The rise of the Jewish Community of New York, 1654–1860. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America.Google Scholar
  71. Grosfoguel, R., & Mielants, E. (2006). Minorities, racism and cultures of scholarship. Journal of Comparative Sociology, 47(3–4), 179–189.Google Scholar
  72. Hagendoorn, L., & Hraba, J. (1989). Foreign, different, deviant, seclusive and working class: Anchors to an ethnic Hierarchy in The Netherlands. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 12(4), 441–468.Google Scholar
  73. Hartog, J., & Zorlu, A. (2009). How important is homeland education for refugees’ economic position in The Netherlands. Journal of Population Economics, 22(1), 219–246.Google Scholar
  74. Heath, A. F., Rothon, C., & Kilpi, E. (2008). The second generation in Western Europe: Education, unemployment, and occupational attainment. Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 211–235.Google Scholar
  75. Helsloot, J. (2012). Zwarte piet and cultural aphasia in The Netherlands. Quotidian: Dutch Journal for the Study of Everyday Life, 3(1).
  76. Hira, S. (2012). Decolonizing the mind: The case of The Netherlands. Human Architecture, 10(1), 53–68.Google Scholar
  77. Hondius, D. (2009). Race and the Dutch: On the uneasiness surrounding racial issues in The Netherlands. In S. Alghasi, T. H. Eriksen, & H. Ghorashi (Eds.), Paradoxes of cultural recognition: Perspectives from northern Europe (pp. 39–57). Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  78. Hondius, D. (2011). Access to the Netherlands of enslaved and free black Africans: Exploring legal and social historical practices in the sixteenth–nineteenth centuries. Slavery and Abolition, 32(3), 377–395.Google Scholar
  79. Horton, J., & Kardux, J. C. (2005). Slavery and public memory in the United States and The Netherlands. New York Journal of American History, 66(2), 35–52.Google Scholar
  80. Houtzager, D., & Rodrigues, P. R. (2002). Migrants, minorities and employment in The Netherlands. Exclusion, discrimination and anti-discrimination. Raxen3 Report to the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC), Vienna.Google Scholar
  81. Hustinx, P. W. J. (2002). School careers of pupils of ethnic minority background after the transition to secondary education: Is the ethnic factor always negative?”. Educational Research and Evaluation, 8(2), 169–195.Google Scholar
  82. Jacobs, D. (2002). Access to citizenship of the population of foreign origin in The Netherlands. Migracijske I EtničkeTeme, 18(2–3), 243–257.Google Scholar
  83. Jacobs, D., & Rea, A. (2007). The end of national models? Integration courses and citizenship trajectories in Europe. International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 9(2), 264–283.Google Scholar
  84. Kalmijn, M., & Kraaykamp, G. (2003). Drop out and downward mobility in the educational career: An event-history analysis of ethnic schools differences in The Netherlands. Educational Research and Evaluation, 9(3), 265–287.Google Scholar
  85. Kapelle, J., & Tang, D. J. (2008). Zwart, Sambo, Tien Kleine Negertjes, Pijpje Drop, Pompernikkel en Anderen: Het Beeld van de Zwarte Mens in de Nederlandse Illustratiekunst 1880–1980. The Hague: Koninklijke Bibliotheek.Google Scholar
  86. Klandermans, B., van der Toorn, J., & van Stekelenburg, J. (2008). Embeddedness and identity: How immigrants turn grievances into action. American Sociological Review, 73(6), 992–1012.Google Scholar
  87. Kleinpenning, G. (1993). Structure and content of racist beliefs: An empirical study of ethnic attitudes, stereotypes and the ethnic hierarchy. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Utrecht University, Utrecht.Google Scholar
  88. Koopmans, R. (2008). Tradeoffs between equality and difference: Immigrant integration, multiculturalism, and the welfare state in cross-national perspective. Berlin: Social Science Research Center.Google Scholar
  89. Ladd, H. F., Fiske, E. B., & Ruijs, N. (2009, October). Parental choice in The Netherlands: Growing concerns about segregation. Paper presented at the National Conference on School Choice, Vanderbilt University.Google Scholar
  90. Lape, P. (2000). Contact and colonialism in the Banda Islands, Maluku, Indonesia. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, 4, 48–55.Google Scholar
  91. Lechner, F. J. (2008). The Netherlands: Globalization and national identity. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  92. Leeman, Y. (2007). Dutch urban schools and teachers’ professionalism. In W. T. Pink & G. W. Noblit (Eds.), International handbook of urban education (pp. 523–538). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  93. Leeman, Y., & Saharso, S. (1991). Coping with discrimination: How Moroccan, Moluccan and Creole-Surinamese youth deal with discrimination in Holland. European Journal of Intercultural Studies, 1(3), 5–17.Google Scholar
  94. Lindsay, D. (2008, December 5). Holland’s politically incorrect Christmas: Santa’s Little (slave) helper. Spiegel Online. Available at,1518,594674,00.html. Accessed 12 Feb 2011.
  95. Lofland, L. H. (2007). Urbanity, tolerance, and public space. In L. Deben, W. Heinemeijer, & D. van der Vaart (Eds.), Understanding Amsterdam: Essays on the economic vitality, city life and urban form (2nd ed., pp. 143–160). Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.Google Scholar
  96. Lucassen, L. (1991). The power of definition, stigmatisation, minoritisation and ethnicity illustrated by the history of gypsies in The Netherlands. Netherlands Journal of Social Science, 27(2), 80–91.Google Scholar
  97. Lucassen, L., & Lucassen, J. (2011). Winnaars en verliezers: Een nuchtere balans van vijfhonderd jaar immigratie. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker.Google Scholar
  98. Lucassen, J., & Penninx, R. (1998). Newcomers: Immigrants and their descendants in The Netherlands 1550–1995. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.Google Scholar
  99. Mak, G. (2001). Amsterdam: A brief life of the city. London: Vintage.Google Scholar
  100. McIntosh, P. (1997). White privilege and male privilege: a personal account of coming to see correspondences through work in women’s studies. In R. Delgado & J. Stefancic (Eds.), Critical white studies: looking behind the mirror (pp. 291–299). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  101. Mielants, E. (2009). From the periphery to the core: A case study on the migration and incorporation of recent Caribbean immigrants in The Netherlands. In R. Grosfoguel, M. Cervantes-Rodríguez, & E. Mielants (Eds.), Caribbean migration to the U.S. and western Europe: Essays on incorporation, identity, and citizenship (pp. 58–93). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
  102. Modood, T. (2007). Multiculturalism. Boston: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  103. Mollenkopf, J. (2007). Assimilating immigrants in Amsterdam: A perspective from New York. In L. Deben, W. Heinemeijer, & D. van der Vaart (Eds.), Understanding Amsterdam: Essays on the economic vitality, city life and urban form (2nd ed., pp. 197–218). Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.Google Scholar
  104. Mollenkopf, J., & Hochschild, J. (2010). Immigrant political incorporation: comparing success in the United States & Western Europe. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 33(1), 19–38.Google Scholar
  105. Muhlenfeld, A. (1944). The Dutch west indies in peace and war. International Affairs, 20(1), 81–93.Google Scholar
  106. Mullard, C., Nimako, K., & Willemsen, G. (1991). Kleurloos Onderzoek: Over hetAandeel van Etnische Onderzoekers in het Minderhedenonderzoek (CRES Research Paper No. 5). Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  107. Multatuli. (1987) [1860]. Max Havelaar: Or the coffee auctions of a Dutch Trading Company (R. Edwards, Trans.). New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  108. Nelissen, C., & Buijs, F. J. (2000). Between continuity and change: Moroccans in The Netherlands. In H. Vermeulen & R. Penninx (Eds.), Immigrant integration: The Dutch case (pp. 178–201). Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.Google Scholar
  109. Nimako, K., & Small, S. (2012). Collective memory of slavery in Great Britain and The Netherlands. In S. Small, M. Schalkwijk, & S. Small (Eds.), New perspectives on slavery and colonialism in the Caribbean (pp. 92–115). The Hague/Amsterdam: Amrit/NiNsee.Google Scholar
  110. Nimako, K., & Willemsen, G. (2011). The Dutch Atlantic: Slavery, abolition and emancipation. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  111. NRC Handelsblad. (2013, July 5). Nederlandse Canon. 12.Google Scholar
  112. Omi, M., & Winant, H. (1994). Racial formation in the United States from the 1960s to the 1990s (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  113. Oostindie, G. J. (1988). Caribbean migration to The Netherlands: A journey to disappointment? In M. Cross & H. Entzinger (Eds.), Lost illusions: Caribbean minorities in Britain and The Netherlands (pp. 54–72). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  114. Oostindie, G. J. (2005). Paradise overseas, the Dutch Caribbean: Colonialism and its transnational legacies. Oxford, UK: Macmillan Education.Google Scholar
  115. Oostindie, G. J. (2009). Public memories of the Atlantic slave trade and slavery in contemporary Europe. European Review, 17(3–4), 611–626.Google Scholar
  116. Ouarasse, O. A., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2005). The role of demographic variables and acculturation attitudes in predicting sociocultural and psychological adaptation in Moroccans in the Netherlands. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29(3), 251–272.Google Scholar
  117. Parker, C. H. (2008). Faith on the margins: Catholics and catholicism in the Dutch golden age. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  118. Paulle, B. (2005). Anxiety and intimidation in the Bronx and the Bijlmer: An ethnographic comparison of two schools. Amsterdam: Dutch University Press.Google Scholar
  119. Pels, T. (2001). Student disengagement and pedagogical climate. Paper presented at the sixth International Metropolis conference, Rotterdam.Google Scholar
  120. Penninx, R. (2006). Dutch immigrant policies before and after the Van Gogh Murder. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 7(2), 241–254.Google Scholar
  121. Pettigrew, T. F., & Meertens, R. W. (1996). The Verzuiling Puzzle: Understanding Dutch intergroup relations. Current Psychology, 15(1), 3–13.Google Scholar
  122. Postma, J. (1972). Dimension of the Dutch slave trade from Western Africa. Journal of African History, 13(2), 237–248.Google Scholar
  123. Radio Netherlands Worldwide. (2011, May 11). Minorities fear second-class citizenship. Available at: Accessed 12 Feb 2011.
  124. Ramnares, R. P. S. (2010). A person on her own is bound to drown: Experiences of female ethnic minority students at Two Dutch Universities. Master’s thesis, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  125. Rath, J. (2001). Research on immigrant ethnic minorities in The Netherlands. In P. Ratcliffe (Ed.), The politics of social science research: Race, ethnicity and social change (pp. 137–159). New York: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  126. Rijken, S., Maas, I., & Gantzeboom, H. B. G. (2007). The Netherlands: Access to higher education – Institutional arrangements and inequality of opportunity. In Y. Shavit, R. Arum, & A. Gamoran (Eds.), Stratification in higher education: A comparative study (pp. 266–293). Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  127. Rijkschroeff, R., ten Dam, G., Duyvendak, J. W., de Gruijter, M., & Pels, T. (2005). Educational policies on migrants and minorities in The Netherlands: Success of failure. Journal of Education Policy, 20(4), 417–435.Google Scholar
  128. Schama, S. (1997). The embarrassment of riches: An interpretation of Dutch culture in the golden age. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  129. Scheffer, P. (2000, January 29). Het Multiculturele Drama [The multicultural drama]. NRC Handelsblad.Google Scholar
  130. Siebers, H. (2009). Discrimination and cultural closure at work: Evidence form two Dutch organizations. In S. Alghasi, T. H. Eriksen, & H. Ghorashi (Eds.), Paradoxes of cultural recognition: Perspectives from northern Europe (pp. 91–109). Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  131. Siebers, H. (2010). The impact of migrant-hostile discourse in the media and politics on racioethnic closure in career development in The Netherlands. International Sociology, 25(4), 475–500.Google Scholar
  132. Small, S. (2011). Foreward. In K. Nimako & G. Willemsen (Eds.), The Dutch Atlantic: Slavery, abolition, and emancipation (pp. xii–xxi). London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  133. Smeets, H., & Veenman, J. (2000). More and more at home: Three generations of Moluccans in The Netherlands. In H. Vermeulen & R. Penninx (Eds.), Immigrant integration, The Dutch case (pp. 36–63). Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.Google Scholar
  134. Snel, E., de Boom, J., & Engbersen, G. (2005). Migration and migration policies in The Netherlands. Dutch SOPEMI Report. Rotterdam: Rotterdam Institute of Social Research, Erasmus University.Google Scholar
  135. Sniderman, P. M., & Hagendoorn, L. (2009). When ways of life collide: Multiculturalism and its discontents in The Netherlands. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  136. Social and Cultural Planning Office (SCP). (2003). Rapportage Minderheden 2003: Onderwijs, Arbeid en Sociaal-Culturele Integratie [Minority Report 2003: Education, work, and social-cultural integration]. The Hague: SCP.Google Scholar
  137. Stevens, P. A. J., Clycq, N., Timmerman, C., & Van Houtte, M. (2011). Researching race/ethnicity and educational inequality in The Netherlands: A critical review of the research literature between 1980 and 2008. British Educational Research Journal, 37(1), 5–43.Google Scholar
  138. Sturm, J., Goenendijk, L., Kruithof, B., & Rens, J. (1998). Educational pluralism: A historical study of so-called ‘pillarization’ in The Netherlands, including a comparison with some developments in South African education. Comparative Education, 34(3), 281–297.Google Scholar
  139. Thränhardt, D. (2004). Turkish immigrants in Germany and The Netherlands: Facts and perceptions. In Integration of immigrants from Turkey in Australia, Holland, and Germany. Istanbul: Bogazici University.Google Scholar
  140. Tolsma, J., Coenders, M., & Lubbers, M. (2007). Trends in ethnic educational inequalities in The Netherlands: A cohort design. European Sociological Review, 23(3), 325–339.Google Scholar
  141. Turner, R. H. (1960). Sponsored and contest mobility and the school system. American Sociological Review, 25(6), 855–867.Google Scholar
  142. van Amersfoort, H. (2004). The waxing and waning of a diaspora: Moluccans in The Netherlands, 1950–2002. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30(1), 151–174.Google Scholar
  143. van de Werfhorst, H. G., & van Tubergen, F. (2007). Ethnicity, schooling and merit in The Netherlands. Ethnicities, 7(3), 416–444.Google Scholar
  144. van den Berg, M., & van Reekum, R. (2011). Parent involvement as professionalization: Professionals’ struggle for power in Dutch Urban deprived areas. Journal of Education Policy, 26(3), 415–430.Google Scholar
  145. van der Valk, I. (2002). Difference, deviance, threat? Mainstream and right-extremist political discourse on ethnic issues in The Netherlands and France (1990–1997). Amsterdam: Aksant.Google Scholar
  146. van Dijk, T. A. (1993). Elite discourse and racism. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  147. Van Niekirk, M. (2007). Second-generation Caribbeans in The Netherlands: Different migration histories, diverging trajectories. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33(7), 1063–1081.Google Scholar
  148. van Ours, J. C., & Veenman, J. (1999). The Netherlands: Old immigrants – Young immigrant country. Paper presented at the “European migration: What do we know?” conference, Munich.Google Scholar
  149. van Ours, J. C., & Veenman, J. (2003). The educational attainment of second-generation immigrants in The Netherlands. Journal of Population Economics, 16(4), 739–753.Google Scholar
  150. van Ours, J. C., & Veenman, J. (2008). How interethnic marriages affect the educational attainment of children: Evidence from a natural experiment (CentER Discussion Paper No. 2008–07). Available online at
  151. van Stipriaan, A. (2006). Slavery in the Dutch Caribbean: The books no one has read. In J. De Barros, A. Diptee, & D. V. Trotman (Eds.), Beyond fragmentation: Perspectives on Caribbean history (pp. 69–92). Princeton: Marcus Wiener Publishers.Google Scholar
  152. van Wel, F., Couwenbergh-Soeterboek, N., Couwenbergh, C., ter Bogt, T., & Raaijmakers, Q. (2006). Ethnicity, youth cultural participation, and cultural reproduction in the Netherlands. Poetics, 34(1), 65–82.Google Scholar
  153. Vandenbosch, A. (1941). Dutch colonies in the western world. Journal of Politics, 3(3), 308–317.Google Scholar
  154. Vasta, E. (2007). From ethnic minorities to ethnic majority policy: Multiculturalism and the shift to assimilationism in The Netherlands. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 30(5), 713–740.Google Scholar
  155. Vedder, P. (2006). Black and white schools in The Netherlands. European Education, 38(2), 36–49.Google Scholar
  156. Veenman, J. (1990). De Arbeidsmarktpositie van Allochtonen in Nederland, in het Bijzonder van Molukkers. Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff.Google Scholar
  157. Verkuyten, M. (2008). Life satisfaction among ethnic minorities: The role of discrimination and group identification. Social Indicators Research, 89(3), 391–404.Google Scholar
  158. Verkuyten, M., & Slooter, L. (2008). Muslim and non-Muslim adolescents’ reasoning about freedom of speech and minority rights. Child Development, 79(3), 514–528.Google Scholar
  159. Verkuyten, M., & Thijs, J. (2002). Multiculturalism among minority and majority adolescents in The Netherlands. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26(1), 91–108.Google Scholar
  160. Verkuyten, M., & Yildiz, A. A. (2007). National (dis)identification and ethnic and religious identity: A study among Turkish-Dutch Muslims. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(10), 1448–1462.Google Scholar
  161. Verkuyten, M., van de Calseijde, S., & de Leur, W. (1999). Third-generation south Moluccans in The Netherlands: The nature of ethnic identity. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 25(1), 63–79.Google Scholar
  162. Vermeij, L. (2004). ‘Ya know what I’m Sayin’? The double meaning of language crossing among teenagers in The Netherlands. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 170, 141–168.Google Scholar
  163. Vermeij, L., van Duijn, M., & Boerveldt, C. (2009). Ethnic segregation in context: Social discrimination among native Dutch pupils and their ethnic minority classmates. Social Networks, 31(4), 230–239.Google Scholar
  164. Vermeulen, H. (2010). Segmented assimilation and cross-national comparative research on the integration of immigrants and their children. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 33(7), 1214–1230.Google Scholar
  165. Vermeulen, H., & Penninx, R. (2000). Immigrant integration: The Dutch case. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.Google Scholar
  166. Vink, M. (2003). ‘The world’s oldest trade’: Dutch slavery and slave trade in the Indian Ocean in the 17th century. Journal of World History, 14(2), 131–177.Google Scholar
  167. Weiner, M. F. (2011). Racialized education in The Netherlands: Implications for immigrant youth. In S. Vandeyar (Ed.), Hyphenated selves: Immigrant minorities within educational contexts (pp. 31–55). Amsterdam: Rozenberg Publishers.Google Scholar
  168. Weiner, M. F. (2014). (E)Racing slavery: Racial neoliberalism, social forgetting and scientific colonialism in Dutch primary school history textbooks. DuBois Review, 11(2), 329–351.Google Scholar
  169. Wekker, G. (2009). Where the girls are…’: Some hidden gendered and ethnicized aspects of higher education in The Netherlands. In M. Nkomo & S. Vandeyar (Eds.), Thinking diversity, building cohesion: A transnational dialogue on education (pp. 151–164). Amsterdam: Rozenberg Publishers.Google Scholar
  170. Winant, H. (2001). The world is a Ghetto: Race and democracy since World War II. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  171. Wodak, R., & van Dijk, T. A. (Eds.). (2000). Racism at the top: Parliamentary discourses on ethnic issues in six European States. Klagenfurt: Drava Verlag.Google Scholar
  172. Yazer, J., & Kalkan, N. (2007). A rough way forward: The struggles of Allochtone students in Amsterdam Schools. Amsterdam: Humanity in Action.Google Scholar
  173. Zuberi, T. (2008). Deracializing social statistics: Problems in the quantification of race. In T. Zuberi & E. Bonilla-Silva (Eds.), White logic, white methods: Racism and methodology (pp. 137–152). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  174. Zunder, A. (2010). Herstelbetalingen: De ‘Wiedergutmachung’ voor de Schade die Suriname en haar Bevolking Hebben Geleden onder het Nederlands Kolonialisme. The Hague: Amrit.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyThe College of the Holy CrossWorcesterUSA

Personalised recommendations