Relevant Language Attitude Research

  • Robert M. McKenzie
Part of the Educational Linguistics book series (EDUL, volume 10)


Chapter 3 aims to provide a specific theoretical basis for the study by means of a critical examination of the main themes in attitude measurement and a historical summary of the relevant language attitude research. First, a critical review of the main investigative approaches employed in the measurement of language attitudes is offered. The chapter continues with a brief summary of the major findings from research conducted into attitudes towards the English language generally and then details important studies, where the focus has been on the language attitudes of non-native speakers. The chapter then concentrates more specifically on the language situation in Japan and gives an overview of research into the attitudes of Japanese learners both towards the English language generally and towards varieties of English speech in particular. Finally, a justification is offered for further language attitude studies to be undertaken which would concentrate specifically on evaluations of learners of English, in Japan and elsewhere, towards variation in the English language.


Native Speaker Speech Sample Language Variety Speech Recording Japanese Learner 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Yong, Z., and K. Campbell. 1995. English in China. World Englishes 14(3):377–390.Google Scholar
  2. Coolican, H. 1996. Introduction to research methods and statistics in psychology, 2nd ed. London: Hodder and Stoughton.Google Scholar
  3. Preston, D.R. 2008. How can you learn a language that isn’t there?. In English pronunciation models: A changing scene, eds. K. Dziubalska-Kolaczyk and J. Przedlacka, 2nd ed., 37–58. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  4. Perry, F.L. 2005. Research in applied linguistics. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. Maher, J.C. 1995. The right stuff: Towards an environmental linguistics. In Diversity in Japanese culture and language, eds. J.C. Maher and G. Macdonald, 95–118. London: Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  6. Hyrkstedt, I., and P. Kalaja. 1998. Attitudes toward English and its functions in Finland: A discourse analytic study. World Englishes 17(3):345–357.Google Scholar
  7. Garrett, P., N. Coupland, and A. Williams. 1999. Evaluating dialect in discourse: Teachers’ and teenagers’ responses to young English speakers in Wales. Language in Society, 28:321–354.Google Scholar
  8. Garrett, P., N. Coupland, and A. Williams. 2003. Investigating language attitudes. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  9. Giles, H., N. Coupland, K. Henwood, J. Harriman, and J. Coupland. 1990. The social meaning of RP: An intergenerational perspective. In Studies in the pronunciation of English, ed. S. Ramsaran, 191–211. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Liebscher, G., and J. Dailey-O’Cain. 2009. Language attitudes in interaction. Journal of Sociolinguistics 13(2):195–222.Google Scholar
  11. Aitken, A.J. 1979. Scottish speech: A historical view, with special reference to the Standard English of Scotland. In Languages of Scotland, eds. A.J. Aitken and T. Macarthur, 85–119. Edinburgh: Chambers.Google Scholar
  12. Haarmann, H. 1986. Language in ethnicity. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  13. Niedzielski, N. 2002. Attitudes toward Midwestern American English. In Handbook of perceptual dialectology, eds. D. Long and D.R. Preston, vol. 2, 321–328. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  14. Bradley, D., and M. Bradley. 2001. Changing attitudes to Australian English. In English in Australia, eds. D. Blair and P. Collins, 271–286. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  15. Carroll, T. 2001a. Language planning and language change in Japan. Richmond: Curzon.Google Scholar
  16. Zwickl, S. 2002. Language attitudes, ethnic identity and dialect use across the Northern Ireland border. Armagh and Monaghan. Belfast: Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Lippi-Green, R. 1997. English with an accent. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Preston, D.R. 1993. The uses of folk linguistics. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 3:181–259.Google Scholar
  19. Eisenstein, M. 1982. A study of social variation in adult second language acquisition. Language Learning 32:367–391.Google Scholar
  20. Hartley, L.C. 1999. A view from the west: Receptions of US dialects by Oregon residents. In Handbook of perceptual dialectology, ed. D.R. Preston, vol. 1, 315–332. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  21. Tsui, A., and D. Bunton. 2000. The discourse an attitude of English teachers in Hong Kong. World Englishes 19(3):287–304.Google Scholar
  22. Kubanyiova, M. 2008. Rethinking research ethics in contemporary applied linguistics: The tension between macroethical and microethical perspectives in situated research. The Modern Language Journal 92(4):503–518.Google Scholar
  23. Zahn, C., and R. Hopper. 1985. Measuring language attitudes: The speech evaluation instrument. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 4:113–123.Google Scholar
  24. Jenkins, J. 2007. English as a lingua franca: Attitude and identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Malim, T., and A. Birch. 1997. Research methods and statistics. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press.Google Scholar
  26. Niedzielski, N., and D.R. Preston. 1999. Folklinguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  27. Coupland, N., and H. Bishop. 2007. Ideologised values for British accents. Journal of Sociolinguistics 11(1):74–93.Google Scholar
  28. El-Dash, L., and R. Tucker. 1975. Subjective reactions to various speech styles in Egypt. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 6:33–54.Google Scholar
  29. Stuart-Smith, J. 1999. Glasgow: Accent and voice quality. In Urban voices, eds. P. Foulkes and G. Docherty, 203–222. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  30. Carroll, T. 2001b. Changing attitudes: Dialects versus the standard language in Japan. In Language change in East Asia, ed. T.E. McAuley, 7–26. Richmond: Curzon Press.Google Scholar
  31. Baker, C. 1992. Attitudes and language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  32. Preston, D.R. 1999. Introduction. In Handbook of perceptual dialectology, ed. D.R. Preston, vol. 1, xxiii–xxxix. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  33. Edwards, J., and M. Jacobsen. 1987. Standard and regional speech: Distinctions and similarities. Language and Society 16:369–390.Google Scholar
  34. Williams, A., P. Garrett, and N. Coupland. 1999. Dialect recognition. In Handbook of perceptual dialectology, ed. D.R. Preston, vol. 1, 345–358. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  35. Hara, K. 2005. Regional dialect and cultural development in Japan and cultural development in Japan and Europe. International Journal of Sociology of Language 175/176:193–211.Google Scholar
  36. Pulcini, V. 1997. Attitudes toward the spread of English in Italy. World Englishes 16(1):77–85.Google Scholar
  37. Smith, E., and D. Mackie. 2000. Social psychology. New York: Worth.Google Scholar
  38. Tucker, G.R., and W. Lambert. 1969. White and Negro listeners’ reactions to various American English dialects. Social Forces 47:463–468.Google Scholar
  39. Gorlach, M. 1999. Varieties of English and language teaching. In Teaching and learning English as a global language, ed. C. Gnutzmann, 3–22. Tubingen: Stauffenburg Verlag.Google Scholar
  40. Ryan, E.B., H. Giles, and R.J. Sebastian. 1982. An integrative perspective for the study of attitudes toward language variation. In Attitudes towards language variation: Social and applied contexts, eds. E.B. Ryan and H. Giles, 1–19. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  41. Hansen, K. 1997. British English and international English. In Englishes around the world: One, ed. E.W. Schneider, 59–69. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  42. Long, D., and Y.C. Yim. 2002. Regional differences in the perception of Korean dialects. In Handbook of perceptual dialectology, eds. D.R. Preston and D. Long, vol. 2, 249–270. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  43. Rasinger, S.M. 2008. Quantitative research in linguistics. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  44. Dann, J. 1999. Dialects. In Handbook of perceptual dialectology, ed. D.R. Preston, vol. 1, 9–30. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  45. McKenzie, R.M. 2004. Attitudes of Japanese nationals towards standard and non-standard varieties of Scottish English speech. The East Asian Learner 1(1):16–25.Google Scholar
  46. Canut, C. 2002. Perceptions of languages in the Mandingo Region of Mali: Where does language begin and the other end? In Handbook of Perceptual Dialectology, eds. D.R. Preston and D. Long, vol. 2, 31–40. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  47. Schuman, H., and S. Presser. 1996. Questions and answers in attitude surveys. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  48. Preston, D.R. 2004. Language attitudes to speech. In Language in the USA, eds. E. Finegan and J.R. Rickford, 480–492. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Ryan, E.B., H. Giles, and M. Hewstone. 1988. The measurement of language attitudes. In Sociolinguistics: An international handbook of the science of language and society, eds. U. Ammon, N. Hallband, and K.J. Mattheier, vol. 2, 1068–1080. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  50. Dalton-Puffer, C., G. Kaltenboeck, and U. Smit. 1997. Learner attitudes and L2 pronunciation in Austria. World Englishes 16(1):115–128.Google Scholar
  51. McKenzie, R.M. 2003. Attitudes of Japanese nationals resident in Scotland towards standard and non-standard varieties of English. Saga University Economic Review 35(5/6):137–150.Google Scholar
  52. Dornyei, Z. 2007. Research methods in applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Stephens, M. 1976. Linguistic minorities in western Europe. Dyfed: J.D. Lewis and Sons.Google Scholar
  54. Preston, D.R. 1989. Sociolinguistics and second language acquisition. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  55. Lambert, W., R. Hodgson, R. Gardner, and S. Fillenbaum. 1960. Evaluational reactions to spoken languages. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 60:44–51.Google Scholar
  56. Connor, R.T. 2008. Computer simulation and new ways of creating matched-guise techniques. International Multilingual Research Journal 2:102–108.Google Scholar
  57. Milroy, L. 2001. The social categories of race and class: Language ideology and sociolinguistics. In Sociolinguistics and social theory, eds. N. Coupland, S. Sarangi, and C.N. Candlin, 235–260. Harlow: Pearson.Google Scholar
  58. Oppenheim, A. 1992. Questionnaire design, interviewing and attitude measurement. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  59. Ferguson, G. 2006. Language planning and education. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Heise, D.R. 1970. The semantic differential and attitude research. In Attitude measurement, ed. G.F. Summer, 235–253. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  61. Dornyei, Z. 2003. Questionnaires in second language research. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  62. Haarmann, H. 1989. Symbolic values of foreign language use: From the Japanese case to a general sociolinguistic perspective. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  63. Dushku, S. 1998. English in Albania: Contact and convergence. World Englishes 17(3):369–379.Google Scholar
  64. Bayard, D. 1999. The cultural cringe revisited: Changes through time in Kiwi attitudes toward accents. In New Zealand English, eds. A. Bell and K. Kuiper, 297–324. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  65. Bradac, J., A. Cargile, and J. Hallet. 2001. Language attitudes: Retrospect, conspect and prospect. In New handbook of social psychology, eds. W. Robinson and H. Giles, 137–155. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  66. Long, D. 1999a. Geographical perceptions of Japanese dialect regions. In Handbook of perceptual dialectology, ed. D.R. Preston, vol. 1, 177–198. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  67. Donahue, R.T. 1998. Japanese culture and communication. Lanham: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  68. Matsuura, H., R. Chiba, and M. Fujieda 1999. Intelligibility and comprehensibility of American and Irish Englishes in Japan. World Englishes 18(1):49–62.Google Scholar
  69. Labov, W. 1966. The social stratification of English in New York city. Washington: Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
  70. Kubota, R. 1998. Ideologies of English in Japan. World Englishes 17(3):295–306.Google Scholar
  71. Gould, P., and R. White. 1986. Mental maps. Boston: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  72. Dewaele, J.M. 2005. Sociodemographic, psychological, politicocultural correlates in Flemish students’ attitudes towards French and English. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 26(2):118–137.Google Scholar
  73. Starks, D., and B. Paltridge. 1996. A note on using sociolinguistic methods to study non-native attitudes towards English. World Englishes 15(2):217–224.Google Scholar
  74. Bourhis, R.Y., H. Giles, and D. Rosenthal. 1981. Notes on the construction of a ‘subjective vitality questionnaire’ for ethnolinguistic groups. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 2(2):145–155.Google Scholar
  75. Coulmas, F., and M. Watanabe. 2002. Japan’s nascent multilingualism. In Opportunities and challenges of bilingualism, eds. L. Wei, J.M. Dewaele, and A. Housen, 249–274. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  76. Lemon, N. 1973. Attitudes and their measurement. London: B.T. Batsford.Google Scholar
  77. Kontra, M. 2002. Where is the ‘most beautiful’ and the ‘ugliest’ Hungarian spoken. In Handbook of perceptual dialectology, eds. D.R. Preston and D. Long, vol. 2, 205–218. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  78. Saville-Troike, M. 1982. The ethnography of communication. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  79. McKenzie, R.M. 2008b. The role of variety identification in Japanese university students’ attitudes towards English speech varieties. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 29(2):139–153.Google Scholar
  80. Osgood, C., G. Suci, and P. Tannenbaum. 1970. Attitude measurement. In Attitude measurement, ed. G.F. Summer, 227–234. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  81. Matsuura, H., R. Chiba, and A. Yamamoto. 1994. Japanese college students’ attitudes towards non-native varieties of English. In Evaluating language, eds. D. Graddol and J. Swann, 52–61. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  82. Macafee, C. 1994. Traditional dialect in the modern world: A Glasgow case study. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  83. Gottlieb, N. 2005. Language and society in Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Lewis, E.G. 1981. Bilingualism and bilingual education. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  85. Henerson, M.E., L.L. Morris, and C.T. Fitz-Gibbon. 1987. How to measure attitudes, 2nd ed. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  86. Edwards, J. 1999. Refining our understanding of language attitudes. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 18(1):101–110.Google Scholar
  87. Bex, T., and R.J. Watts. 1999. Introduction. In Standard English: The widening debate, eds. T. Bex and R.J. Watts, 1–12. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  88. McGroarty, M. 1996. Language attitudes, motivation and standards. In Sociolinguistics and language teaching, eds. S.L. McKay and N. Hornberger, 3–46. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  89. Major, R.C. 2008. Identifying a foreign accent in an unfamiliar language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 29:539–556.Google Scholar
  90. Ellis, R. 1994. The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Lindemann, S. 2003. Koreans, Chinese or Indians? Attitudes and ideologies about non-native English speakers in the United States. Journal of Sociolinguistics 7(3):348–364.Google Scholar
  92. Chiba, R., H. Matsuura, and A. Yamamoto. 1995. Japanese attitudes toward English accents. World Englishes 14(1):77–86.Google Scholar
  93. Van Bezooijen, R., and C. Gooskens. 1997. Identification of language varieties: The contribution of different linguistic levels. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 18(1):31–48.Google Scholar
  94. McKay, S.L. 2006. Researching second language classrooms. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  95. Ladegaard, H. 1998. National stereotypes and language attitudes: The perception of British, American and Australian language and culture in Denmark. Language and Communication 18:251–274.Google Scholar
  96. Flaitz, J. 1993. French attitudes toward the ideology of English as an international language. World Englishes 12(2):179–191.Google Scholar
  97. Matsumori, A. 1995. Ryukyuan: Past, present and future. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 16(1/2):19–43.Google Scholar
  98. Cargile, A.C., J. Takai, and J.I. Rodriguez. 2006. Attitudes towards African-American vernacular English: A US export to Japan? Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 27(6):443–456.Google Scholar
  99. Fought, C. 2002. California students’ perceptions of, you know, regions and dialects? In Handbook of perceptual dialectology, eds. D. Long and D.R. Preston, vol. 2, 113–134. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  100. Preston, D.R. 1986. Five visions of America. Language in Society 15:221–240.Google Scholar
  101. Inoue, F. 1999. Subjective dialect division in Great Britain. In Handbook of perceptual dialectology, ed. D.R. Preston, vol. 1, 147–160. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  102. Dornyei, Z., K. Csizer, and N. Nemeth. 2006. Motivation, language attitudes and globalization. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  103. Verkuyten, M., W. de Jong, and K. Masson. 1994. Racial discourse, attitude and rhetorical manoeuvres: Race in the Netherlands. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 13:278–298.Google Scholar
  104. Stephan, C. 1997. The Unknown Englishes? Testing German students’ ability to identify varieties of English. In Englishes around the World 1, ed. E.W. Schneider, 93–108. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  105. Giles, H., and N. Coupland. 1991. Language: Context and consequences. Milton Keynes: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  106. Harley, T. 2001. The psychology of language, 2nd ed. Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  107. Loveday, L. 1996. Language contact in Japan. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  108. Brown, J.D. 2004. Resources on quantitative/statistical research for applied linguistics. Second Language Research 20(4):372–393.Google Scholar
  109. Macauley, R. 1977. Language, social class and education. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  110. Kwan-Terry, A. 1993. Cross-currents in teaching English in Singapore. World Englishes 12:75–84.Google Scholar
  111. Menzies, J. 1991. An investigation of attitudes to Scots and Glasgow dialect among secondary school pupils. Scottish Language 10:30–46.Google Scholar
  112. Foulkes, P., and G. Docherty. 1999. Urban voices – Overview. In Urban voices, eds. P. Foulkes and G. Docherty, 1–24. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  113. Demirci, M., and B. Kleiner. 1998. Gender and age-based variation in the perception of Turkish dialects. Language Awareness 7(4):206–222.Google Scholar
  114. Chihara, T., and J.W. Oller. 1978. Attitudes and attained proficiency in EFL: A sociolinguistic study of adult Japanese speakers. Language Learning 28(1):55–68.Google Scholar
  115. LaPiere, R. 1934. Attitudes versus actions. Social Forces 13:230–237.Google Scholar
  116. El-Dash, L., and J. Busnardo. 2001. Brazilian attitudes towards English: Dimensions of status and solidarity. International Journal of Applied Linguistics 11(1):57–74.Google Scholar
  117. Milroy, L. 1999b. Standard English and language ideology in Britain and the United States. In Standard English: The widening debate, eds. T. Bex and R.J. Watts, 173–206. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  118. Labov, W. 2001. Principles of linguistic change: Social factors. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  119. Ladegaard, H. 2000. Language attitudes and sociolinguistic behaviour: Exploring attitude-behaviour relations in language. Journal of Sociolinguistics 4(2):214–233.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.English Language and LinguisticsNorthumbria UniversityNewcastle Upon TyneUK

Personalised recommendations