Geographical Information System (GIS)

  • B. B. S. Singhal
  • R. P. Gupta


Geographical Information System, also called Geobased Information System (GIS), is a relatively new technology. It is a very powerful tool for processing, analyzing and integrating spatial data sets (e.g. Star and Estes 1990; Lo and Yeung 2006; Chang 2008; Harvey 2008). A GIS deals with information on locational patterns of features and their attributes (characteristics). It can be considered as a higher-order computer-coded map which permits storage, selective dedicated manipulation, display and output of spatial information. GIS software provides the functions and tools needed to store, analyze, and display information about geographical locations. The key components of GIS software include: (a) a database management system (DBMS); (b) tools that create intelligent digital maps that one can analyze, query for more information, or print for presentation; and (c) an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI).


Geobased Information System Digital Elevation Model Total Dissolve Solid Data Layer Capture Zone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Further Reading

  1. Chang KT (2008) Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  2. Lo CP, Yeung AKW (2006) Concepts and Techniques of Geographic Information Systems. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  3. Meijerink AMJ, de Brouwer HAM, Mannaerts CM, Valenzuela CR (1994) Introduction to the Use of Geographic Information Systems for Practical Hydrology. ITC Publ. No. 23, Enschede.Google Scholar
  4. Star J, Estes J (1990) Geographic Information Systems: An Introduction. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Netherlands 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. B. S. Singhal
    • 1
  • R. P. Gupta
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

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