The Concept of Visualization

  • Linda M. PhillipsEmail author
  • Stephen P. Norris
  • John S. Macnab
Part of the Models and Modeling in Science Education book series (MMSE, volume 5)


Perhaps the most defining feature of the current state of empirical research on visualization is the lack of consensus about the most elemental issues that surround it, including


Line Drawing Computer Computer Interactive Interactivity Gestalt Theory Dynamic Symbolic System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Griffin, M., & Schwartz, D. (2005). Visual communication skills and media literacy. In J. Flood, S. B. Heath, & D. Lapp (Eds.), Handbook of research on teaching literacy through the communicative and visual arts(pp. 40–47). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  2. Bishop, A. J. (1989). Review of research on visualization in mathematics education. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 11(1), 7–16.Google Scholar
  3. Arnheim, R. (1966). Toward a psychology of art. Berkley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  4. Gregory, R. L. (1970). The intelligent eye. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  5. Zettl, H. (1990). Sight sound motion: Applied media aesthetics. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  6. Arcavi, A. (1999). The role of visual representations in the learning of mathematics. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Morelos, Mexico (Document Reproduction Service No. ED 466382).Google Scholar
  7. Buckley, A. R., Gahegan, M., & Clarke, K. (2000, December 1). Geographic visualization. University Consortium for Geographic Information Science 2000 Research White Papers. Retrieved October 21, 2008, from
  8. Duval, R. (1999). Representation, vision and visualization: Cognitive functions in mathematical thinking. Basic issues for Learning. In F. Hitt & M. Santos (Eds.), Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.Google Scholar
  9. Gilbert, J. K. (2005). Visualization: A metacognitive skill in science and science education. In J. K. Gilbert (Ed.), Visualization in science education. Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kaput, J. (1999). Representations, inscriptions, descriptions and learning: A kaleidoscope of windows. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 17(2), 265–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Presmeg, N. C. (1999). On visualization and generalization in . In F. Hitt & M. Santos (Eds.), Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (21st, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico, October 23–26, 1999, Vol. 1, pp. 23–27).Google Scholar
  12. Levin, J. R., Anglin, G. J., & Carney, R. N. (1987). On empirically validating functions of pictures in prose. Psychology of Illustration, 1, 51–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mayer, R. E. (1997). Multimedia learning: Are we asking the right questions? Educational Psychologist, 32(1), 1–19. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Scaife, M., & Rogers, Y. (1996). External cognition: How do graphical representations work? International Journal Human-Computer Studies, 45(2), 185–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Miller, W. (1936). The picture choices of primary-grade children. The Elementary School Journal, 37, 273–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Reis, A., Faísca, L., Ingvar, M., & Petersson, K. M. (2006). Color makes a difference: Two-dimensional object naming in and subjects. Brain and Cognition, 60, 49–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Haring, M. J., & Fry, M. A. (1979). Effect of pictures on children’s comprehension of written text. Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 27(3), 185–190.Google Scholar
  18. Readence, J. E., & Moore, D. W. (1981). A meta-analytic review of the effect of adjunct pictures on comprehension. Psychology in the Schools, 18, 218–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Booth, R. D. L., & Thomas, M. O. J. (1999). Visualization in mathematics learning: Arithmetic problem-solving and student difficulties. The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 18(2), 169–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Healy, L., & Hoyles, C. (1999). Visual and symbolic reasoning in mathematics: Making connections with computers? Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 1(1), 59–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Vekiri, I. (2002). What is the value of graphical displays in learning? Educational Psychology Review, 14(3), 261–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Richardson, A. (1994). Individual differences in imaging: Their measurement, origins, and consequences. Amityville, NY: Baywood.Google Scholar
  23. Reisberg, D., & Leak, S. (1987). Visual imagery and memory for appearance: Does Clarke Gable or George C. Scott have bushier eyebrows? Canadian Journal of Psychology, 41(4), 521–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schnotz, W. (2002). Towards an integrated view of learning from text and visual displays. Educational Psychology Review, 14(1), 101–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Milheim, W. D. (1993). How to use in computer assisted learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 24(3), 171–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bennett, L. T., & Dwyer, F. M. (1994). The effect of varied visual interactive strategies in facilitating student achievement of different educational objectives. International Journal of Instructional Media, 21(1), 23–32.Google Scholar
  27. LaViola, J. J., Jr. (2007). Advances in mathematical sketching: Moving toward the paradigm’s full potential. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 27(1), 38–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lurie, N. H., & Mason, C. H. (2007). Visual representation: Implications for decision making. Journal of Marketing, 71, 160–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rieber, L. P. (1990a). Animation in computer-based instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 38(1), 77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ainsworth, S. (1999). The functions of multiple representations. Computers and Education, 33, 131–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Paivio, A. (1974). Language and knowledge of the world. Educational Researcher, 3(9), 5–12.Google Scholar
  32. McCormick, B. H., DeFanti, T. A., & Brown, M. D. (1987). Visualization in scientific computing: A synopsis. IEEE Computer Graphics and Application, 7(7), 61–70.Google Scholar
  33. Tufte, E. R. (1983). Visual display of guantitative information Cheshire, CT: Graphics Press.Google Scholar
  34. Amsden, R. H. (1960). Children’s preferences in picture story book variables. Journal of Educational Research, 53(8), 309–312.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda M. Phillips
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stephen P. Norris
    • 2
  • John S. Macnab
    • 3
  1. 1.Canadian Centre for Research on LiteracyUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  2. 2.Centre for Research in Youth, Science Teaching and LearningUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  3. 3.EdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations