Biological Control in Citrus in Spain: From Classical to Conservation Biological Control

Part of the Integrated Management of Plant Pests and Diseases book series (IMPD, volume 5)


The status of citrus pests management in Spain and of biological control, including classical biological control strategies, is reviewed. The augmentative versus inoculation-based control, and the use of invertebrate biological control agents in citrus orchards and nurseries are described. Fortuitous and conservation biocontrol strategies, as well as exploitation of resident species, either native or naturalized, are discussed. Pesticide side-effect testing on natural enemies, presence of alternative hosts and use of banker plants are described, together with ground cover mangement strategies.


European Union Biological Control Natural Enemy Integrate Pest Management Citrus Orchard 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universitat Jaume I (UJI), Unitat Associada d’Entomologia Agrícola UJI-IVIACastelló de la PlanaSpain
  2. 2.Institut Valencià d’Investigacions Agràries (IVIA)Unitat Associada d’Entomologia Agrícola UJI-IVIAMontcadaSpain

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