The Interactive Turn
The positions outlined in the two preceding chapters continued to lose importance towards the end of the last century, especially from the 1980s on. It appeared clear at the time that the evolution of contemporary society and politics required a new direction in planning. In the age of globalisation, certain basic relationships between places and flows, local identities and exogenous pressures, mobility networks and multicultural contexts, spatial planning and development strategies were changing. Disciplinary innovation in the 1990s was generally understood as the logical consequence of these changes (Healey et al., 2000; Albrechts et al., 2001; Albrechts and Mandelbaum, 2005).