Interactive Effects of UV Radiation and Nutrients on Ecophysiology: Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change

  • Félix L. Figueroa
  • Nathalie Korbee
Part of the Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology book series (COLE, volume 15)


The IV Report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC, 2007a, b) has concluded that the warming of the Earth is unequivocal as is now evident from observations of the increasing global air and ocean temperatures, the reduction of ice and snow in polar region and high mountains, and rising global average sea level. It is crucial to know the vulnerability and the ecosystem capacity of adaptation to climate change. Most of the studies are being conducted in land ecosystems and oceanic waters; meanwhile, it is necessary for a greater research effort in coastal waters, lakes, and lagoons. The IV-IPCC report defines the adaptation capacity as the capability of a system to adapt or adjust to climate change (including the climate variability and the climate extremes) to take the advantages of the opportunities or to carry the consequences. On the other hand, the vulnerability of the systems is the grade in which the systems are not capable of carrying the adverse effects of climate change. The vulnerability is a function of character, magnitude, and change rate of climate change, and also of the submitted environmental variations, the sensitivity, and capacity of adaptation of the ecosystems.


Macrophyte Community Include Climate Change Southern Iberian Peninsula Chlorophyta Species High Ecological Status 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abdala-Díaz, R.T., Cabello-Pasini, A., Pérez-Rodríguez, E., Conde Álvarez, R.M. and Figueroa, F.L. (2006) Daily and seasonal variations of optimum quantum yield and phenolic compounds in Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Phaeophyta). Mar. Biol. 148: 459–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aguilera, J., Bischof, K., Karsten, U., Hanelt, D. and Wiencke, C. (2002) Seasonal variation in ecophysiological patterns in macroalgae from an Arctic fjord. II. Pigment accumulation and biochemical defence systems against high light stress. Mar. Biol. 140:1087–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alcock, R. (2003) The effects of climate change on rocky shore communities in the Bay of Biscay, 1895–2050. Ph.D. thesis, University of Southampton: 296 p.Google Scholar
  4. Algarra, P. and Rüdiger, W. (1993) Acclimation processes in the light harvesting complex red alga Pophyridium purpureum (Bory) Drew et Ross according to irradiance and nutrient availability. Plant Cell Environ. 16:149–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Altamirano, M., Flores-Moya, A. and Figueroa, F.L. (2003a) Effects of UV radiation and temperature on growth germlings of three species of Fucus (Phaeophyceae). Aquat. Bot. 75: 9–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Altamirano, M., Flores-Moya, A., Külenkamp, R. and Figueroa, F.L. (2003b) Stage dependent sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation on zygotes of the brown alga Fucus serratus. Zygote 11:101–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Altamirano, M., Flores-Moya, A., Conde, F. and Figueroa, F.L. (2000a) Growth seasonality, photosynthetic pigments and C and N content in relation to environmental factors: a field study on Ulva olivascens (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Phycologia 39: 50–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Altamirano, M., Flores-Moya, A. and Figueroa, F.L. (2000b) Long-term effect of natural sunlight under various ultraviolet radiation conditions on growth and photosynthesis of intertidal Ulva rigida (Chlorophyceae) cultivated in situ. Bot. Mar. 43: 119–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Anadón, R. and Niell, F.X. (1981) Distribución longitudinal de macrófitos en la costa asturiana (N de España). Investig Pesq (Barc) 45:143–156.Google Scholar
  10. Arévalo, R., Pinedo, S. and Ballesteros, E. (2007) Changes in the composition and structure of Mediterranean rocky-shore communities following a gradient of nutrient enrichment: descriptive study and test of proposed methods to assess water quality regarding macroalgae. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 55: 104–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arrontes, J. (1993) Nature of the distributional boundary of Fucus serratus on the north shore of Spain. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 93:183–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ballesteros, E., Torras, X., Pinedo, S., García, M., Mangialajo, L. and de Torres, M. (2007) A new methodology base don litoral community cartography by macroalgae for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 55: 172–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bergeron, M. and Vincent, W.E. (1997) Microbial food web responses to phosphorus supply and solar UV radiation in a subarctic lake. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 12: 239–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berges, J.A. and Falkowski, P.G. (1998) Physiological stress and cell death in marine phytoplankton: induction of proteases in response to nitrogen or light limitation. Limnol. Oceanogr. 43: 129–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhaud, M., Cha, J.H., Duchene, J.C. and Nozais, C. (1995) Influence of temperature on the marine fauna – what can be expected from a climatic-change. J. Therm. Biol. 20: 91–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bischof, K., Gómez, I., Molis, M., Hanelt, D., Karsten, U., Lüder, U., Roleda, M.Y., Zacher, K. and Wiencke, C. (2006) Ultraviolet radiation shapes seaweed communities. Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. 51: 141–166.Google Scholar
  17. Bischof, K., Hanelt, D. and Wiencke, C. (1998) UV-radiation can affect depth-zonation of Antarctic macroalgae. Mar. Biol. 131:597–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bischof, K., Kräbs, G., Wiencke, C. and Hanelt, D. (2002) Solar ultraviolet radiation affects activity of ribuloses-1,5 bisphosphate carboxilase–oxygenase and the composition of the xantophyll cycle pigments in the intertidal green alga Ulva lactuca L. Planta 215: 502–509.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bischof, K., Rautenberg, R., Brey, L. and Pérez-Lloréns, J.L. (2006) Physiological acclimation along gradients of solar irradiance within mats of the filamentous green macroalga Chaetomorpha linum form southern Spain. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 306: 165–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Breitburg, D., Rose, K. and Cowan, J. (1999) Linking water quality to larval survival: predation mortality of fish larvae in an oxygen-stratified water column. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 178: 39–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Buma, A.G.J., Engelen, A.H. and Gieskes, W.W.C. (1997) Wavelength-dependent induction of thymine dimers and growth rate reduction in the marine diatom Cyclotella sp. exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 153: 91–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Buma, A.G.J., Haneneb, E.J., Van Roza, L., Veldhuis, M.J.W. and Gieskes, W.W.C. (1995) Monitoring Ultraviolet B-induced DNA damage in individual diatom cells by immunofluorescence thymine dimer detection. J. Phycol. 31:314–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burdon, R.H. (1986) Heat shock and the heat shock proteins. Biochem. J. 240: 313–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Calvo Aranda, S. (2007) Modelo de distribución de hçabitat de Himanthala elongata (Phaeophyta, Fucales) en el Norte de la Península Ibérica. Proyecto Fin de Carrera. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.Google Scholar
  25. Carrillo, P., Medina-Sánchez, J.M. and Villar-Argaiz, M. (2002) The interaction of phytoplankton and bacteria in a high mountain lake: importance of the spectral composition of solar radiation. Limnol. Oceanogr. 47: 1294–1306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carrillo, P., Medina-Sánchez, J.M., Villar-Argaiz, M., Delgado-Molina, J.A. and Bullejos, F.J. (2006) Complex interactions in microbial food webs: stoichiometric and functional approaches. Limnetica 25(1–2): 189–204.Google Scholar
  27. Carrillo, P., Delgado-Molina, J.A., Medina-Sanchez, J.M., Bullejos, F.J. and Villar-Argaiz, M. (2008) Phosphorus inputs unmask negative effects of ultraviolet radiation on algae in a high mountain lake. Global Change Biol. 14: 423–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cockell, C.S. and Knowland, J. (1999) Ultraviolet radiation screening compounds. Biol. Rev. 74: 311–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Conde-Álvarez, R.M. (2001) Variaciones espacio-temporales y ecofisiología de los Macrófitos acuáticos de la Laguna atalasohalina de Fuente de Piedra (Sur de la Península Ibérica). Tesis Doctoral. Universidad de Málaga, Málaga.Google Scholar
  30. Conde-Álvarez, R.M., Figueroa, F.L., Bañares-España, E. and Nieto-Caldera, J.M. (2008) Photoprotective role of inflorescence and UV-effects on pollen viabillity of different freshwater plants. Aquat. Sci. 70: 57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Connan, S., Goulard, F., Stiger, V., Deslandes, E. and Ar Gall, E. (2004) Interspecific and temporal variation in phlorotanin levels in an assemblage of brown algae. Bot. Mar. 47: 410–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. De la Coba Luque, F. (2007) Evaluación de la capacidad fotoprotectora y antioxidante de aminoácidos tipo micosporina: aplicaciones biotecnológicas. Tesis Doctoral. Universidad de Málaga, Málaga.Google Scholar
  33. De la Coba, F., Aguilera, J., Figueroa, F.L., de Gálvez, M.V. and Herrera, E. (2009) Antioxidant activity of mycosporine-like amino acids isolated from three red macroalgae and one marine lichen. J. Appl. Phycol. 21: 161–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council establishing a framework for the Community action in the field of water policy Official Journal (OJ L 327) on 22 December 2000: 1–72.Google Scholar
  35. Dobrestov, S.V., Qian, P.Y. and Wahl, M. (2005) Effects of solar radiation on the formation of shallow. Early successional biofouling communities in Hong-Kong. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 290: 55–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Doucette, G.J. and Harrison, P.J. (1990) Some effects of iron and nitrogen stress on the red tide dinoflagellate Gymnodinium sanguineum. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 62: 293–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Doyle, S.A., Saros, J.E. and Williamson, C. (2005) Interactive effects of temperature and nutrient limitation on the response of alpine phytoplankton growth to ultraviolet radiation. Limnol. Oceanogr. 50: 1362–1367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dring, M.J., Wagner, A., Boesko, J. and Lüning, K. (1996) Sensitivity of intertidal and subtidal red algae to UVA and UVB radiation, as monitored by chlorophyll fluorescence measurements: influence of collection depth, season and lenght of radiation. Eur. J. Phycol. 31: 293–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dunlap, W.C. and Yamamoto, Y. (1995) Small-molecule antioxidants in marine organisms: antioxidants in marine organisms: antioxidant activity of mycosporine-glicine. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B Biochem. Mol. Biol. 112: 105–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Enríquez, S., Agustí, S. and Duarte, C.M. (1994) Light absorption by marine macrophytes. Oecologia 98: 121–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Figueroa, F.L., Mercado, J., Jiménez, C., Salles, S., Aguilera, J., Sánchez-Saavedra, M.P., Lebert, M., Häder, D.-P., Montero, O. and Lubián, L. (1997a) Relationship between bio-optical characteristics and photoinhibition of phytoplankton. Aquat. Bot. 59: 137–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Figueroa, F.L., Salles, S., Aguilera, J., Jiménez, C., Mercado, J., Viñegla, B., Flores-Moya, A. and Altamirano, M. (1997b) Effects of solar radiation on photoinhibition and pigmentation in the red alga Porphyra leucosticta. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 151: 81–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Figueroa, F.L. and Viñegla, B. (2001) Effects of solar UV radiation on photosynthesis and enzyme activities (carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase) in marine macroalgae from Southern Spain. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 74: 237–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Figueroa, F.L., Jiménez, C., Viñegla, B., Pérez-Rodríguez, E., Aguilera, J., Flores-Moya, A., Altamirano, M., Lebert, M. and Häder, D.-P. (2002) Effects of solar UV radiation on photosynthesis of the marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica from southern Spain. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 230: 59–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Figueroa, F.L., Conde-Álvarez, R. and Gómez, I. (2003) Relations between electron transport rates determined by pulse amplitude modulated fluorescence and oxygen evolution in macroalgae under different light conditions. Photosynth. Res. 75: 259–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Flores-Moya, A., Altamirano, M., Cordero, M., González, M.E. and Perez, M.G. (1997) Phosphorous-limited growth in the seasonal winter red algae Porphyra leucosticta. Bot. Mar. 40: 187–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Flores-Moya, A., Gómez, I., Viñegla, B., Altamirano, M., Pérez-Rodríguez, E., Maestre, C., Caballero, R.M. and Figueroa, F.L. (1998) Effects of solar radiation on photosynthetic performance, pigment content and enzymatic activities related to nutrient uptake, of the endemic Mediterranean red alga Rissoella verruculosa. New Phytol. 139: 673–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Frederick, J.E., Snell, H.E. and Haywood, E.K. (1989) Solar ultraviolet radiation at the Earth’s surface. Photochem. Photobiol. 51: 443–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. García-Pichel, F. (1994) A model for internal self-shading in planktonic organism and its implications for the usefulness of ultraviolet sunscreens. Limnol. Oceanogr. 39:1704–1717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gómez, I. and Figueroa, F.L. (1998) Effects of solar UV stress on chlorophyll fluorescente kinetics of intertidal macroalgae from southern Spain: a case study in Gelidium species. J. Appl. Phycol. 10: 285–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gomez, I., Perez-Rodriguez, E., Vinegla, B., Figueroa, F.L. and Karsten, U. (1998) Effects of solar radiation on photosynthesis, UV-absorbing compounds and enzyme activities of the green alga Dasycladus vermicularis from southern Spain. J. Photobiol. B: Biol. 47: 46–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gómez, I., Figueroa, F.L., Ulloa, N., Morales, V., Lovengreen, C., Huovinen, C. and Hess, S. (2004) Patterns of photosynthetic performance in intertidal macroalgae from southern Chile in relation to solar radiation. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 270: 103–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gorostiaga, J.M. and Díez, I. (1996) Changes in the sublittoral benthic marine macroalgae in the poluted area of Abra de Bilbao and proximal coast. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 130: 157–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gorostiaga, J.M., Muguerza, N., Novoa, S., Santolaria, A., Secilla, A. and Díez, I. (2008) Changes in the marine sublittoral vegetation at the western Basque Coast between 1982 and 2007: a ­consequence of the climate change? Abstracts XI International Symposium on Oceanography of the Bay of Biscay, San Sebastián (España).Google Scholar
  55. Guisan, A. and Zimmermann, N.E. (2000) Predictive habitat distribution models in Ecology. Ecol. Model. 135: 147–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Häder, D.-P. and Figueroa, F.L. (1997) Annual review: photoecophysiology of marine macroalgae. Photochem. Photobiol. 66: 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Häder, D.P., Kumar, H.D., Smith, R.C. and Worest, R.C. (2007) Effect of solar UV radiation on aquatic ecosystems and interactions with climate change. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6: 267–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Han, Y.S. and Han, T. (2005) UV-B induction of UV-B protection in Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta). J. Phycol. 41: 523–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hanelt, D., Jaramillo, I.M., Nultsch, W., Senger, S. and Westermeier, R. (1994) Photoinhibition as regulative mechanism of photosynthesis in marine algae of Antarctica. Ser Cient INACH 44: 57–77.Google Scholar
  60. Hanelt, D. (1998) Capability of dynamic photoinhibition in Arctic macroalgae is related to their depth distribution. Mar. Biol. 131: 361–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hanelt, D., Li, J. and Nultsch, W. (1994) Tidal dependence of photoinhibition of photosynthesis in marine macrophyte of south China Sea. Bot. Acta 106: 66–72.Google Scholar
  62. Hawkinks, S.J. and Jones, H.D. (1992) Rocky Shores: Marine Field Study Course. Guide I. Immel Publishing, London.Google Scholar
  63. Helbling, E.W., Villafañe, V.E., Buma, A.G.J., Andrade, M. and Zaratti, F. (2001) DNA damage and photosynthetic inhibition induced by solar ultraviolet radiation in tropical phytoplankton (Lake Titicaca, Bolivia). Eur. J. Phycol. 36: 157–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Helbling, E.W. and Zagarese, H. (2003) UV Effects in Aquatic and Ecosystems. Comprehensive Series in Photosciences. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Helmuth, B., Broitman, B.R., Blanchette, C.A., Gilman, S., Halpin, P., Harley, C.D.G., O’Donnell, M.J., Hoffmann, G.E., Menge, B.A. and Strickland, D. (2006) Mosaic pattern of thermal stress in the rocky intertidal zone: implicatiuons for climate change. Ecol. Monogr. 76(4): 461–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Henley, W.J., Levavasseur, G., Franklin, L.A., Osmond, C.B. and Ramus, J. (2001) Photoacclimation and photoinhibition in Ulva rotundata as influenced by nitrogen availability. Planta 184: 235–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hernando, M., Schloss, I., Roy, S. and Ferreyra, G. (2006) Photoacclimation to long-term ultraviolet radiation exposure of natural Sub-Antarctic Phytoplankton communities: fixed surface incubations versus mixed mesocosms. Photochem. Photobiol. 82: 923–935.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hiriart, V.P., Greenberg, B.M., Guildford, S.J. and Smith, R.E.H. (2002) Effects of ultraviolet radiation on rates and size distribution of primary production by Lake Erie phytoplankton. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 59: 317–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hiscock, K., Southward, A., Tittley, I. and Hawkins, S. (2004) Effects of changing temperature on benthic marine life in Britain and Ireland. Aquat. Conserv. 14: 333–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hoepffner, N. (ed.) (2006) Marine and Coastal Dimension of Climate Change in Europe. A report of the European Water Directors. European Communities. Institute for Environmental and Sustainability. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 87 pp.Google Scholar
  71. Hoppe, H.G., Breithaupt, P., Walther, K., Koppe, R., Bleck, S., Sommer, U. and Jurgens, K. (2008) Climate warning in winter affects the coupling between phytoplankton and bacteria during the spring bloom: a mesocosm study. Aquat. Microb. Ecol. 51: 105–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Huovinen, P., Matos, J., Sousa-Pinto, I. and Figueroa, F.L. (2006) The role of nitrogen in photoprotection against high irradiance in the Mediterranean red alga Grateloupia lanceola. Aquat. Bot. 84: 208–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. IPCC (2007a) “Contribución del grupo de trabajo I al IV Informe de Evaluación del grupo intergubernamental de expertos sobre cambio climático”: Bases Científicas y Físicas. Valencia (2007) documento publicado en
  74. IPCC (2007b) “Contribución del grupo de trabajo II al IV Informe de Evaluación del grupo intergubernamental de expertos sobre cambio climático” Cambio Climático 2007: impactos, adaptación y vulnerabilidad al cambio climático. Valencia (2007) documento publicado en
  75. Jeffrey, W.H., Aas, P., Lyons, M.M., Coffin, R.B., PledgerJand, R.J. and Mitchell, D.L. (1996) Ambient solar radiation-induced photodamage in marine bacterioplankton. Photochem. Photobiol. 64: 419–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jiménez, C., Figueroa, F.L., Salles, S., Aguilera, J., Mercado, J., Viñegla, B., Flores-Moya, A., Lebert, M. and Häder, D.-P. (1998) Effects of solar radiation on photosynthesis and photoinhibition in red macrophytes from an intertidal system of southern Spain. Bot. Mar. 41: 329–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Karsten, U., Sawall, T., Hanelt, D., Bischof, K., Figueroa, F.L., Flores-Moya, A. and Wiencke, C. (1998) An inventory of UV-absorbing mycosporine-like amino acids in macroalgae from polar to warm-temperate regions. Bot. Mar. 41: 443–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kaschner, K., Watson, R., Trites, A.W. and Pauly, D. (2006) Mapping world-wide distributions of marine mammal species using relative environmental suitability (RES) model. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 316: 285–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Korbee Peinado, N., Abdala-Díaz, R., Figueroa, F.L. and Helbling, E.W. (2004) Ammonium and UVR stimulate the accumulation of mycosporine-like aminoacids (MAAs) in Porphyra columbina (Rhodophyta) from Patagonia, Argentina. J. Phycol. 40: 248–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Korbee, N., Huovinen, P., Figueroa, F.L., Aguilera, J. and Karsten, U. (2005) Availability of ammonium influences photosynthesis and the accumulation of mycosporine-like amino acids in two Porphyra species (Bangiales, Rhodophyta). Mar. Biol. 146: 645–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Korbee, N., Figueroa, F.L. and Aguilera, J. (2006) Accumulation of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs): biosynthesis, photocontrol and ecophysiological functions. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 79: 119–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Krebs, C.J. (1978) Ecology: The Experimental Analysis of Distribution and Abundance, 2nd edn. Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
  83. Lam, E., Fukuda, H. and Greenberg, J. (eds.) (2000) Programmed Cell Death in Higher Plants. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  84. Lapointe, B.E., Niell, F.X. and Fuentes, J.M. (1981) Community structure, succession, and production of seaweeds associated with mussel –rafts in the Ría of Arosa. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 5: 243–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Larkum, A.W.D. and Wood, W.F. (1993) The effect of UV-B radiation on photosynhesis and respiration of phytoplankton, benthic macroalgae and seagrasses. Photosynth. Res. 36: 17–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Laubier, L., Pérez, T., Lejeusne, C., Garrabou, J., Chevaldonné, P., Vacelet, J., Boury-Esnault, N. and Harmelin, J.G. (2003) La Méditerranée se réchauffe-t-elle? Is the Mediterranean warming up? Marine Life 13(1–2): 71–81.Google Scholar
  87. Lesser, M.P. (2006) Oxidative stress in marine environments: biochemistry and physiological ecology. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 68: 253–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Liboriussen, L., Landkildehus, F., Meerhoff, M., Bramm, M.E., Sondergaard, M., Christoffersen, K., Richardson, K., Sondergaard, M., Lauridsen, T.L. and Jeppesen, E. (2005) Global warning: design of a flow-through shallow lake mesocosm climate experiment. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 3: 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Litchman, E., Neale, P.J. and Banaszak, A.T. (2002) Increased sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation in nitrogen-limited dinoflagellates: photoprotection and repair. Limnol. Oceanogr. 47: 86–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Littler, M.M., Littler, D.S. and Taylor, P.R. (1983) Evolutionary strategiews in a tropical barrier reef system: functional form groups of marine macroalgae. J. Phycol. 19: 229–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. López-Figueroa, F. (1992) Diurnal variations in pigment contents in Porphyra laciniata and in Chondrus crispus and its relation to the diurnal changes of underwater light quality and quantity. Mar. Ecol. 13: 285–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lüning, K. (1990) Seaweeds. Their Environment, Biogeography and Ecophysiology. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  93. Luoto, M., Kuusaari, M. and Rita, H. (2001) Detreminants of distrbution ad abundante in the clouded apollo butterfly: a landscape ecological approach. Ecography 24: 601–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. McKenzie, R.L., Aucamp, P.J., Bais, A.F., Björn, L.O. and Ilyas, M. (2007) Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth’s surface. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6(3): 218–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Medina, J.R., Tintoré, J. and Duarte, C.M. (2001) Las Praderas de Posidonia oceanica y regeneración de playas. Rev. de Obras Públicas 3409: 31–43.Google Scholar
  96. Medina-Sánchez, J.M, Villar-Argaiz, M. and Carrillo, P. (2006) Solar radiation-nutrient interaction enhances the resource and predation algal control on bacterioplankton: a short-term experimental study. Limnol. Oceanogr. 51: 913–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mercado, J.M., Gordillo, F.J., Figueroa, F.L. and Niell, F.X. (1998) External carbonic anhydrase and affinity to inorganic carbon in intertidal macroalgae. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 221/2: 209–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mitchell, D.L. and Karentz, D. (1993) The induction and repair of DNA photodamage in the environment, In: A.R. Young, L.O. Björn, J. Moan and W. Nultsch (eds.) Environmental UV Photobiology. Plenum, New York, pp. 345–377.Google Scholar
  99. Mostajir, B., Demers, S., De Mora, S., Belzile, C., Chanut, J.P., Gosselin, M., Roy, S., Villegas, P.Z., Fauchot, J., Bouchard, J., Bird, D., Monfort, P. and Levasseur, M. (1999) Experimental test of the effect of ultraviolet-B radiation in a planktonic community. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44: 586–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Murray, S.N. and Littler, M.M. (1978) Patterns of algal succession in a perturbated marine intertidal community. J. Phycol. 14: 506–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Naeem, S. and Wright, J.P. (2003) Disentangling biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning: deriving solutions to a seemingly insurmountable problem. Ecol. Lett. 6: 567–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Naeem, S., Byers, D., Tjossem, S.F., Bristow, C. and Li, S. (1999) Plant neighborhood diversity and production. Ecoscience 6: 355–365.Google Scholar
  103. Niell, F.X. (1979) Structure and succession in rocky algal communities of a temperate intertidal ecosystem. J. Exp.Mar. Biol. Ecol. 36: 185–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nouguier, J., Mostajir, B., Le Floc’h, E. and Vidussi, F. (2007) An automatically operated system for simulating global change temperature and ultraviolet B radiation increases: application to the study of aquatic ecosystem responses in mesocosm experiments. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 5: 269–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Orfanidis, S., Panayotidis, P. and Stamatis, N. (2001) Ecological evaluation of transitional and coastal waters: a marine benthic macrophytes-based model. Mar. Sci. 2: 45–65.Google Scholar
  106. Oren, A. (1997) Mycosporine-like amino acids as osmotic solutes of halophilic cyanobacteria. Geomicrobiol. J. 14: 231–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Oren, A. and Gunde-Cimerman, N. (2007) Mycosporines and mycosporine-like amino acids: UV protectants multipurpose secondary metabolites? FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 269: 1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J. and Hanson, C.E. (eds.) Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the Fourth Assessment report of the Intergovernmental panel on climate change.Google Scholar
  109. Pavia, H., Cevin, G., Lindgren, A. and Aberg, P. (1997) Effects of UV-B radiation and stimulated herbivory on phlorotannins in the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 157: 139–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pérez-Lloréns, J.L., Vergara, J.J., Pino, R.R., Hernández, I., Peralta, G. and Niell, F.X. (1996) The effect of photoacclimation on the photosynthetic physiology of Ulva curvata and Ulva rotundata (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Eur. J. Phycol. 331:349–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Pérez-Lloréns, J.L., Benítez, E., Vergara, J.J. and Berges, J.A. (2003) Characterisation of proteolytic enzyme activities in macroalgae. Eur. J. Phycol. 38: 55–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Pérez-Rodríguez, E., Gómez, I. and Figueroa, F.L. (1998) Effects of UV radiation on photosynthesis and excretion of UV-absorbing pigments of Dasycladus vermicularis (Chlorophyta, Dasycladales) from Southern Spain. Phycologia 37: 379–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Pérez-Rodríguez, E., Aguilera, J., Gómez, I. and Figueroa, F.L. (2001) Excretion of coumarins by the Mediterranean green alga Dasycladus vermicularis in response to environmental stress. Mar. Biol. 139: 633–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pérez-Ruzafa, A., Marcos, C., Pérez-Ruzafa, I.M., Barcala, E., Hegazi, M.I. and Qispe, J. (2007) Detecting changes resulting form human pressure in a naturally quick-changing and heterogeneous environment: spatial and temporal scales of variability in coastal lagoons. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 75: 178–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Pergent, G., Romero, J.M., Pergent-Martini, C., Mateo, M.A. and Boudeouresque, C.F. (1994) Primary production, stocks and fluxes in the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 106: 139–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Perry, A.L., Low, P.J., Ellis, J.R. and Reynolds, J.D. (2005) Climate change and distribution shifts in marine fishes. Science 308: 1912–1915.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Robertson, M.P., Peter, C.I., Villeet, M.H. and Ripley, B.S. (2003) Comparing models for predicting species’ potential distribution: a case study using correlative and mechanistic predictive modeling techniques. Ecol. Model. 164: 153–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Roleda, M.Y., Hanelt, D. and Wiencke, C. (2006) Growth and DNA damage in young Laminaria sporophytes exponed to ultraviolet radiation: implications for depth zonation of kelps in Helgoland (Norh Sea). Mar. Biol. 148: 1201–1211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Salles, S., Aguilera, J. and Figueroa, F.L. (1996) Light field in algal canopies: changes in spectral light ratios and growth of Porphyra leucosticta Thur. In Le Jol. Sci. Mar. 60(Suppl. 1): 29–38.Google Scholar
  120. Santas, R., Korda, A., Lianou, C. and Santas, P. (1998) Community response to UV radiation. I Enhanced UVB effects on biomass and community structure of filamentous algal assemblages growing in a coral reef mesocom. Mar. Biol. 131: 153–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Schulze, E.-D. and Mooney, H.A. (1993) Ecosystem function of biodiversity: a summary, In: E.-D. Shulze and H.A. Mooney (eds.) Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function. Springer, Berlin, Germany, pp. 497–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Seoane, J., Justribo, J.H., García, F., Retamar, J., Rabadán, C. and Atienza, J.C. (2006) Habitat-suitability modelling to assess the effects of land-use changes on Dupont’s lark Chersophilus duponti: a case study in the Layna Important Bird Area. Biol. Conserv. 128: 241–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Shelly, K., Heraud, P. and Beardall, J. (2002) Nitrogen limitation in Dunaliella tertiolecta (Chlorophyceae) leads to increased susceptibility to damage by Ultraviolet-B radiation but also increased repair capacity. J. Phycol. 38: 713–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Shelly, K., Roberts, S., Heraud, P. and Beardall, J. (2005) Interactions between UV-exposure and phosphorus nutrition. I. effects on growth, phosphate uptake, and chlorophyll fluorescence. J. Phycol. 4: 1204–1211.Google Scholar
  125. Sinha, R.P. and Häder, D.-P. (1998) Phycobilisomes and environmental stress, In: B.N. Verma, A.N. Kargupta and S.K. Goyal (eds.) Advances in Phycology. APC Publications, New Delhi, pp. 71–80.Google Scholar
  126. Southward, A.J., Langmead, O., Hardman-Mountford, N.J., Aiken, J., Boalch, G.T., Dando, P.R., Genner, M.J., Joint, I., Kendall, M.A., Halliday, N.C., Harris, R.P., Leaper, R., Mieszkowska, N., Pingree, R.D., Richardson, A.J., Sims, D.W., Smith, T., Walne, A.W. and Hawkins, S.J. (2005) Long-term oceanographic and ecological research in the western English Channel. Adv. Mar. Biol. 47: 1–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sterner, R.W., Elser, J.J., Fee, E.J., Guildford, S.J. and Chrzanowski, T.H. (1997) The light: nutrient ratio in lakes: the balance of energy and materials affects ecosystem functioning. Am. Nat. 150: 663–684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Suh, H.-J., Lee, H.-W. and Jung, J. (2003) Mycosporine–glycine protects biological systems against photodynamic damage by quenching singlet oxygen with high efficiency. Photochem. Photobiol. 78: 109–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Talarico, L. and Maranzana, G. (2000) Light and adaptative responses in red macroalgae: an overview. J. Photochem. Photobiol. 56: 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Tandeau de Marsac, N. and Houmardd, J. (1993) Adaptation of cyanobacteria to environmental stimuli: new steps towards molecular mechanisms. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 104: 119–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Thibaut, T., Pinedo, S., Torras, X. and Ballesteros, E. (2005) Long-term decline of the populations of Fucales (Cystoseira spp. and Sargassum spp.) in the Albéres coast (France), north-western Mediterranean). Mar. Pollut. Bull. 50: 1472–1489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Tilman, D., Knops, J., Wedin, D. and Reich, P. (2002) Plant diversity and composition: effects on productivity and nutrient dynamics of experimental grasslands, In: M. Loreau, S. Naeem and P. Inchausti (eds.) Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. Synthesis and Perspectives. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 21–35.Google Scholar
  133. Tirkey, J. and Adhikary, S.P. (2005) Cyanobacteria in biological soil crust of India. Curr. Sci. 89: 515–521.Google Scholar
  134. Van de Poll, W.H., Eggert, A., Buma, A.G.J. and Breeman, M. (2001) Effects of UV-B induced DNA damage and photoinhibition f growth of temperate marine red macrophytes: habitat-related differences in UV-B tolerance. J. Phycol. 37: 30–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Van der Hoorn, R.A.L. (2008) Plant proteases: from phenotypes to molecular mechanisms. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 59: 191–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Vergara, J.J., Bird, K.T. and Niell, F.X. (1995) Nitrogen assimilation following NH4+ pulses in the red alga Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis: effect on C metabolism. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 122: 253–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Villafañe, V.E. (2004) Ultraviolet radiation and primary productivity in temperate aquatic environments of Patagonia (Argentina). Ph.D. thesis, University of Groningen, Groningen, 133 pp.Google Scholar
  138. Villafañe, V.E., Sundbäck, K., Figueroa, F.L. and Helbling, E.W. (2003) Photosynthesis in the Aquatic Environment as Affected by UVR, In: E.W. Helbling and H.E. Zagarese (eds.) UV Effects in Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, pp. 357–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Viñegla, B. (2000) Efecto de la radiación ultravioleta sobre actividades enzimáticas relacionadas con el metabolismo del carbono y nitrógeno en macroalgas y fanerógamas marinas. Tesis Doctoral. Universidad de Málaga, Málaga.Google Scholar
  140. Wahl, M., Molis, M., Davis, A., Drobestov, S., Durr, S.T., Johansson, J., Kinley, J., Kirugara, D., Langer, M., Lotze, H.K., Thiel, M., Thomanson, J.C., Word, B. and Ben-Yosef, D.Z. (2004) UV effects that come and go: a global comparison of marine bentihic community level impacts. Global Change Biol. 10: 1962–1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Wängberg, S.A., Wulff, A., Nilson, C. and Stagell, U. (2001) Impact of UVBR on microalgae and bacteria – a mesocosm study with computer modulated UVB Radiation. Aquat. Microbiol. Ecol. 25: 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wells, E. (2002) Seaweeds species biodiversity on intertidal rocky seashores in the British Isles. Ph.D. Thesis, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  143. Wells, E. and Wilkinson, M. (2002) Intertidal seaweed biodiversity in relation to environmental factors – a case study form Northern Ireland. Mar. Biodiversity in Ireland and adjacent waters, Ullster Museum. Belfast.Google Scholar
  144. Wells, E., Wilkinson, M., Word, P. and Scanlan, C. (2007) The use of macroalgal richness and composition on intertidal rocky shores in the assessment of ecological quality under the European water framework directive. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 55: 151–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Walther, G.R., Post, E., Convey, P., Menzel, A., Parmesan, C., Beebee, T.J.C. et al. (2002) Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416: 389–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Wiencke, C., Gómez, I., Pakker, H., Flores-Moya, A., Altamirano, M., Hanelt, D., Bischof, K. and Figueroa, F.L. (2000) Impact of UV radiation on viability, photosynthetic characteristics and DNA on algal zoospores: implications for depth zonation. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 197: 217–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Wiencke, C., Roleda, M.Y., Gruber, A., Clayton, M. and Bischof, K. (2006) Susceptibility of zoospores to UV radiation determines upper distribution limit of Arctic kelp: evidence through field experiments. J. Ecol. 94: 455–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Wilkinson, M. and Tittley, I. (1979) The marine algae of Elie: a reassessment. Bot. Mar. 22: 249–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wilkinson, M., Fuller, I.A., Telfer, T.C., Moore, C.G. and Kingston, P.F. (1988) A Conservation Oriented Survey of the Intertidal Seashore of Northern Ireland. Institute of Offshore Engineering, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  150. Wilson, J.G. (2003) Evaluation of estuarine quality status at system level using the biological quality index and the pollution load index. Biol. Environ. 103B: 49–57.Google Scholar
  151. Wright, D.J., Smith, S.C., Joardar, V., Scherer, S., Jervis, J., Warren, A., Helm, R.F. and Potts, M. (2005) UV radiationand desiccation modulate the three-dimensional extracellular matrix of Nostoc commune (cyanobacteria). J. Biol. Chem. 280: 40271–40281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Xenopoulos, M.A. and Frost, P.C. (2003) UV radiation, phosphorus, and their combined effects on the taxonomic composition of phytoplankton in a boreal lake. J. Phycol. 39: 291–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Xenopoulos, M.A., Frost, P.C. and Elser, J.J. (2002) Joint effects of UV radiation and phosphorus supply on algal growth rate and elemental composition. Ecology 83: 423–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Zepp, R.G., Erickson, D.J., Paul, N.D. and Sulzberger, B. (2007) Interacrive effects of solar UV radiation and climate change on biogeochemical cycling. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 6: 286–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ecology, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of MálagaMálagaSpain

Personalised recommendations