The Ontology of Perception

  • Liliana Albertazzi


The chapter deals with the ontology of pereption and presents the basis of a science of appearances. Even when current perceptual science deals with qualitative aspects of experience, it almost exclusively explains perceptions in terms of quantitatively understood stimuli. Given that almost no aspect of perception is quantitative in nature, a properly qualitative understanding of perceptual experience is needed. Accordingly, the chapter presents the main aspects of such a qualitative understanding of perception.


Classical Physic Phenomenal Quality Ontological Level Background Layer Pictorial Space 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Albers, J. 1963. Interaction of color. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Adelson, E.H. 1993. Perceptual organization and the judgment of brightness. Science 262:2042–2044Google Scholar
  3. Albertazzi, L. 1998. Form metaphysics. In Shapes of forms, ed. L. Albertazzi, From gestalt psychology to phenomenology to ontology and mathematics, 261–310. Dordrecht: Kluwer academic.Google Scholar
  4. Albertazzi, L. 1999. The time of presentness. A chapter in positivistic and descriptive psychology. In Vittorio benussi, ed. S. Cattaruzza, special issue of Axiomathes, 10, 49–74.Google Scholar
  5. Albertazzi, L. 2000a. Which Semantics. In Meaning and cognition. A multidisciplinary approach, ed. L. Albertazzi, 1–24. Amsterdam: Benjamins Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  6. Albertazzi, L. 2000b. Directions and perspective points in spatial perception. In Meaning and cognition. A multidisciplinary approach, ed. L. Albertazzi, 123–143. Amsterdam: Benjamins Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  7. Albertazzi, L. 2001. Vittorio Benussi. In The school of Alexius Meinong, eds. L. Albertazzi, D. Jacquette, and R. Poli, 95–133. Aldershot: Asghate.Google Scholar
  8. Albertazzi, L. 2002a. Continua. In Unfolding perceptual continua, ed. L. Albertazzi, 1–28. Benjamins Publishing Company: Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  9. Albertazzi, L. 2002b. Towards a neo-aristotelian theory of continua: Elements of an empirical geometry. In Unfolding perceptual continua, ed. L. Albertazzi, 29–79. Benjamins Publishing Company: Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  10. Albertazzi, L. 2002c. Kinetic structure and causatives. Axiomathes 1:17–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Albertazzi, L. 2003. From Kanizsa back to Benussi: Varieties of intentional reference. In The Legacy of Gaetano kanizsa, ed. L. Albertazzi, special issue of Axiomathes, 13:239–259.Google Scholar
  12. Albertazzi, L. 2004. Stereokinetic shapes and their shadows. Perception 33:1437–1452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Albertazzi, L. 2005. Immanent realism. Berlin; New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  14. Albertazzi, L. 2006a. Visual spaces. In Visual thought. The depictive space of the mind, ed. L. Albertazzi. Amsterdam: Benjamins Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  15. Albertazzi, L. 2006b. Das rein figurale. Gestalt Theory 28(1/2):123–151.Google Scholar
  16. Albertazzi, L. 2006c. Intentional presentations. At the roots of consciousness. In The concept of consciousness. Integrating an emergent science, ed. S. Jordan, special issue of Journal of Consciousness Studies, January 2007:94–114.Google Scholar
  17. Albertazzi, L. 2007. Matrix: Schematic universals. In Cognitive aspects of bilingualism, eds. I. Kesckes and L. Albertazzi, 63–97. Berlin; New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Albertazzi, L. Forthcoming. Metaphorical information, In: Perception beyond inference. The information content of visual processes, eds. Albertazzi, L., G. van Tonder, and D. Vishwanath, MIT Press, Fall 2010.Google Scholar
  19. Allesch, C. von 1923. Zur nichteuklidischen Struktur des phänomenales Raum. Jena: Fischer.Google Scholar
  20. Aristotle. 1960. Topica. In Loeb classical library (trans: E.S. Forster). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Aristotle. 1972. De partibus animalium (trans: D.M. Balme). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  22. Aristotle. 1977. Metaphysics. In Loeb classical library, 7th ed. (trans: H. Tredennick). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Aristotle. 1980. Physics. In: Loeb classical library, 5th ed. (trans: P.H. Wicksteed, F.M. Cornford). Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, Loeb.Google Scholar
  24. Aristotle. 1983. Categories. In: Loeb classical library, eds. H.P. Cooke and T. Tredennick. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press,.Google Scholar
  25. Aristotle. 1986. De Anima (trans: W.S. Hett). Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Arnheim, R. 1954. Art and visual perception: The psychology of the creative eye. Berkeley, CA: The Regents of the University of California.Google Scholar
  27. Benary, W. 1930. The influence of form on brightness contrast. In A source book of gestalt psychology, ed. W.D. Ellis, 104–108. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Benussi, V. 1913. Psychologie der Zeitauffassung. Leipzig: Hölder.Google Scholar
  29. Benussi, V. 1922–1923. Introduzione alla psicologia sperimentale. Lezioni tenute nell’anno 1922–23, typescript by Dr C. Musatti, Fondo Benussi, Milan, Bicocca University.Google Scholar
  30. Benussi, V. 1925. La suggestione e l’ipnosi come mezzi di analisi psichica reale. Bologna: Zanichelli.Google Scholar
  31. Berlin, B., and P. Kay. 1969. Basic color terms: Their universality and evolution. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  32. Bertamini, M., A. Spooner, and H. Hecht. 2003. Naive optics: Predicting and perceiving reflections in mirrors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 29:982–1002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bertamini, M., A. Spooner, and H. Hecht. 2004. The representation of naïve knowledge about physics. In Multidisciplinary approaches to visual representations and interpretations, ed. G. Malcom. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  34. Bezold, W. von. 1874. Die Farbenlehre in Hinblick auf Kunst und Kunstgewerbe. Braunschweig: Westermann.Google Scholar
  35. Bozzi, P., and P. Bressan. 1987. On the perception of launched projectiles. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Event Perception and Action, 49. Trieste: Dec Sistemi.Google Scholar
  36. Brentano, F. 1981. The theory of categories, eds. R.M. Chisholm and N. Guterman, Den Haag, Nijhoff (1st German ed. 1933, ed. by A. Kastil, Leipzig, Meiner).Google Scholar
  37. Brentano, F. 1988. Philosophical lectures on space, time and the continuum, ed. S. Körner and R. M. Chisholm. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  38. Brentano, F. 1995a. Psychology from an empirical standpoint, ed. L. McAlister. London: Routledge (Translation of the 2nd ed. with an Introduction and notes by O. Kraus, Leipzig 1924) (1st German ed. 1874, Leipzig Duncker and Humblot).Google Scholar
  39. Brentano, F. 1995b. Descriptive psychology, ed. B. Müller. London: Routledge (1st German ed. 1982, ed. by R.M. Chisholm and W. Baumgartner, Hamburg, Meiner).Google Scholar
  40. Brunswik, E. 1934. Wahrnehmung und Gegengstandwelt. Grundlegung einer Psychologie der Gegenstand her. Leipzig: Deuticke.Google Scholar
  41. Burke, L. 1952. On the tunnel effect. Quarterly Journal for Experimental Psychology 4:121–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Da Pos, O., and Albertazzi, L. 2010. It is in the nature of color...’. Seeing and Perceiving 23:39–73.Google Scholar
  43. Davidoff, J., I. Davies, and D. Roberson. 1999. Color categories in a stone-age tribe. Nature 398:203–204, 402, 604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Eco, U. 1997. Kant e l’ornitorinco. Milan: Bompiani.Google Scholar
  45. Finke, R.A., J.J. Freyd, and G.C.W. Shyi. 1986. Implied velocity and acceleration induce transformations of visual memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 115:175–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Freyd, J.J. 1987. Dynamic mental representations. Psychological Review 94:427–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Freyd, J.J., and R.A. Finke. 1984. Representational momentum. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 10:126–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Frölich, F.W. 1923. Über die Messung der Empfindungszeit. Zeitschrift für Sinnespsychologie 54:58–78.Google Scholar
  49. Fuchs, W. 1923. Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die Änderung von Farben unter dem Einfluss von Gestalten (Angleichungserscheinungen). Zeitschrift für Psychologie 92:249–263.Google Scholar
  50. Garner, W.R. 1962. Uncertainty and structure as psychological concepts. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  51. Gelb, W. 1938. The colour constancy of visual things. In A source book of gestalt psychology, ed. W. Ellis, 196–209. London, Routledge (Original 1929).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gibson, J.J. 1950. The perception of visual surfaces. American Journal of Psychology 63:367–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gibson, J.J. 1979. The ecological approach to visual perception. Boston, MA: Houton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  54. Gibson, J.J., and D. Waddell. 1952. Homogeneous retinal stimulation and visual perception. American Journal of Psychology 65:263–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Goethe, W. 1970. Theory of colors. Cambridge MA and London: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  56. Goldmeier, E. 1982. The memory trace: Its formation and its fate. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  57. Haber, R.N., and L.R. Haber. 1988. Eidetic imagery as cognitive skill. In The exceptional brain: The neuropsychology of talent and special skills, eds. L. Obler, and D. Fein, 218–241. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  58. Hartmann, N. 1935. Grundlegung der Ontologie. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  59. Hartmann, N. 1950. Abriss der speziellen Kategorienlehre. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  60. Hatfield, G., and W. Epstein. 1985. The status of minimum principle in the theoretical analysis of visual perception. Psychological Bulletin 97(2):155–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Heidegger, M. 1953. Being and time. Albany: State University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Heider, F., and M. Simmel. 1944. An experimental study of apparent behaviour. American Journal of Psychology 57:243–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hering, E. 1964. Outlines of a theory of light sense. Cambridge, MA: Harvard.Google Scholar
  64. Hochberg, E., W. Triebel, and G. Seaman. 1951. Color adaptation underconditions of homogeneous visual stimulation (Ganzfeld). Journal of Experimental Psychology 44:153–159.Google Scholar
  65. Hochberg, J., and V. Brooks. 1960. The psychophysics of form: Reversible perspective drawing of spatial objects. American Journal of Psychology 73:337–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hoffman, D.D. 2003. The interaction of colour and motion. In Colour perception: Mind and the physical world, eds. R. Mausfed, and D. Heyer, 361–377. Oxford: Oxford University Press..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hubbard, T. 1999. How consequences of physical principles influence mental representation: The environmental invariant hypothesis. In Fechner day 99: The end of 20th century psychophysics. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics, eds. P.R. Killeen and W.R. Uttal, 274–279. Tempe, AZ: The International Society for Psychophysics.Google Scholar
  68. Hubbard, T. 2004. The perception of causality: Insights from Michotte’s launching effect, naïve impetus theory, and representational momentum. In Fechner Day 2004, eds. A.M. Oliveira, M.P. Teixeira, G.F. Borges, and M.J. Ferro, 116–121. Coimbra, Portugal: International Society for Psychophysics.Google Scholar
  69. Hubbard, T., and J.J. Bharucha. 1988. Judged displacement in apparent vertical and horizonthal motion. Perception and Psychophysics 44(3):211–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hubbard, T., and M.A. Motes. 2002. Does representational momentum reflect a distortion of the length or the endpoint of a trajectory? Cognition 82:B89–B99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Husserl, E. 1966. Analysen zur passiven Syntesis, Husserliana XI. Den Haag: Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  72. Husserl, E. 1970. Logical investigations, ed. J.N. Findlay. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  73. Husserl, E. 1991. Lectures on internal time, ed. J.B. Brough. Dordrecht: Kluwer (Zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewusstseins, ed by R. Boehm, Den Haag, 1966).Google Scholar
  74. Husserl, E. 1997. Thing und space. Dordrecht: Kluwer. (Ding und Raum. Vorlesungen 1907, ed. U. Claesges, Husserliana XVI, Den Haag, Nijhoff).Google Scholar
  75. Ingarden, R. 1962. Untersuchungen zur Ontologie der Kunst: Musikwerk, Bild, Architecture, Film. Tübingen: Niemeyer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ingarden, R. 1968. Vom Erkennen des literarischen Kunstwerks. Tübingen: Niemeyer.Google Scholar
  77. Intraub, H. 2002. Anticipatory spatial representation of natural sciences: Momentum without movement?. Visual Cognition 9: 1–2, 93–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Jaensch, E.R. 1909. Zur Analyse der Gesichtswahrnehmungen. Erg. Band der Zeitschrift für Psychologie.Google Scholar
  79. Kammer, T., L. Lehr, and K. Kirschfeld. 1999. Cortical visual processing in tempoprally dispersed by luminance in human subjects. Neuroscience Letters 263:133–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kanizsa, G. 1952. Legittimità di un’analisi del processo percettivo fondata su una distinzione in fasi o stadi. Archivio di Psicologia, Neurologia e Psichiatria 15(3):251–264.Google Scholar
  81. Kanizsa, G. 1960. Funktion der Microstruktur und des Randgefälles. Psychologische Beiträge 5: 93–101.Google Scholar
  82. Kanizsa, G. 1980. La grammatica del vedere. Bologna: Il Mulino.Google Scholar
  83. Kanizsa, G. 1991. Vedere e pensare. Bologna: Il Mulino.Google Scholar
  84. Kanizsa, G., and G.B. Vicario. 1968. ‘La percezione della relazione intenzionale’. In Ricerche sperimentali sulla percezione, eds. G. Kanizsa and G.B. Vicario, 69–126. Trieste: Università degli studi di Trieste.Google Scholar
  85. Kanizsa, G., and R. Luccio. 1985. La pregnanza e le sue ambiguità. Psicologia italiana 7: 11–39.Google Scholar
  86. Katz, D. 1935. The world of colour. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubnov and Co.Google Scholar
  87. Kay, P., B. Berlin, L. Maffi, and W. Merrifield. 1997. Color naming across languages. In Color categories in thought and language, eds. C.L. Hardin and L. Maffi, 21–56. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Kenkel, F. 1913. Untersuchungen über den Zusammenhang zwischen Erscheinungsgrösse und Erscheinungsbewegung bei einer sogenannten optischen Täuschungen. Zeitschrift für Psychologie 67:358–449.Google Scholar
  89. Kepes, G. 1944. The language of vision. Chicago: Theobald.Google Scholar
  90. Khurana, B., and R. Nijhawan. 1995. Extrapolation or attention shift? Nature 378:566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Klages, L. 1942. Grundlegung der Wissenschaft vom Ausdruck. Leipzig: Barth.Google Scholar
  92. Koenderink, J.J. 1984. The structure of images. Biological Cybernetics 50(5):363–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Koenderink, J.J., and A. van Doorn. 2002. Ecological optics and the creative eye. In Perception and the physical world, eds. D. Heyer, and R. Mausfeld, 271–304. Chichester: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  94. Koenderink, J.J., and A. van Doorn. 2003. Pictorial space. In Looking into pictures, eds. H. Hecht and R. Mausfeld, 239–299. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  95. Koffka, K. 1930. Some problems of space perception. In Psychologies of 1930, ed. C. Murchison, 161–187. Worchester, MA: Clark University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Koffka, K. 1935. Principles of gestalt psychology. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World.Google Scholar
  97. Köhler, W. 1933. Psychologische probleme. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Kopferman, H. 1930. Psychologische Untersuchungen über die Wirkung zweidimensionaler Darstellungen körperliche Gebilde. Psychologische Foschung 13:293–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kovàcs, I. 2000. Human development of perceptual organization. Vision Research 40(10–12):1301–1310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Kreibig, J.C. 1909. Die intellektuelle Funkionen. Untersuchungen über Grenzfragen der Logik. Wien: Holder.Google Scholar
  101. Krekelberg, B., and M. Lappe. 1999. Temporal recruitment along the trajectory of moving objects and the perception of position. Vision Research 39:2669–2679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kress, G., and T. van Leeuwen. 1996. Reading images. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  103. Kroliczak G., P.F. Heard, M.A. Goodale, and R.L. Gregory. 2006. Dissociation of perception and action unmasked by the hollow-face illusion. Brain Research 1080(1):1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Kubovy, M., W. Epstein, and S. Gepshtein. 2002. Foundations of visual perception. In Experimental psychology, eds. A.F. Healy and R.W. Proctor, vol. 4, I.B. Weiner ed., Handbook of psychology, 87–119. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  105. Khurana, B., K. Watanabe, and R. Nijhawan. 2000. The role of attention in motion extrapolation: Are moving objects ‘corrected’ or flashed objects attentionally delayed?. Perception 29:675–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Lewin, K. 1926. Vorsatz. Wille und Bedürfnis: mit Vorbemerkungen über die psychische Kräfte und Energien und die Struktur der Seele. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  107. Lewin, K. 1929. Die Entwicklung der experimentellen Willenpsychologie und die Psychotherapie. Leipzig: Hirzel.Google Scholar
  108. Leyton, M. 1992. Symmetry, causality, mind. Boston: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  109. Li, X., and A.L. Gilchrist. 1999. Relative area and relative luminance combine to anchor surface lightness values. Perception and Psychophysics 61(5):771–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Libet B. 1982. Brain stimulation in the study of neuronal functions for conscious sensory experience. Human Neurobiology 1:235–242.Google Scholar
  111. Lindemann, E. 1922. Experimentelle Untersuchungen über das Entstehen und Vergehen von Gestalten. Psychologische Forschung 2:5–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lipmann, O. 1923. Bemergungen zur Gestalttheorie. Archiv für Psychologie 44.Google Scholar
  113. Lipps, Th. 1879. Raumaesthetik und geometrisch-optische Täuschungen. Leipzig: Barth.Google Scholar
  114. Marr, D. 1982. Vision. San Francisco: Freeman Press.Google Scholar
  115. Massironi, M. 2002. The psychology of graphic images. London: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  116. Massironi, M., and P. Bonaiuto. 1966. Ricerche sull’espressività. Qualità funzionali, intenzionali e relazione di causalità in assenza di movimento reale. Rassegna di psicologia sperimentale e clinica 8:3–42.Google Scholar
  117. Matthaei, R. 1929. Das Gestaltproblem. Monatschrift für Kinderheilkunde 29(1) (repr. 2005).Google Scholar
  118. Mausfeld, R. 2002. The physicalistic trap in perception theory. In Perception and the physical world, eds. D. Heyer and R. Mausfeld, 75–112. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  119. Mausfeld, R. 2003. Conjoint representations and the mental capacity for multiple simultaneous perspectives. In Looking into pictures, eds. H. Hecht, R. Mausfeld, 17–60. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  120. Mausfeld, R. In press. Colour with an internalist framework: The role of ‘color’ in the structure of the perceptual system. In Color ontology and color science, eds. J. Cohen, and M. Matten. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  121. Mausfeld, R., and G. Wendt. 2006. Material appearances under minimal stimulus conditions: Lustrous and glassy qualities. Perception 35(Suppl.):213–214.Google Scholar
  122. Meinong, A. 1899. Über Gegenstände höherer Ordnung und deren Verhältniss zu inneren Wahrnehmung. Zeitschrift für Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane 21:182–272.Google Scholar
  123. Meinong, A. 1960. The theory of objects. In Realism and the background of phenomenology, ed. R.M. Chisholm, 76–117. Glencoe: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  124. Metelli, F. 1941. Oggettualità, stratificazione e risalto nell’organizzazione percettiva di figura e sfondo. Archivio di Psicologia, Neurologia e Psichiatria 2:831–841.Google Scholar
  125. Metelli, F. 1967. Zur Analyse der phänomenalen Durchsictighkeiterscheinungen. In Gestalt und Wirchlichkeit, eds. R. Mühler, and J. Fischl. Berlin.Google Scholar
  126. Metzger, W. 1930. Optische Untersuchungen am Ganzfeld, I, II. Psychologische Forschung 13: 6–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Metzger, W. 1934. Beobachtungen über phänomenale Identität. Psychologische Forschung 19: 40–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Metzger, W. 1941. Psychologie: die Entwicklung ihrer Grundannahmen seit der Einführung des Experiments. Dresden: Steinkopff.Google Scholar
  129. Metzger, W. 1966. Figural Wahrnehmung. In Handbuch der Psychologie, ed. W. Metzger, vol. I, 693–744. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  130. Metzger, W. 1975. Gesetze des Sehens. Frankfurt: Kramer.Google Scholar
  131. Michotte, A. 1950a. A propos de la permanence phénoménale: Faits et theories. Acta Psychologica 7:298–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Michotte, A. 1950b. The emotion regarded as functional connections. In Feelings and emotions, ed. M.L. Reymert, 128–144. New York: Mc Graw Hill.Google Scholar
  133. Michotte, A. 1963. The perception of causality. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  134. Michotte, A., et al. 1962. Causalité, permanence et réalité phénoménales. Studia Psychologica. Louvain: Publications Universitaires.Google Scholar
  135. Morinaga, S. 1942. Beobachtungn über Grundlagen und Wirkungen anschaulich gleichmässiger Breite. Archiv gesamte Psychologie 110:310–348.Google Scholar
  136. Musatti, C.L. 1924. Sui fenomeni stereocinetici. Archivio Italiano di Psicologia 3:105–120.Google Scholar
  137. Musatti, C.L. 1928. Sui movimenti apparenti dovuti a identità di figura. Archivio Italiano di Psicologia 6:205–219.Google Scholar
  138. Musatti, C.L. 1953. Luce e colore nei fenomeni del contrasto simultaneo, della costanza e dell’euguagliamento. Archivio di Psicologia, Neurologia e Psichiatria 5:544–577.Google Scholar
  139. Musatti, C.L. 1955. La stereocinesi e la struttura dello spazio visibile. Rivista di Psicologia 49:3–57.Google Scholar
  140. Musatti, C.L. 1964. Condizioni dell’esperienza e fondazione della psicologia. Florence: Editrice Universitaria.Google Scholar
  141. Müsseler, J., and G. Aschersleben. 1998. Localizing the first position of a moving stimulus: The Frölich effect and an attention-shifting explanation. Perception and Psychophysics 60:683–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Nijhawan, R. 1994. Motion extrapolation in catching. Nature 370:256–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Nijhawan, R. 1997. Visual decomposition of colour through motion extrapolation. Nature 386:66–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Nisbett, R.E. 2003. The geography of thought. How Asians and Westerners think differently…and why. London: Nicholas Brealy Publishing.Google Scholar
  145. Noë, A. 2004. Action in perception. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  146. Ostwald, W. 1917. Der absolute System der Farben. Zeitschrift für Phys. Chem. 92:222–226.Google Scholar
  147. Pierantoni, R. 1986. Forma fluens. Torino: Boringhieri.Google Scholar
  148. Pinna, B., and Albertazzi, L. 2010. From grouping to meaning. In Perception beyond inference. The information content of visual processes, eds. Albertazzi, L., G. van Tonder, and D. Vishwanath, MIT Press, Fall 2010.Google Scholar
  149. Poli, R. 1998. Levels. Axiomathes 9(1–2):197–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Poli, R. 2001. The basic problem of the theory of levels of reality. Axiomathes 12(3–4):261–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Poli, R. 2002. Ontological methodology. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 56:639–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Poli, R. 2006a. Levels of reality and the psychological stratum. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 61(2):163–180.Google Scholar
  153. Poli, R. 2006b. The theory of levels of reality and the difference between simple and tangled hierarchies. In Systemics of emergence: Research and development, eds. G. Minati, E. Pessa, and M. Abram, 715–722. New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Poli, R. 2007. Three obstructions: forms of causation, chronotopoids, and levels of reality. Axiomathes 1:1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Poli, R. Ontology: The categorial stance. In TAO-theory and applications of ontology, Vol.1 Philosophical foundations, eds. R. Poli, and J. Seibt. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  156. Poli, R., and C. Gnoli. 2004. Levels of reality and levels of representation. Knowledge Organization 31(3):151–160.Google Scholar
  157. Poli, R., and L. Obrst. 2010. The interplay between ontology as categorial analysis and ontology as technology. In Theory and applications of ontology, eds. R. Poli, J. Seibt, and J. Symons, vol. 1. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  158. Pöppel, E. 1994. Temporal mechanism in perception. International Review of Neurobiology 37:185–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Profitt, D.R., I. Rock, H. Hecht, and J.M. Schubert. 1992. Stereokinetic effect and its relation to the kinetic depth effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 18:3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Purghè, F., and S. Coren. 1992. Subjective contours 1900–1990. Research trends and bibliography. Perception and Psychophysics 51:291–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Rausch, E. 1952. Struktur und Metrik figural-optischer Wahrnehmung. Frankfurt a.Main: Kramer.Google Scholar
  162. Rausch, E. 1964. Einzelgegenständlisches als phänomenale Eigenschaft. Psychologische Forschung 28:33–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Rausch, E. 1966. Das Eigenschaftsproblem in der GT der Wahrnehmung. In Handbuch der Psychologie, ed. W. Metzger. Göttingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  164. Rensink, R.A. 2000. Seeing, sensing, scrutinizing. Vision Research 40:1469–1487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Rensink, R.A. 2002. Change detection. Annual Review Psychology 53:245–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Roberson, D., J. Davidoff, I.R.L. Davies, and L.R. Shapiro. 2005. Color categories: Evidence for the cultural relativity hypothesis. Cognitive Psychology 50:378–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Rosch, E. 1978. Cognition and categorization. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  168. Rosenthal, V. 2004. Microgenesis. Immediate experience on visual processes in reading. In Seeing, Thinking and Knowing, ed. A. Carsetti, 221–243. Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Rubin, E. 1958. Figure and ground. In Readings in perception, eds. D.C. Beardsley, and M. Wertheimer. New York: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  170. Runeson, S. 1974. Constant velocity: Not perceived as such. Psychological Research 37:3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Runge, O.P. 1910. Farbenkugeln. oder Construction der Verhältnisse aller Mischungen der Farben zu einander, und ihrer Vollständigen Affinität, mit angehängten Versuch einer Ableitung der Harmonie in der Zusammenstellungen der Farben. Hamburg: F. Perthes.Google Scholar
  172. Sander, F. 1930. Structures, totality of experience and gestalt. In Psychologies of 1930, ed. C. Murchison, 188–204. Worchester MA: Clark University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Schapp, W. 1909. Beiträge zur Phänomenologie der Wahnehmung. Frankfurt: Klostermann.Google Scholar
  174. Schlottman, A. 2000. Is perception of causality modular? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4:441–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Scholl, B.J., and P.D. Tremoulet. 2000. Perceptual causality and animacy. Trends in Cognitive Science 4:299–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Schumann, F. 1904. Beiträge zur Analyse der Gesichtswahrnehmungen: 1. Einige Beobachtungen über die Zusammenfassung von Gesichtseindrücken zu Einheiten. Zeitschrift für Psychologie 23:1–32.Google Scholar
  177. Seifert, E. 1917. Zur Psychologie der Abstraktion und Gestaltwahrnehmung. Zeitschrift für Psychologie 78.Google Scholar
  178. Shannon, C.E., and Weaver, W. 1998. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. (Originally published in 1949).Google Scholar
  179. Sivik, L. 1997. Color system for cognitive research. In Color categories in thought and language, eds. C.L. Hardin, and L. Maffi, 163–192. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Spillmann, L., and W. Ehrenstein. 2003. Gestalt issues in modern neuroscience. Axiomathes 13:433–458.Google Scholar
  181. Stadler, M., L. Stegagno, and G. Trombini. 1979. Quantitative analyse der Rauschschen Pragnänzaspekte. Gestalt Theory 1:43–51.Google Scholar
  182. Stein, E. 1962. Die ontische Struktur der Person und ihre erkenntnistheoretische Problematik. In Edith Steins Werke 6, 137–197. Freiburg: Herder.Google Scholar
  183. Stern, W. 1897. Psychologie der Veranderungsauffassung Breslau: Preuss und Junger.Google Scholar
  184. Stevens, S.S. 1986. Psycho-physics. Introduction to perceptual, neural and social prospects. New Brunswick & Oxford: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
  185. Struber, D., and M. Stadler. 1999. Differences in top-down influences on the reversal rate of different categories of reversible figures. Perception 28:1185–1198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Tarr, M., and D. Kriegman. 2001. What defines a view?. Vision Research 41:1981–2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Ullman, S. 1984. Visual routines. Cognition 18:97–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Verfaillie, K., and G. d’Ydewalle. 1991. Representational momentum and event course anticipation in the perception of implied periodical motions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 17:302–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Vicario, G.B. 2005. Il tempo. Il Mulino: Bologna.Google Scholar
  190. Wallach, H.W., and D.N. O’Connell. 1953. The kinetic depth effect. Journal for Experimental Psychology 45:205–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Werner, H., and S. Wapner. 1952. Towards a general theory of perception. Psychological Review 59:324–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Wertheimer, M. 1923. Untersuchungen zur Lehre von der Gestalt. Psychologische Forschung 4:301–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Wertheimer, M. 1938. Laws of organization in perceptual forms. In A source book of Gestalt psychology, ed. W. Ellis, 71–94. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Wertheimer, M. 2002a. Gestalt theory. In A source book of Gestalt psychology, ed. W. Ellis, 1–11. London: Routledge (Original 1925).Google Scholar
  195. Wertheimer, M. 2002b. The general theoretical situation. In A source book of Gestalt psychology, ed. W. Ellis, 12–16. London: Routledge (Original 1922).Google Scholar
  196. Whitney, D. 2002. The influence of visual motion on perceived position. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6(5):211–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Whitney, D., and P. Cavanagh. 2000. Motion distorts visual space: Shifting the perceived position of remote stationary obiects. Nature Neuroscience 3(9):954–958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Wierbicka, A. 2006. The semantics of colour: A new paradigm. In Progress in Colour Studies, 2 vols., ed. W. Ellis, vol. I, 1–24. Amsterdam: Benjamins Publishing House.Google Scholar
  199. Wollheim, R. 1970. The work of art as object. In On art and the mind, 112–129. London: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  200. Zanforlin, M. 1988a. The height of a stereokinetic cone: A quantitative determination of a 3D effect from 2D moving pattern without a ‘Rigidity Assumption’. Psychological Research 50:162–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Zanforlin, M. 1988b. Stereokinetic phenomena as good Gestalts: The minimum principle applied to circles and ellipses in rotation: A quantitative analysis and a theoretical discussion. Gestalt Theory 10:187–214.Google Scholar
  202. Zanforlin, M. 2000. The various appearances of a rotating ellipse and the minimum principle: A review and an experimental test with non-ambiguous percepts. Gestalt Theory 22:157–184.Google Scholar
  203. Zanforlin, M. 2003. Stereokinetic anomalous contours: Demonstrations. In The Legacy of Kanizsa in Cognitive Science, ed. L. Albertazzi, special issues of Axiomathes 13:389–398.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cimec (Centre for Mind and Brain), and Department of Cognitive Sciences and EducationUniversity of Trento at RoveretoRoveretoItaly

Personalised recommendations