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Development of Sponges from the Class Calcarea Bowerbank, 1864

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The Comparative Embryology of Sponges

Abstract

Representatives of the class Calcarea, the calcareous sponges, are characterized by a calcium carbonate mineral skeleton in the form of free diactines, triactines, tetractines, and/or multiradiate spicules. A dense basal skeleton, with the main spicules cemented together, is sometimes present. The aquiferous system may be asconoid, syconoid, sylleibid, or leuconoid. Calcareous sponges are ovoviviparous or viviparous, with hollow blastula larvae. All Calcarea are marine. The most ancient records of calcareous sponges date back to the early Cambrian (James and Klappa 1983) and the Ordovician (Kempen 1978).

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Ereskovsky, A.V. (2010). Development of Sponges from the Class Calcarea Bowerbank, 1864. In: The Comparative Embryology of Sponges. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-8575-7_1

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