Associated Press. 1994, September 21. 38,000 shoes stand for loss in lethal year. In The Register-Guard. Eugene, OR: 6A.
Baron, J. 1997. Confusion of relative and absolute risk in valuation. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 14: 301–309.
Barrett, L. F., and P. Salovey. 2002. The Wisdom in Feeling: Psychological Processes in Emotional Intelligence. New York: Guilford Press.
Bartels, D. M., and R. C. Burnett. 2006. Proportion dominance and mental representation: Construal of resources affects sensitivity to relative risk reduction. University of Chicago Personal Web Page. http://home.uchicago.edu/~bartels/papers/Bartels-Burnett.pdf. Accessed 24 November 2008.
Bass, R. 1996. The Book of Yaak. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Batson, C. D. 1990. How social an animal? The human capacity for caring. American Psychologist 45: 336–346.
Batson, C. D., K. O’Quin, J. Fultz, M. Vanderplas, and A. Isen. 1983. Self-reported distress and empathy and egoistic versus altruistic motivation for helping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45: 706–718.
BBC News, UK edition. 2005, November 19. Sparrow death mars record attempt. http://news.bbc.co.uk/a/hi/world/europe/4450958.stm.
Clark, M. S., and S. T. Fiske. 1982.
and Cognition: The Seventeeth Annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Coke, J. S., C. D. Batson, and K. McDavis. 1978. Empathic mediation of helping: A two-stage model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 36: 752–766.
Daillaire, R. 2005. Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in
. New York: Carrol & Graf.
Dillard, A. 1999. For the Time Being. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Dubinsky, Z. 2005. The lessons of genocide
[Review of the book Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan
]. Essex Human Rights Review 2: 112–117.
Epstein, S. 1994. Integration of the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious. American Psychologist 49: 709–724.
Eisenberg, N., and P. Miller. 1987. Empathy and prosocial behavior. Psychological Bulletin 101: 91–119.
Fechner, G. T. 1860/1912. Elements of psychophysics. Classics in the History of Psychology. York University’s Classics in the History of Psychology. http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Fechner/. Accessed 1 December 2008.
Fenske, M. J., and J. E. Raymond. 2006. Affective influences of selective attention. Current Directions in Psychological Science 15: 312–316.
Fetherstonhaugh, D., P. Slovic, S. M. Johnson, and J. Friedrich. 1997. Insensitivity to the value of human life: A study of psychophysical numbing
. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 14: 283–300.
Forgas, J. P. 2000. Feeling and Thinking: The Role of
in Social Cognition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Friedrich, J., P. Barnes, K. Chapin, I. Dawson, V. Garst, and D. Kerr. 1999. Psychophysical numbing: When lives are valued less as the lives at risk increase. Journal of Consumer Psychology 8: 277–299.
Galanter, E. 1962. The direct measurement of utility and subjective probability. American Journal of Psychology 75: 208–220.
Gilbert, D. T. 2002. Inferential correction. In Heuristics and Biases. T. Gilovich, D. Griffin, and D. Kahneman, eds., 167–184. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gilbert, D. T. 2006, July 10. We’re hard-wired to ignore global warming. In The Register-Guard. Eugene, OR: A9.
Glover, J. 2001. Humanity: A Moral History of the Twentieth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Haidt, J. 2001. The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment
. Psychological Review 108: 814–834.
Hamilton, D. L., and S. J. Sherman. 1996. Perceiving persons and groups. Psychological Review 103: 336–355.
Hume, D. 1960. An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals. La Salle, IL: Open Court (Originally published in 1777).
Jenni, K., and G. Loewenstein. 1997. Explaining the “ identifiable victim
effect”. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 14: 235–257.
Kahneman, D. 2003. A perspective on judgment and choice: Mapping bounded rationality. American Psychologist 58: 697–720.
Kahneman, D., and Frederick, S. 2002. Representativeness revisited: Attribute substitution in intuitive judgment. In Heuristics of Intuitive Judgment: Extensions and Applications. T. Gilovich, D. Griffin, and D. Kahneman, eds., 49–81. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kahneman, D., and A. Tversky. 1979. Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 47: 263–291.
Kingsolver, B. 1995. High Tide in Tucson. New York: HarperCollins.
Kogut, T., and I. Ritov. 2005a. The “Identified Victim” effect: An identified group, or just a single individual? Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 18: 157–167.
Kogut, T., and I. Ritov. 2005b. The singularity of identified victims in separate and joint evaluations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 97: 106–116.
Lacey, M. 2005, May 18. The mournful math of Darfur
: the dead don’t add up. The New York Times: A4.
Ledoux, J. E. 1996. The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Lifton, R. J. 1967. Death in Life: Survivors of Hiroshima. New York: Random House.
Loewenstein, G., E. U. Weber, C. K. Hsee, and E. S. Welch. 2001. Risk as feelings. Psychological Bulletin 127: 267–286.
Melvern, L. 2004. Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan
. London: Verso.
Mowrer, O. H. 1960. Learning Theory and Behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Neville, P. 2004, February 15. Statistics disguise a human face. In The Register-Guard. Eugene, OR.
Power, S. 2003. A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of
. New York: Harper Perennial.
Schabas, W. 1999, January 7. The genocide
convention at fifty (Special Report 41). United States Institute of Peace. http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr990107.html. Accessed 3 December 2008.
Schelling, T. C. 1968. The life you save may be your own. In Problems in Public Expenditure Analysis. S. B. Chase, Jr., ed., 127–176. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.
Schroeder, P., and Schroeder-Hildebrand D. 2004. Six Million Paper Clips: The Making of a Children’s Holocaust Museum. Minneapolis, MN: Kar-Ben.
Slovic, P., M. L. Finucane, E. Peters, and D. G. MacGregor. 2002. The affect
heuristic. In Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment T. Gilovich, D. Griffin, and D. Kahneman, eds., 397–420. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Slovic, P., M. L. Finucane, E. Peters, and D. G. MacGregor. 2004. Risk as analysis and risk as feelings: Some thoughts about affect
, reason, risk, and rationality. Risk Analysis 24: 1–12.
Slovic, S., and P. Slovic. 2004. Numbers and nerves: Toward an affective apprehension of environmental risk. Whole Terrain 13: 14–18.
Small, D. A., and G. Loewenstein. 2003. Helping a victim or helping the victim: Altruism and identifiability. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 26: 5–16.
Small, D. A., and G. Loewenstein. 2005. The devil you know: The effects of identifiability on punishment. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 18: 311–318.
Small, D. A., G. Loewenstein, and P. Slovic. 2007. Sympathy and callousness: The impact of deliberative thought on donations to identifiable and statistical victims. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 102: 143–153.
Song, J. 2002, April 26. Every dog has its day – but at what price? In The Register-Guard. Eugene, OR: 1.
Stanovich, K. E., and R. F. West. 2000. Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23: 645–726.
Stanovich, K. E., and R. F. West. 2002. Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate? In Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment. T. Gilovich, D. W. Griffin, and D. Kahneman, eds., 421–444. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Stevens, S. S. 1975. Psychophysics. New York: Wiley.
Susskind, J., K. Maurer, V. Thakkar, D. L. Hamilton, and J. W. Sherman. 1999. Perceiving individuals and groups: Expectancies, dispositional inferences, and causal attributions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76: 181–191.
Tomkins, S. S. 1962.
, Imagery, and Consciousness: Vol. 1. The Positive Affects. New York: Springer.
Tomkins, S. S. 1963.
, Imagery, and Consciousness: Vol. 2. The Negative Affects. New York: Springer.
Ubel, P. A., J. Baron, and D. A. Asch. 2001. Preference for equity as a framing effect. Medical Decision Making 21: 180–189.
Västfjäll, D., E. Peters, and P. Slovic. 2009. Representation, affect
, and willingness-to-donate to children in need.
Västfjäll, D. E., E. Peters, and P. Slovic. (Manuscript submitted for Publication). Compassion fatigue: Donations and affect are greatest for a single child in need.
Vuilleumier, P., J. L. Armony, and R. J. Dolan. 2003. Reciprocal links between emotion and attention. In Human Brain Function. K. J. Friston, C. D. Frith, R. J. Dolan, C. Price, J. Ashburner, W. Penny, et al., eds., 419–444. New York: Academic Press.
Weber, E. H. 1834. De pulsu, resorptione, auditu et tactu. Leipzig: Koehler.
Zajonc, R. B. 1980. Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences. American Psychologist 35: 151–175.