Associations of Maternal Diseases with Higher Risk for Pretem Birth (PB) and Low Birth Weight (LBW) Newborns

  • Nándor Ács
  • Ferenc Bánhidy
  • Andrew E. Czeizel


The rate of PB is extremely high (about 9%) in Hungary and PB associated with about one-third of infant mortality during the 2000s. In addition, a major part of mental retardation, visual and other handicaps of children was related to PB. LBW as indicator of intrauterine fetal growth retardation was also associated with short- and long-term complications of newborns infants.


Pregnant Woman Bacterial Vaginosis Genital Herpes Adverse Birth Outcome Recurrent Genital Herpes 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Bukowski R, Malone FD, Porter FT et al. Preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth: a cohort study. PLoS Med 2009; 6: e10000061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Catov JM, Bodnar LM, Ness RB et al. Association of periconceptional multivitamin and risk of preterm or small-for-gestational-age births. Am J Epidemiol 2007; 166: 296–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cikot RJLM, Steegers-Theunissen RPM, Thomas CMG et al. Longitudinal vitamin and homocysteine levels in normal pregnancy. Br J Nutr 2001; 85: 49–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ek J. Plasma and red cell folate in mothers and infants in normal pregnancies. Relation to birth weight. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1982; 61: 17–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eskes TKAB. Vascular disease in women. Folate and homocysteine. In: Massaro EJ, Rogers JM (eds.) Folate and Human Development. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2002. pp. 299–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ferguson SE, Smith GN, Walker MC. Maternal plasma homocysteine levels in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes. Med Hypotheses 2001; 56: 85–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Goldenberg RL, Tamura T, Cliver SP et al. Serum folate and fetal growth retardation: a matter of compliance? Obstet Gynecol 1992; 79: 719–722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Haider BA, Bhutta ZA. Multiple-micronutrients supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 18(4): CD004905.Google Scholar
  9. Johnson WG, Scholl TO, Spychala JR et al. Common dihydrofolate reductase 19-base deletion allele: a novel risk factors for preterm delivery. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81: 664–668.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. McPartlin J, Halligan A, Scott JM, Darling M, Weir DG. Accelerated folate breakdown in pregnancy. Lancet 1993; 341: 148–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mohammed K. Routine folate supplementation in pregnancy. In: Enkin MW, Keirse MJCN, Renfreq MJ, Nielson JP (eds.) Pregnancy and Childbirth Module. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, No. 03158, April 1993.Google Scholar
  12. Neggers YH, Goldenberg RL, Tamura T et al. The relationship between maternal dietary intake and infant birth weight. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1997; 165(Suppl.): 71–75.Google Scholar
  13. Relton CL, Pearce MS, Parker L. The influence of erythrocyte folate and serum vitamin B12 status on birth weight. Br J Nutr 2005; 93: 593–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ronnenberg AG, Goldman MB, Chen D et al. Preconception homocysteine and B vitamin status and birth outcomes in Chinese women. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 1385–1391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Scholl TO, Hediger ML, Schall JI et al. Dietary and serum folate: their influence on the outcome of pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 63: 520–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Scholl TO, Hediger ML, Bendich A et al. Use of multivitamin/mineral prenatal supplements: influence on the outcome of pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol 1997; 146: 134–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Scholl TO, Johnson WG. Folic acid influence on the outcome of pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 1285S–1303S.Google Scholar
  18. Shaw GM, Liberman RF, Todoroff K, Wasserman CR. Low birth weight, preterm delivery, and periconceptional vitamin use. J Pediatr 1997; 130: 1013–1014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Siega-Riz AM, Savitz SA, Zeisel SH et al. Second trimester folate status and preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 191: 851–857.Google Scholar
  20. Smiths LJM, Essed GGM. Short pregnancy intervals and unfavorable pregnancy outcomes: role of folate depletion. Lancet 2001; 358: 2074–2077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Spencer N. Social and environmental determinants of birth weight. In: Weighing the Evidence. How is Birthweight Determined? Radcliffe Medical Press, Oxford, 2003. pp. 87–121.Google Scholar
  22. van der Molen EF, Verbruggen B, Nokalova I et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia and other thrombotic risk factors in women with placental vasculopathy. Br J Obstet Gynecol 2000; 107: 785–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Vollset SE, Refsum H, Irgens LM et al. Plasma total homocysteine, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcomes: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 962–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. WHO Reg. 1. Make every mother and child count. 2005;

Own Publication

  1. I.
    Czeizel AE, Puhó HE, Ács N, Bánhidy F. Possible association of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy with reduction of preterm birth: a population-based study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2010; 148: 135–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nándor Ács
    • 1
  • Ferenc Bánhidy
    • 2
  • Andrew E. Czeizel
    • 3
  1. 1.Semmelweis UniversityBudapestHungary
  2. 2.Semmelweis University, HIETE, Klinikai Onkologiai TranszekBudapestHungary
  3. 3.Foundation for the Community Control of Hereditary DiseasesBudapestHungary

Personalised recommendations