Skip to main content

From Theory to Action: Exploring the Institutional Conditions for Student Retention

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research

Part of the book series: Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research ((HATR,volume 25))

Abstract

Though access to higher education in the United States has increased over the past several decades, similar increases in college completion have not followed suit. Despite years of effort, we have, in large measure, been unable to translate the promise increased access affords to students, in particular those of low-income and underserved backgrounds, into the reality of college completion especially as measured by 4-year degrees. That this is the case is reflective in part of our inability to translate what we have learned from research on student retention into a reasonable set of guidelines for the types of actions and policies institution must put into place to increase rates of college completion.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Adelman, C. (2004). Principal indicators of student academic histories in postsecondary education, 1972–2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Educational Sciences.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, B., & Ekstrom, R. (1996). Improving the retention of African-American undergraduates in predominantly White colleges and universities: Evidence from 45 institutions. Albuquerque, NM: Association for Institutional Research.

    Google Scholar 

  • Angelo, T. (Ed.) (1991). Ten easy pieces: Assessing higher learning in four dimensions. In Classroom research: Early lessons from success (pp. 17–31). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Angelo, T. (Ed.). (1998). Classroom assessment and research: An update on uses, approaches, and research findings. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Angelo, T., & Cross, P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Astin, A. (1975). Preventing students from dropping out. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Astin, A. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297–308.

    Google Scholar 

  • Astin, A. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Attewell, P., Lavin, D., Domina, T., & Levey, T. (2006). New evidence on college remediation. The Journal of Higher Education, 77, 886–892.

    Google Scholar 

  • Attinasi, L. C., Jr. (1989). Getting in: Mexican Americans’ perceptions of university attendance and implications for freshman year persistence. Journal of Higher Education, 60, 247–277.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bank, B., Slavings, R., & Biddle, R. (1990). Effects of peer, faculty, and parental influences on students’ persistence. Sociology of Education, 63, 209–225.

    Google Scholar 

  • Banta, T. (2001). Assessment update: Progress, trends and practices in higher education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barefoot, B. (Ed.) (1993). Exploring the evidence: Reporting outcomes of freshman seminars (Monograph No. 11). Columbia, SC: National Resource Center for the Freshman Year Experience, University of South Carolina.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barton, J., & Collins, A. (Eds.) (1997). Portfolio assessment: A handbook for educators. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beal, P. E., & Noel, L. (1980). What works in student retention. Iowa City: American College Testing Program and the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bean, J. P. (1980). Dropouts and turnover: The synthesis and test of a causal model of student attrition. Research in Higher Education, 12, 155–187.

    Google Scholar 

  • Beatty, I. (2004). Transforming student learning with classroom communication systems. Research Bulletin, 2004(3), 1–13.

    Google Scholar 

  • Belcheir, M. (2001). What predicts perceived gains in learning and in satisfaction? (Research Report 2001–2002). Boise, ID: Boise State University.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berger, J. B. (2001). Understanding the organizational nature of student persistence: Recommendations for practice. Journal of College Student Retention, 3, 3–21.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berkner, L., He, S., Mason, M., Wheeless, S., & Hunt-White, T. (2007). Persistence and attainment of 2003–2004 beginning postsecondary students: After three years. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bettinger, E. (2004). How financial aid affects persistence. In C. M. Hoxby (Ed.), College choices: The economics of where to go, when to go, and how to pay for it (pp. 207–233). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bettinger, E., & Long, T. (2004a). Shape up or ship out: The effects of remediation on students at four-year colleges. Cambridge, Mass: National Bureau of Economic Research.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bettinger, E., & Long, T. (2004b). Do college instructors matter? The effects of adjuncts and graduate assistants on students’ interests and success (NBER Working Papter No. 10370. JEL No. 12, H4). Retrieved May 5, 2009, from http://www.nber.org/papers/w10370.

  • Bettinger, E. P., & Long, B. T. (2006). The increasing use of adjunct instructors at public institutions: Are we hurting students? In R. G. Ehrenbert (Ed.), What’s happening to public higher education? Westport, CT: Praeger.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blanc, R., DeBuhr, L., & Martin, D. (1983). Breaking the attrition cycle: The effects of supplemental instruction on undergraduate performance and attrition. Journal of Higher Education, 54, 80–90.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blanc, R., & Martin, D. (1994). Supplemental instruction: Increasing student performance and persistence in difficult academic courses. Academic Medicine, 69, 452–454.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bloom, D., & Sommo, C. (2005). Building learning communities: Early results from the opening doors demonstration at Kingsborough Community College. New York: MDRC.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blumberg, B. (2000). Evaluating the evidence that problem-based learners are self-directed learners: A review of the literature. In D. Evensen & C. Hmelo (Eds.), Problem-based learning: A research perspective on learning interactions (pp. 199–226). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boggs, G. D. (1984). An evaluation of the instructional effectiveness of part-time community college development writing faculty. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. University of Texas at Austin.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bothell, T., & Henderson, T. (2004). Evaluating the return on investment of faculty development. In C. Wehlburg & S. Chadwick-Blossey (Eds.), To improve the academy: Resources for faculty, instructional, and organizational development (Vol. 22). San Francisco: Anker Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boud, D. (2001). Introduction: Making the move to peer learning. In D. Boud, R. Cohen, & J. Sampson (Eds.), Peer learning in higher education: Learning from & with each other (pp. 1–17). London: Kogan Page.

    Google Scholar 

  • Braxton, J. (Ed.) (2000). Reworking the student departure puzzle. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Braxton, J. (Ed.) (2001). Using theory and research to improve college student retention. Special issue of college student retention: Research, theory and practice. Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing Company.

    Google Scholar 

  • Braxton, J. (Ed.) (2008). The role of the classroom in college student persistence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Braxton, J., Bray, N., & Berger, J. (2000). Faculty teaching skills and their influence on the college student departure process. Journal of College Student Development, 41, 215–227.

    Google Scholar 

  • Braxton, J., Hirschy, A., & McClendon, S. (2004). Understanding and reducing college student departure. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Braxton, J. H., Jones, W., Hirschy, A., & Hartley, H., III (2008). The role of active learning in college student persistence. In J. Braxton (Ed.), The role of the classroom in college student persistence (pp. 71–83). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Braxton, J., & McClendon, S. (2001). The fostering of social integration and retention through institutional practice. College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice, 3, 57–71.

    Google Scholar 

  • Braxton, J., Milem, J., & Sullivan, A. (2000). The influence of active learning on the college student departure process. The Journal of Higher Education, 71, 569–590.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brookhart, S. (1999). The art and science of classroom assessment: The missing part of pedagogy. Washington, DC: The George Washington University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burgess, L. A., & Samuels, C. (1999). Impact of full-time versus part-time instructor status on college student retention and academic performance in sequential courses. Community College Journal of Research & Practice, 23, 487–498.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cabrera, A., Burkum, K., & La Nasa, S. (2005). Pathways to a four-year degree: Determinants of transfer and degree completion. In A. Seidman (Ed.), College student retention: A formula for student success (pp. 155–214). Westport, CT: ACE/Praeger.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cabrera, A., Castaneda, M., Nora, A., & Hengstler, D. (1992). The convergence between two theories of college persistence. Journal of Higher Education, 63, 143–164.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cabrera, A., Nora, A., & Castañeda, M. (1992). The role of finances in the persistence process: A structural model. Research in Higher Education, 33, 571–593.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cabrera, A., Nora, A., Terenzini, P., Pascarella, E., & Hagedorn, L. (1999). Campus racial climate and the adjustment of students to college: A comparison between White and African-American students. Journal of Higher Education, 70, 134–160.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cacioppo, J. T., Ernst, J. M., Burleson, M. H., McClintock, M. K., Malarkey, W. B., Hawkley, L. C., et al. (2000). Lonely traits and concomitant physiological processes: The MacArthur social neuroscience studies. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 35, 143–154.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carey, K. (2004). A matter of degrees: Improving graduation rates in four-year colleges and universities. New York: The Education Trust.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carini, R. M., Kuh, G. D., & Klein, S. P. (2006). Student engagement and student learning: Testing the linkages. Research in Higher Education, 47, 1–32.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carnevale, A., & Rose, S. (2003). Socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity and selective college admissions. New York: The Century Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carroll, J. (1988). Freshman retention and attrition factors at a predominately Black urban community college. Journal of College Student Development, 29, 52–59.

    Google Scholar 

  • Castro-Cedeno, M. (2005, October). A quantitative assessment of the benefit of a learning community environment. Paper presented at the annual ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, Indianapolis, IN.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chemers, M., Hu, L., & Garcia, B. (2001). Academic self-efficacy and first-year college student performance and adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 55–64.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clewell, B., & Ficklen, M. (1986). Improving minority retention in higher education: A search for effective institutional practices. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coffman, D. L. (2002). Social support, stress, and self-efficacy: Effects on student satisfaction. Journal of College Student Retention, 4, 53–66.

    Google Scholar 

  • Commander, N., Stratton, C., Callahan, C., & Smith, B. (1996). A learning assistance model for expanding academic support. Journal of Developmental Education, 20, 8–16.

    Google Scholar 

  • Congos, D., Langsam, D., & Schoeps, N. (1997). Supplemental instruction: A successful approach to learning how to learn college introductory biology. The Journal of Teaching and Learning, 2, 2–17.

    Google Scholar 

  • Corno, L., & Mandinach, E. (1983). The role of cognitive engagement in classroom learning and motivation. Educational Psychologist, 18, 88–108.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cottell, P., & Harwood, E. (1998). Do classroom assessment techniques (CATs) improve student learning? New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 75, 37–46.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cox, M. (2001). Faculty learning communities: Change agents for transformation of institutions into learning organizations. In D. Lieberman & C. Wehlburg (Eds.), To improve the academy: Resources for faculty, instructional, and organizational development (Vol. 19, pp. 69–93). San Francisco: Anker Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cox, M. (2002). Proven faculty development tools that foster the scholarship of teaching in faculty learning communities. In. S. Chadwick-Blossey (Ed.), To improve the academy: Resources for faculty, instructional, and organizational development (Vol. 19). San Francisco: Anker Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cox, M., & Richlin, L. (Eds.) (2004). Building faculty learning communities. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cross, P. (1998). Classroom research: Implementing the scholarship of teaching. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 75, 5–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cruce, T., Wolniak, G., Seifert, T., & Pascarella, E. (2006). Impacts of good practices on cognitive development, learning orientations, and graduate degree plans during the first year of college. Journal of College Student Development, 47, 365–383.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davis, B., Jr. (1992). Freshman seminar: A broad spectrum of effectiveness. Journal of the Freshman Year Experience, 4, 79–94.

    Google Scholar 

  • DesJardins, S., Ahlberg, D., & McCall, B. (2002). A temporal investigation of factors related to timely degree completion. The Journal of Higher Education, 73, 555–581.

    Google Scholar 

  • Donaldson, J. F. (1999). A model of college outcomes for adults. Adult Education Quarterly, 50(1), 24–40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dougherty, K. (1987). The effects of community colleges: Aid or hindrance to socioeconomic attainment? Sociology of Education, 60, 86–103.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dowd, A., & Coury, T. (2006). The effect of loans on the persistence and attainment of community college students. Research in Higher Education, 47, 33–62.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dynarski, S. (2002). The behavioral and distributional implications of aid for college. The American Economic Review, 92, 279–285.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dynarski, S. (2003). Does aid matter? Measuring the effect of student aid on college attendance and completion. The American Economic Review, 93, 279–288.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eagan, M. K., Jr., & Jaeger, A. (2008). Closing the gate: Part-time faculty instruction in gatekeeper courses and first-year persistence. In J. Braxton (Ed.), The role of the classroom in college student persistence (pp. 39–53). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ehrenberg, R., & Zhang, L. (2005). Do tenure and tenure-track faculty matter? Journal of Human Resources, 40, 647–659.

    Google Scholar 

  • Elkins, S. A., Braxton, J., & James, G. W. (2000). Tinto’s separation stage and its influence on first-semester college student persistence. Research in Higher Education, 41, 251–268.

    Google Scholar 

  • Elliott, K., & Healy, M. (2001). Key factors influencing student satisfaction related to recruitment and retention. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 10, 1–11.

    Google Scholar 

  • Endo, J., & Harpel, R. (1982). The effect of student-faculty interaction on students’ educational outcomes. Research in Higher Education, 16, 115–135.

    Google Scholar 

  • Engstrom, C. (2008). Curricular learning communities and unprepared students: How faculty can provide a foundation for success. In J. Braxton (Ed.), The role of the classroom in college student persistence (pp. 5–19). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Engstrom, C., & Tinto, V. (2007). Pathways to student success: The impact of learning communities on the success of academically under-prepared college students. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University.

    Google Scholar 

  • Engstrom, C., & Tinto, V. (2008). Access without support is not opportunity. Change, 40(1), 46–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Evans, J. (2008). Impact of part-time and full-time faculty teaching practices on student grades. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ewell, P. (1997). Strengthening assessment for academic quality improvement. In M. W. Peterson, D. D. Dill, & L. A. Mets (Eds.), Planning and management for a changing environment: A handbook on redesigning postsecondary institutions (pp. 360–381). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Farrell, E. (2007, February 2). High-income students get bulk of merit aid. Chronicle of Higher Education, 53(22), A30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fayne, H., & Ortquist-Ahrens, L. (2005). Learning communities for first-year faculty: Transition, acculturation, and transformation. In. S. Chadwick-Blossey & D. R. Roberston (Eds.), To improve the academy: Resources for faculty, instructional, and organizational development (Vol. 24). San Francisco: Anker Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fenel, H., & Scheel, K. (2005). Engaging students. Journal of College Science Teaching, 35(1), 20–24.

    Google Scholar 

  • Filkins, J. W., & Doyle, S. K. (2002, June). First generation and low-income students: Using the NSSE data to study effective educational practice and students self-reported gains. Paper presented at the Annual Forum of the Association for Institutional Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fischer, M. (2007). Settling into campus life: Differences by race/ethnicity in college involvement and outcomes. The Journal of Higher Education, 78, 125–161.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fleming, J. (1984). Blacks in college: A comparative study of students’ success in Black and in White institutions. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Friedlander, J. (1980). Are college support programs and services reaching high-risk students? Journal of College Student Personnel, 21, 23–28.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fries-Britt, S., & Turner, B. (2001). Facing stereotypes: A case study of black students on a white campus. Journal of College Student Development, 42, 420–429.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frost, S. (1991). Academic advising for student success: A system of shared responsibility. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gloria, A., Kurpius, S., Hamilton, K., & Wilson, M. (1999). African American students’ persistence at a predominantly White university: Influences of social support, university comfort, and self-beliefs. Journal of College Student Development, 40, 257–268.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gloria, A. M., & Robinson Kurpuis, S. E. (2001). Influences of self-beliefs, social support, and comfort in the university environment on the academic nonpersistence decisions of American Indian undergraduates. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 7, 88–102.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gohn, L., Swartz, J., & Donnelly, S. (2000). A case study of second year student persistence. Journal of College Student Retention, 2(4), 271–294.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gonzales, K. P. (2002). Campus culture and the experiences of Chicano students in a predominantly White campus. Urban Education, 37(2), 193–218.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grant-Vallone, E., Reid, K., Umali, C., & Pohlert, E. (2003). An analysis of the effects of self-esteem, social support, and participation in student support services on students’ adjustment and commitment to college. Journal of College Student Retention, 5(3), 255–274.

    Google Scholar 

  • Greene, T. (2005). Bridging the great divide: Exploring the relationship between student engagement and educational outcomes for African American and Hispanic community college students in the state of Florida. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Texas, Austin.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grubb, N. (1991). The decline of community college transfer rates: Evidence from national longitudinal surveys. Journal of Higher Education, 62, 194–217.

    Google Scholar 

  • Guskin, A. (1994). Reducing student costs and enhancing student learning: Restructuring the role of faculty. Change, 26(5), 16–25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hall, M., & Ponton, M. (2005). Mathematics self-efficacy of college freshmen. Journal of Developmental Education, 28(3), 26–32.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harrington, C., & Schibik, T. (2001). Caveat emptor: Is there a relationship between part-time faculty utilization and student learning outcomes and retention? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Institutional Research, Long Beach, CA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harris, B. (2006). The importance of creating a “sense of community”. Journal of College Student Retention, 8(1), 83–105.

    Google Scholar 

  • Heller, D. (1996). Rising public tuition prices and enrollment in community colleges and four-year institutions. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Memphis, TN.

    Google Scholar 

  • Heller, D. (2003). Informing public policy: Financial aid and student persistence. Boulder, CO: Western Interstate Commission on Higher Education.

    Google Scholar 

  • Heller, D. (2008). The impact of student loans on college access. In S.Baum, M. McPherson, & P. Steele (Eds.), The effectiveness of student aid policies: What the research tells us (pp. 39–68). New York: The College Board.

    Google Scholar 

  • Herzog, S. (2005). Measuring determinants of student return vs. dropout/stopout vs. transfer: A first-to-second year analysis of new freshmen. Research in Higher Education, 46, 883–928.

    Google Scholar 

  • Heverly, M. A. (1999). Predicting retention from students’ experiences with college processes. Journal of College Student Retention, 1(1), 3–11.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoffman, M., Richmond, J., Morrow, J., & Salomone, K. (2003). Investigating “sense of belonging” in first-year college students. Journal of College Student Retention, 4(3), 227–257.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hossler, D., Gross, J., & Ziskin, M. (2006). Lessons learned: A final look. In D. Hossler, J. Gross, & M. Ziskin (Eds.), Enhancing institutional and state initiatives to increase student success: Studies of the Indiana project on academic success. New York: AMS Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hossler, D., Ziskin, M., Kim, S., Cekic, O., & Gross, P. (2008). Student aid and its role in encouraging persistence. In S.Baum, M. McPherson, & P. Steele (Eds.), The effectiveness of student aid policies: What the research tells us (pp. 101–118). New York: The College Board.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hossler, D., Ziskin, M., & Orehovec, P. (2007). Developing the big picture: How postsecondary institutions support student persistence. Paper presented at the annual College Board Forum, New York, NY.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hotchkiss, J., Moore, R., & Pitts, M. (2005). Freshman learning communities, college performance, and retention (Working Paper No. 2005–22). Atlanta, GA: FRB.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huba, M., & Freed, J. (2000). Learner-centered assessment on college campuses: Shifting the focus from teaching to learning. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hurtado, S. (1994). The institutional climate for talented Latino students. Research in Higher Education, 35, 539–569.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hurtado, S., & Carter, D. (1996). Latino students’ sense of belonging in the college community: Rethinking the concept of integration on campus. In F. K. Stage, G. L. Anaya, J. P. Bean, D. Hossler, & G. D. Kuh (Eds.), College students: The evolving nature of research (pp. 123–136). Needhman Heights, MA: Simon & Schuster Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hurtado, S., & Carter, D. (1997). Effects of college transition and perceptions of the campus racial climate on Latino college students’ sense of belonging. Sociology of Education, 70, 324–345.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hurtado, S., Carter, D. F., & Spuler, A. (1996). Latino student transition to college: Understanding racial and ethnic differences. The Journal of Higher Education, 72, 265–286.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, T., Soderlind, A., & Weiss, K. E. (2000). Personality traits and quality of relationships as predictors of future loneliness among American college students. Social Behavior and Personality, 28(5), 463–470.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jacoby, D. (2006). Effects of part-time faculty employment on community college graduation rates. Journal of Higher Education, 77, 1081–1103.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jaeger, A., Thornton, C., & Eagan, K. (2007). Effects of faculty type on first year student retention and performance. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Louisville, KY.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, J. (2000). Learning communities and special efforts in the retention of university students: What works, what doesn’t, and is the return worth the investment? Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory, and Practice, 2, 219–238.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson, D., Johnson, R., & Smith, K. (1998). Cooperative learning returns to college: What evidence is there that it works? Change, 30, 27–35.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaleta, R., & Joosten, T. (2007). Student response systems: A University of Wisconsin system study of clickers. Research Bulletin, 2007(10), 1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kenney, P., & Kallison, J., Jr. (1994). Research studies on the effectiveness of supplemental instruction in mathematics. New Directions in Teaching and Learning, 60, 75–82.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kinzie, J., Gonyea, R., Shoup, R., & Kuh, G. (2008). Promoting persistence and success of underrepresented students: Lessons for teaching and learning. In J. Braxton (Ed.), The role of the classroom in college student persistence (pp. 21–38). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuh, G. (2003). What we’re learning about student engagement from NSSE. Change, 35, 24–32.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuh, G., Carini, R. M., & Klein, S. P. (2004). Student engagement and student learning: Insights from a construct validation study. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuh, G., Cruce, T., Shoup, R., Kinzie, J., & Gonyea, R. (2008). Unmasking the effects of student engagement on first year college grades and persistence. Journal of Higher Education, 79, 540–563.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuh, G., Kinzie, J., Cruce, T., Shoup, R., & Gonyea, R. (2007). Connecting the dots: Multi-faceted analyses of the relationships between student engagement results from the NSSE, and the institutional practices and conditions that foster student success. Indianapolis, IN: Lumina Foundation for Education.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuh, G., Kinzie, J., Schuh, J., & Whitt, E., & Associates (2005). Student success in college: Creating conditions that matter. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuh, G., Schuh, J., & Whitt, E., & Associates (1991). Involving colleges: Successful approaches to fostering student learning and development outside the classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Laird, T., Chen, D., & Kuh, G. (2008). Classroom practices at institutions with higher than expected persistence rates: What student engagement data tell us. In J. Braxton (Ed.), The role of the classroom in college student persistence (pp. 85–99). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lavin, D., Alba, R., & Silberstein, R. (1981). Right versus privilege: The open admissions experiment at the City University of New York. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Lark, K. C. (1984). Relation of self-efficacy expectations to academic achievement and persistence. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 356–362.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewallen, W. C. (1993). The impact of being ‘undecided’ on college student persistence. Journal of College Student Development, 34, 103–112.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lewallen, W. C. (1995). Students decided and undecided about career choice: A comparison of college achievement and student involvement. NACADA Journal, 15(1), 22–29.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lichtenstein, M. (2005). The importance of classroom environments in the assessment of learning community outcomes. Journal of College Student Development, 46, 341–356.

    Google Scholar 

  • Light, R. (1990). The Harvard assessment seminars. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • London, H. (1989). Breaking away: A study of first generation college students and their families. The American Journal of Sociology, 97, 144–170.

    Google Scholar 

  • Major, C., & Palmer, B. (2001). Assessing the effectiveness of problem-based learning in higher education. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 5(1), Retrieved May 18, 2009, from http://www.rapidintellect.com/AEQweb/mop4spr01.htm.

  • Malaney, G. D., & Shively, M. (1995). Academic and social expectations and experiences of first-year students of color. NASPA Journal, 32(1), 3–18.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mallinckrodt, B. (1988). Student retention, social support and dropout intentions: Comparison of black and white students. Journal of College Student Development, 29(1), 60–64.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martyn, M. (2007). Clickers in the classroom: An active learning approach. EDUCAUSE Quarterly, 30(2), 71–74.

    Google Scholar 

  • McGrath, M., & Braunstein, A. (1997). The prediction of freshman attrition: An examination of the importance of certain demographic, academic, financial, and social factors. The College Student Journal, 31, 396–408.

    Google Scholar 

  • McShannon, J. (2002). Gaining retention and achievement for students program (GRASP): A faculty development program to increase student success. Paper presented at the ASEE Gulf-Southwest Annual Conference, Lafayette, LA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Metzner, B. (1989). Perceived quality of academic advising: The effect on freshman attrition. American Educational Research Journal, 26, 422–442.

    Google Scholar 

  • Multon, K. D., Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (1991). Relation of self-efficacy beliefs to academic outcomes: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38, 30–38.

    Google Scholar 

  • Myers, C. B., & Myers, S. M. (2006). Assessing assessment: The effects of two exam formats on course achievement and evaluation. Innovative Higher Education, 31(4), 227–236.

    Google Scholar 

  • NCES. (2004). Remedial education at degree-granting postsecondary institutions in fall 2000 (Report No. 2004010). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

    Google Scholar 

  • NCES. (2005). College persistence on the rise? Changes in 5-year degree completion and postsecondary persistence rates between 1994 and 2000 (NCES Statistical Analysis Report 2005–156). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nicpon, M. F., Huser, L., Blanks, E. H., Sollenberger, S., Befort, C., & Kurpius, S. E. R. (2006). The relationship of loneliness and social support with college freshmen’s academic performance and persistence. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory, and Practice, 8, 345–358.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nora, A. (1987). Determinants of retention among Chicano college students: A structural model. Research in Higher Education, 26, 31–59.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nora, A. (2001). The depiction of significant others in Tinto’s “rites of passage”: A reconceptualization of the influence of family and community in the persistence process. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice, 3, 41–56.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nora, A., & Cabrera, A. (1996). The role of perceptions of prejudice and discrimination on the adjustment of minority students to college. Journal of Higher Education, 67, 119–148.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ory, J., & Braskamp, L. A. (1988). Involvement and growth of students in three academic programs. Research in Higher Education, 28, 116–129.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ostrove, J., & Long, S. (2007). Social class and belonging: Implications for college adjustment. The Review of Higher Education, 30, 363–389.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ostrow, E., Paul, S., Dark, V., & Berhman, J. (1986). Adjustment of college women on campus: Effects of stressful life events, social support, and personal competencies. In S. E. Hobfoll (Ed.), Stress, social support, and women (pp. 29–46). Washington DC: Hemisphere.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pace, R. (1980). Measuring the quality of student effort. Los Angeles: Laboratory for Research in Higher Education, University of California, Los Angeles.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 66, 543–578.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parker, J., & Schmidt, J. (1982). Effects of college experience. In H. Mitzel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational research (5th ed.). New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pascarella, E., Seifert, T., & Whitt, E. (2008). Effective instruction and college student persistence: Some new evidence. In J. Braxton (Ed.), The role of the classroom in college student persistence (pp. 55–70). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pascarella, E., & Terenzini, P. (1980). Predicting persistence and voluntary dropout decisions from a theoretical model. Journal of Higher Education, 51, 60–75.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pascarella, E., & Terenzini, P. (1991). How college affects students: Findings and insights from twenty years of research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pascarella, E., & Terenzini, P. (2005). How college affects students: A third decade of research (Vol. 2). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paulsen, M., & St. John, E. (2002). Social class and college costs: Examining the financial nexus between college choice and persistence. Journal of Higher Education, 73, 189–236.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pavel, D. M. (1991). Assessing Tinto’s model of institutional departure using American Indian and Alaskan Native longitudinal data. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Boston, MA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peterfreund, A., Rath, K., Xenos, S., & Bayliss, F. (2008). The impact of supplemental instruction on students in STEM courses: Results from San Francisco State University. Journal of College Student Retention, 9, 487–503.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pike, G. R. (1999). The effects of residential learning communities and traditional residential living arrangements on educational gains during the first year of college. Journal of College Student Development, 40, 269–284.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pike, G. R., Schroeder, C. C., & Berry, T. (1997). Enhancing the educational impact of residence halls: The relationship between residential learning communities and first-year college experiences and persistence. Journal of College Student Development, 38, 609–621.

    Google Scholar 

  • Polewchak, J. L. (2002). The effects of social support and interpersonal dependency upon emotional adjustment to college and physical health. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Virginia Consortium for Professional Psychology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reason, R., Terenzini, P., & Domingo, R. (2006). First things first: Developing competence in the first year of college. Research in Higher Education, 47, 149–176.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reason, R., Terenzini, P., & Domingo, R. (2007). Developing social and personal competence in the first year of college. The Review of Higher Education, 30, 271–299.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rendon, L. (1994). Validating culturally diverse students: Toward a new model of learning and student development. Innovative Higher Education, 19, 33–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rottenberg, K. J., & Morrison, J. (1993). Loneliness and college achievement: Do loneliness scale scores predict college dropout? Psychological Reports, 73, 1283–1288.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ryan, M., & Glenn, P. (2003). Increasing one-year retention rates by focusing on academic competence: An empirical odyssey. Journal of College Student Retention, 4, 297–324.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sand, J., Robinson Kurpuis, S. E., & Dixon Rayle, A. (2004). Academic stress and social support factors in Latino and Euro-American male and female college students. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Honolulu, HI.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schilling, K. M., & Schilling, K. L. (1999). Increasing expectations for student effort. About Campus, 4, 4–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schlossberg, N. (1989). Marginality and mattering: Key issues in building community. In D. C. Roberts (Ed.), Designing campus activities to foster a sense of community (pp. 5–15). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scriverner, S., Bloom, D., LeBlanc, A., Paxson, C., Rouse, C. E., & Sommo, C. (2008). A good start: Two-year effects of a freshman learning community program at Kingsborough Community College. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seidman, A. (1991). The evaluation of a pre/post admission/counseling process at a suburban community college: Impact on student satisfaction with the faculty and the institution, retention, and academic performance. College and University, 66, 223–232.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seidman, A. (Ed.) (2005). College student retention: Formula for student success. Westport, CT: ACE/Praeger.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shaw, K. (1997). Remedial education as ideological battleground: Emerging remedial education policies and their implications for community college student mobility. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19, 284–296.

    Google Scholar 

  • Skahill, M. P. (2002). The role of social support network in college persistence among freshman students. The Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory, and Practice, 4(1), 39–52.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, K. (2000). Going deeper: Formal small-group learning in large classes. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 81, 25–46.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, B., MacGregor, J., Matthews, R., & Gablenick, F. (2004). Learning communities: Reforming undergraduate education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Solberg, V. S., & Villarreal, P. (1997). Examination of self-efficacy, social support, and stress as predictors of psychological stress among Hispanic college students. Journal of the Behavioral Sciences, 19, 182–201.

    Google Scholar 

  • Solorzano, D., Ceja, M., & Yosso, T. (2001). Critical race theory, racial microggressions, and campus racial climate: The experiences of African American college students. Journal of Negro Education, 69(1/2), 60–73.

    Google Scholar 

  • Somera, L. P., & Ellis, B. H. (1996). Communication networks and perceptions of social support as antecedents to college adjustments: A comparison between student commuters and campus residents. Journal of the Association for Communication Administration, 2, 97–110.

    Google Scholar 

  • Springer, L., Stanne, M., & Donovan, S. (1999). Effects of small-group learning on undergraduates in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 69, 50–80.

    Google Scholar 

  • St. John, E. (1991). The impact of student financial aid: A review of recent research. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 21, 18–32.

    Google Scholar 

  • St. John, E. P., Hu, S., & Tuttle, T. (2000). Persistence in an urban public university: A case study of the effects of student aid. Journal of Student Financial Aid, 30, 23–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • St. John, E. P., Hu, S., & Weber, J. (2001). State policy and the affordability of public higher education: The influence of state grants on persistence in Indiana. Research in Higher Education, 42, 401–428.

    Google Scholar 

  • Suen, H. K. (1983). Alienation and attrition of black college students on a predominantly white campus. Journal of College Student Personnel, 24(2), 117–121.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swail, S., Redd, K., & Perna, L. (2003). Retaining minority students in higher education: A framework for success (ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 2). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Terenzini, P., & Pascarella, E. (1980). Student/faculty relationships and freshman year educational outcomes: A further investigation. Journal of College Student Development, 21, 521–528.

    Google Scholar 

  • Terenzini, P. T., Rendon, L. I., Upcraft, M. L., Millar, S. B., Allison, K. W., Gregg, P. L., et al. (1994). The transition to college: Diverse students, diverse stories. Research in Higher Education, 35, 57–73.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tierney, W. G. (1992). An anthropological analysis of student participation in college. Journal of Higher Education, 63, 603–618.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tierney, W. G. (2000). Power, identity, and the dilemma of college student departure. In J. Braxton (Ed.), Reworking the student departure puzzle (pp. 213–234). Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tinto, V. (1975). Dropouts from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of recent research. Review of Educational Research, 45, 89–125.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tinto, V. (1997). Colleges as communities: Exploring the educational character of student persistence. Journal of Higher Education, 68, 599–623.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tinto, V. (2005). Epilogue: Moving from theory to action. In A. Seidman (Ed.), College student retention: Formula for student success (pp. 317–334). Westport, CT: ACE/Praeger.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tinto, V., Goodsell, A., & Russo, P. (1993). Building community among new college students. Liberal Education, 79, 16–21.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tinto, V., & Russo, P. (1994). Coordinated studies programs: Their effect on student involvement at a community college. Community College Review, 22, 16–25.

    Google Scholar 

  • Torres, V. (2003a). Influences on ethnic identify development of Latino students in the first two years of college. Journal of College Student Development, 44, 532–547.

    Google Scholar 

  • Torres, V. (2003b). Mi casa is not exactly like your house. About Campus, 8(2), 2–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Torres, V. (2004). Familal influences on the identity development of Latino first year students. Journal of College Student Development, 45, 457–469.

    Google Scholar 

  • Torres, V. (2006). A mixed-method study testing data-model fit of a retention model for Latino/a students at urban universities. Journal of College Student Development, 47, 299–318.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tucker, J. E. (1999). Tinto’s model and successful college transitions. The Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory, and Practice, 1, 163–175.

    Google Scholar 

  • Twomey, J. (1991). Academic performance and retention in a peer mentor program of a two-year campus of a four-year institution. Alamogordo, NM: New Mexico State University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Upcraft, M. L., & Gardner, J., & Associates (1989). The freshman year experience. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Upcraft, M., Gardner, J., & Barefoot, B. (Eds.) (2004). Challenge and support: Creating climates for first-year student success. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ward, K., Trautvetter, L., & Braskamp, L. (2005). Putting students first: Creating a climate of support and challenge. Journal of College and Character, 6(8), 1–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • White, C. (2005). Student portfolios: An alternative way of encouraging and evaluating student learning. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 100, 37–42.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wholey, J., Hatry, H.P., Newcomer, K.E. (Eds.) (1994). Handbook of practical program evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, R., Wood, L., & Gaff, J. (1974). Social-psychological accessibility and faculty student interaction beyond the classroom. Sociology of Education, 47, 74–92.

    Google Scholar 

  • Windham, P. (2006). Taking student life skills course increases academic success: Data trend #31. Tallahassee: Florida Community College System.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yao, Y., & Grady, M. L. (2005). How do faculty make formative use of student evaluation feedback? A multiple case study. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 18(2), 107–126.

    Google Scholar 

  • Young, R., Backer, R., & Rogers, G. (1989). The impact of early advising and scheduling on freshman success. Journal of College Student Development, 30, 309–312.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhao, C., & Kuh, G. (2004). Adding value: Learning communities and student engagement. Research in Higher Education, 45, 115–138.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ziskin, M., Gross, J., & Hossler, D., 2006. Institutional practices and student persistence: Extending the empirical record. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Anaheim, CA.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Center for Education Statistics [NCES]. (2003). Descriptive summary of 1995–96 beginning postsecondary students: Six years later (NCES Statistical Analysis Report 2003–151). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

    Google Scholar 

  • National Survey of Student Engagement [NSSE]. (2006). Engaged learning: Fostering success for all students (Annual Report 2006). Bloomington, IN: Author.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vincent Tinto .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Tinto, V. (2010). From Theory to Action: Exploring the Institutional Conditions for Student Retention. In: Smart, J. (eds) Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research. Higher Education: Handbook of Theory and Research, vol 25. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-8598-6_2

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics