Epidemiology of Congenital Malformations

  • Harold Kalter


Before malformation surveillance there was malformation epidemiology. Its original concerns, as of epidemiology generally, were “the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in defined populations” (Last 1988); which in the context of malformations refers to determining whether and how specific abnormalities may be associated with time, place, condition, and circumstance, for the implicit purpose of clarifying etiology.


Congenital Malformation Spina Bifida Neural Tube Defect Cleft Palate Orofacial Clefting 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CincinnatiUSA

Personalised recommendations