Advertisement

Bioterrorism: A Potential Weapon for Terrorist Attacks Through Food and Water Contamination: Evolution of Our Understanding of the Use of Chemical and Bacteriological Weapons

  • Vincenzo Costigliola
  • Franco Quagliata
Conference paper
Part of the NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A: Chemistry and Biology book series (NAPSA)

Abstract

Bioterrorism is possibly an even older phenomenon than the relatively recent “military-type” attempts, culminating in the 9/11 attacks to the New York Twin Towers, and which have skyrocketed into a worldwide series of true war like destructions. These situations range from those by individuals who usually give up their lives in the attempts, to the true military operations, such as those, which almost daily make countries such as Iraq, Afghanistan, the Philippines to mention only a few. There are many differences between the two types of terrorism, and they will be discussed in detail. One of the most obvious is primary target, which in the case of the use of explosive in many different forms has as the main target man, while bioterrorism is aimed at man in a much more indirect form, targeting man through hitting his food supplies, such as his animals, the waters he drinks and so on.

Keywords

Chemical weapons Bacteria Toxins Agroterrorism Biosurveillance Preparedness Biological warfare Biocontainment Decontamination 

Useful Abbreviations

AG

Australia Group

BEP

Biosecurity Engagement Program

BSL

Biosafety level

BTWC

Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention

BWC-IS

Biological Weapons Convention-Implementation Support Unit

CDC

Center for Disease Control

COM

European Community Commission

CSS

Health Security Committee

CTR

Cooperative Threat Reduction

CWC

Chemical Weapon Convention

DG SANCO

Direzione Generale Salute e tutela dei Consumatori

DHS

Department of Homeland Security

DoD

Department of Defense

DoE

Department of Energy

ECID

European Center for Infective Diseases

EFTA

European Free Trade Association

EME

European Medicines Agency

ENP

European Neighboorhood Policy

EPR

Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response

EU

European Union

FAO

Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations

FETP

Field Epidemiology Training Program

GEIS

Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System

GAO

Government Accountability Office

GDD

Global Disease Detection

GHSAG

Global Health Security Action Group

FSC

Security Cooperation Forum

GHSI

Global Health Security Initiative

GHSAG

Global Health Security Action Group

GU

European Union Official Gazzetta

HHS

Health and Human Services

IDSR

Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response

IHR

International Health Regulations

MEC

European Common Market

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation

OIE

World Organization for Animal Healt

OECD

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Developmen

OCSE

Organizzazione per la Cooperazione e lo Sviluppo Economico

OPAC

Organizzazione per la Proibizione delle Armi Chimiche

OPCW

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

PE

European Parliament

PESD

Foreign Politics and Common Defense

PSI

Proliferation Security Initiative

SEE

European Economic Space

TCE

European Community constitutional Treety

TUE

European Union Treety

UN

United Nations Organization

UN-ODA

United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs

UNMOVIC

United Nations Monitoring Verification and Inspection Commission

UNODC

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

UNSCR

United Nations Security Council Resolution

USAID

United States Agency for International Development

WFCC

World Federation of Culture Collections

WCO

World Customs Organization

WHO

World Health Organization

WIP

World Intellectual Property Organization

References (Only Those Not Listed in the Text)

  1. 1.
    Civil liability for agroterrorism: in House Bill 98 (2008)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Block SM (2001, Jan–Feb) The growing threat of biological weapons. American Scientist 89:1. Accessed 15 Dec 2005Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eitzen E, Takafuji E (1997) Historical overview of biological warfare. In Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army (ed) Textbook of Military Medicine: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare4Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blanc HW (1890) Anthrax: the disease of the Egyptian plagues. New Orleans Med Surg J 18:1–25Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Duchovic RJ, Vilensky JA (2007). Mustard gas: Its pre-world war I history. J Chem Educ 84:944. http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/Journal/Issues/2007/Jun/abs944.html
  6. 6.
    Tu AT (2000) Overview of sarin terrorist attacks in Japan. ACS Symp Ser 745:304–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bohn K (2008, 6 August) U.S. officials declare researcher is anthrax killer. CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/08/06/anthrax.case/index.html. Accessed on 2008-08-078
  8. 8.
    Guillemin J (1999) ANTHRAX, the investigation of a Deadly Outbreak. University of California Press,California. ISBN 0-520-22917-7, names of victims, pp 275–277Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Weslager CA (1972) The Delaware Indians: A History. Rutgers University Press, New BrunswickGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koch R (1843–1910) Anthrax discoverer. http://german.about.com/library/blerf_koch.htm. Accessed on 13 Aug 2008
  11. 11.
    Contemporary challenges of the immune system: Antrax Infection in Yugoslavia, 1972 (2009, 31 March) http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/courses/27685.imm/presentations/Ole/Ch2_Challenges.ppt
  12. 12.
    Ricin: biotoxin. Emergency response safety and health database. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (2009, April 20)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wedin GP, Neal JS, Everson GW, Krenzelok EP (1986) Castor bean poisoning. Am J Emerg Med 4(3):259–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
    Woods Lt. Col. Jon B (ed) (April 2005) USAMRIID’s Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook, (6th edn). U.S. Army Medical Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland, p 67Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Salmonella Serotype Typhimurium Outbreak Associated with Commercially Processed Egg Salad, Oregon, 2003. CDC, MMWR Dec 10, 2004. 53(48):1132–1134Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response. Protection of Food Supply. Title III – Protecting Safety and Security of Food and Drug Supply, Subtitle A – Protection of Food Supply AT. http://thomas.loc.gov., Bill number H.R. 3448
  18. 18.
    Joy B (2000) On Newstands Now. Why the future doesn’t need usGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vincenzo Costigliola
    • 1
  • Franco Quagliata
    • 1
  1. 1.European Medical AssociationBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations