Dynamics of the Earth’s Atmosphere and Oceans
The atmosphere and the oceans (collectively) are both upper shells of the Earth. The first of them occurs in a gaseous and the second one in a liquid phase. These shells exist in the solid Earth’s outer force field but the atmosphere exists in dynamical equilibrium, and the oceans are in a weighted transition to a hydrostatic state. The atmosphere as a gaseous shell is totally “dissolved” in the Earth’s outer force field in the form of atomic and molecular sub-layers, differentiated with respect to density, and these self-gravitating masses appear in a dynamical equilibrium state. Relatively homogeneous water masses of the oceans have too low a density (approximately 2/3) in comparison with the mineral crust to be an independent, with respect to its dynamics, self-gravitating shell. Therefore, it appears to be suspended in a semi-hydrostatic equilibrium relative to the crust’s shell. Its inner gravitational pressure on the shell’s surface is equilibrated with the atmospheric and outer gravitational pressure. The surface water is practically found to be in a limiting hydrostatic equilibrium. The small portion of the continuously pumping solar energy varies within 7% in the annual cycle and leads to the dynamical process of water transfer from its liquid to vapor, and vice verse, phase.