Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes in Electronics and Energy Applications

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Silicon Science book series (ADSS, volume 3)

Abstract

This chapter is of broad scope and and covers the use of hybrid polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POS) materials to enhance performance in various electronics, optical and energy-related applications. It reviews the liquid crystal phase behavior of Si8O12 compounds and their use in LC devices, their use as electroluminescent (EL) materials in light-emitting devices (with a particular focus upon the problematic area of blue emission), their use as lithographic resists in the fabrication of electronic and optical devices, their use in diverse sensor systems, and their use in fuel cell membranes, battery electrolytes and lubricants. Si8O12 materials have also been successfully employed as coatings and adhesives in space photovoltaic solar cells, and this topic is reviewed in Chapter 8, along with various other space material-related applications.

Keywords

Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization Surface Acoustic Wave Electronic Nose Energy Application 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Donald A, Windle A, Hanna S (2005) Liquid Crystalline Polymers,Cambridge University Press, 2nd Ed. Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pan Q, Fan X, Chen X, Zhou Q (2006) Huaxue Jinzhan 18(5):616-621.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Teyssie D,Boileau S (2000) Liquid Crystalline Silicon-containing Polymers. In Jones RG, Ando W, Chojnowski J (eds) The Science and Technology of their Synthesis and Applications, Kluwer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, Ch 22, pp 593-613.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gray GW (1987) Thermotropic Liquid Crystals, John Wiley and Sons, Chapter 6.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mehl GH, Goodby JW (1997) Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 303:15-21.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mehl GH, Thornton AJ, Goodby JW (1999) Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 332:2965-2971.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xie P, Guo JS, Dai DR, Jin SZ, Liu DS, Li Z, Zhang RB (1996) Polym Adv Technol 7:98.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xie P, Wan Y, Zhou B, Hou J, Dai D, Li Z, Liu D, Zhang R (1996) Macromol Chem Phys 197:745.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kreuzer FH, Maurer R, Spes P (1991) Macromol Symp 50:215-228.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Saez IM, Styring P (1996) Adv Mater 8(12):1001-1005.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mehl GH, Saez IM (1999) Appl Organomet Chem 13(4):261-272.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Serrano JL (1996) Metallomesogens, VCH, Weinheim.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    McArdle CB (1989), Side Chain Liquid Crystals, Blackie, Glasgow, U.K.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lewthwaite AR, Gray GW, Toyne K (1992) J Mater Chem 2:119.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sellinger A, Laine RM, Chu V, Viney C (1994) J Polym Sci Part A Polym Chem 32:3069-3089Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Aquilera C, Bartulin J, Hisgen B, Ringsdorf H (1983) Makromol Chem 184:253Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sellinger A, Laine RW (1994) Polym Prepr (Am Chem Soc Div Polym Chem) 35(2):665-666Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Saez IM, Styring P (1997) Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 299:163-168Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mehl GH, Goodby JW (1996) Angew Chem Int Ed 35:2641.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mehl GH, Goodby JW (1996) Chem Ber 129:521.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ibn Elhaj M, Skoulios A, Gouillon D, Newton J, Hodge P, Coles HJ (1995) Liq Cryst 19:373.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Saez IM, Goodby JW (1999) Liq Cryst 26(7):1101-1105.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ahsan MS, Sasaki S, Kawakami Y (2007) React Funct Polym 67(11):1200-1210.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Elsasser R, Mehl GH, Goodby JW, Photinos DJ (2000) Chem Commun10:851-852.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Karahaliou PK, Kouwer PHJ, Meyer T, Mehl GH, Photinos DJ (2007) Soft Matter 3(7):857-865.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Laine RM, Zhang C, Sellinger A, Viculis L (1998) Appl Organomet Chem 12:715.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhang CX, Bunning TJ, Laine RM (2001) Chem. Mater 13:3653-3662.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kim K-M, Chujo Y (2001) Polym Bull 46(1):15-21.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Saez IM, Goodby JW (2001) J Mater Chem 11(11):2845-2851.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Saez IM, Goodby JW, Richardson RM (2001) Chem- Eur J 7:2758- 2764.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pan Q, Chen X, Fan X, Shen Z, Zhou Q (2008) J Mater Chem 18(29):3481-3488.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Link DR, Natale G, Shao R, Maclennan JE, Clark NA, Korblova E, Walba DM (1997) Science 278:1924.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cui L, Collet JP, Zhu L (2007) Polym Mater Sci Eng Prep 97:408-409.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cui L, Collet JP, Xu G, Zhu L (2006) Chem Mater 18(15):3503-351.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Miao J, Lei (2010) J Phys Chem B 114(5):1879-1887.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pan Q, Gao L, Chen X, Fan X, Zhou Q (2007) Macromolecules 40(14):4887-4894.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mather PT, Chaffee KP, Haddad TS, Lichtenhahn JD (1996) Polym Prepr Am Chem Soc Div Polym Chem 37(1):765-766.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Somlai AP, Iyer S, Schiraldi DA (2004) Polym Prepr (Am Chem Soc Div Polym Chem) 45(1):650-651.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sethumadhaven M, Kennedy SD, Barton CL (2004) World Pat.2004114732 A1.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kim KM, Chujo Y (2001) J Polym Sci 39(22):4035-4043.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jeng S-C, Hwang S-J, Yang C-Y (2009) Opt Lett 34(4):455-457.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jeng S-C, Kuo C-W, Wang H-L, Liao C-C (2007) Appl Phys Lett 91(6):061112/1-061112/3.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Teng WY, Jeng SC, Kuo CW, Lin YR, Liao CC, Chin WK (2008) Opt Lett 33:1663.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hwang S-J, Jeng S-C, Yang C-Y, Kuo C-W, Liao C-C (2009) J Phys D:Appl Phys 42(2):025102/1-025102/6.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chen W-Z, Tsai Y-T, Lin T-H, (2009)Appl Phys Lett 94(20):201114/1-201114/3.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kim E-H, Myoung S-W, Lee W-R, Jung Y-G (2009) J Korean Chem Soc 54(3):1180-1186.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pope M, Kallmann H, Magnante PJ (1962) J Chem Phys 38:2042.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Burroughes JH, Bradley DDC, Brown AR, Marks RN, Mackey K, Friend RH, Burns PL, Holmes AB (1990) Nature (London) 347:539.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Friend RH, Gymer RW, Holmes AB, Burroughes JH, Marks RN, Taliani C, Bradley DDC, Dos Santos DA, Bredas JL, Logdlund M, Salaneck WR (1999) Nature (London) 394:121.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lee J, Ch H-J, Cho NS, Hwang D-H, Shim H-K (2006) Synth Met 156(7-8):590-596.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chan KL, Sonar P, Sellinger A (2010) J Mater Chem 19(48):9103-9120.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ranger M, Rondeau D, Leclerc M (1997) Macromolecules 30:7686-7691.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lin W-J, Chen W-C, Wu W-C, Niu Y-H, Jen AKY (2004) Macromolecules 37(7):2335-2341.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chou C-H, Hsu S-L, Yeh S-W, Wang H-S, Wei K-H (2005) Macromolecules 38(22):9117-9123.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cho C-H, Hsu S-L, Dinakaran K, Chiu M-Y, Wei K-H (2005) Macromolecules 38(3):745-751.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Xiao S, Nguyen M, Gong X, Cao Y, Wu H, Moses D, Heeger AJ (2003) Adv Funct Mater 13(1):25-29.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Xiao S, Nguyen MT (2003) US Pat. US 20030204038.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shin S-B, Gong S-C, Jang J-K, Gong M-S, Chang Y-C, Sun Y-B, Chang H-J (2008) J Appl Polym Sci 110(6):3678-3682.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fenenko L, Adachi C, Nakanishi Y, Smertenko P, Svechnikov S (2007) Mol Cryst Liq Cryst 467:303-309.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lee J, Cho H-J, Jung B-J, Cho NS, Shim H-K (2004) Macromolecules 37(23):8523-8529.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lee J, Cho H-J, Nam S, Hwang D-H, Kang J-M, Lim E, Lee J-I, Shim H-K (2006) J Polym Sci Part A Polym Chem 44(9):2943-2954.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Takagi K, Kunii S, Yuki Y (2005) J Polym Sci Part A Polym Chem 43(10):2119-2127.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Pu K-Y, Zhang B, Ma Z, Wang P, Qi X-Y, Chen R-F, Wang L-H, Fan Q-L, Huang W (2006) Polymer 47(6):1970-1978.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Xiao Y, Lu X, Tan L-W, Ong KS, He C (2009) J Polym Sci Part A Polym Chem 47(21):5661-5670.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nguyen TP, Lee CW, Hassen S, Le HC (2009) Solid State Sciences 11(10):1810-1814.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sellinger A, Laine RM (2002) ,World Pat. WO2002005971.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Cammack JK, Jabbour GE, Li S, Froehlich J (2005) US Pat. 0123760 A1.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lee CW, Josse Y, Hsu CH, Nguyen TP (2008) Eur Phys J Appl Phys 42(3):213-218.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Renaud C, Josse Y, Lee C-W, Nguyen T-P (2008) J Mate Sci Mater Electron 19(1):S87-S91.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    He C, Xiao Y, Huang J, Lin T, Mya KY, Zhang X (2004) J Am Chem Soc 126:7792-7793.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Brick CM, Tamaki R, Kim S-G, Asuncion MZ, Roll M, Nemoto T, Ouchi Y, Chujo Y, Laine RM (2005) Macromolecules 38(11):4655-4660Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Brick CM, Ouchi Y, Chujo Y, Laine RM (2005) 38(11):4661-4665.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Xiao Y, Liu L, He C, Chin WS, Lin T, Mya KY, Huang J, Lu X (2006) J Mater Chem 16:829-836.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Eom J-H, Mi D, Park M-J, Cho H-J, Lee J, Lee J-I, Chu HY, Shim H-K, Hwang D-H, (2009) J Nanosci Nanotech 9(12):7029-7033.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Imae I, Kawakami Y (2005) J Mater Chem 15:4581-4583.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sellinger A, Tamaki R, Laine RM (2005) Chem Commun 29:3700-3702.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Cho H-J, Hwang D-H, Lee J-I, Jung Y-K, Park J-H, Lee J, Lee S-K,Shim H-K (2006) Chem Mater 18(16):3780-3787.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Froelich D, Young R, Nakamura Y, Ohmori S, Li S, Mochizuki A, Lauters M, Jabbour GE (2007) Chem Mater 19:4991.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lo MY, Zhen CG, Lauters M, Gabbour GE (2007) J Am Chem Soc 129:5808.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Yang X, Froehlich JD, Chae, HS, Li S, Mochizuki A, Jabbour GE (2009) Adv Funct Mater 19(16):2623-2629.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Park J-L, Lee T-W, Kakimoto MA, Pu LS (2007) US Pat. US0045619 A1.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Singh M, Chae HS, Froehlich JD, Kondou T, Li S, Mochizuki A, Jabbour GE (2009) Soft Matter 5:3002-3005.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Chen K-B, Chang YP, Yang SH, Hsu C-S (2006) Thin Solid Films 514(1-2):103-109.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Xu Y, Peng J, Jiang J, Xu W, Yang W, Cao Y (2005) Appl Phys Lett 87(19):193502/1-193502/3.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Liang B, Jiang C, Chen Z, Zhang X, Shi H, Cao Y (2006) J Mater Chem 16(13):1281-1286.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Dukart CR, Ranzau SL, Pappenfus TM (2010) 239th ACS National Meeting, San Francisco, CA, USA, 21-25 March 2010, CHED-740.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bozano L, Tuttle SE, Carter SA, Brock P (1998) J Appl Phys Lett 73:3911-3913.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Carter SA, Scott JC, Brock P (1997) J Appl Phys Lett 71(9):1145-1147.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Blom PWM, Schoo HFM, Matters M (1998) J Appl Phys Lett 75:3914.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gong X, Soci C, Yang C, Heeger AJ, Xiao S (2006) J Phys D Appl Phys 39(10):2048-2052.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lee R-H, Lai H-H (2007) Eur Polym J 43(3):715-724.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Cui Y, Chen L, Qian G, Wang M (2008) J Non-Crystall Solids, 543(12-13):1211-1215.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Xi H, Li Z, Liang Z (2001) Chinese J Polym Sci, 19(4):421-427.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Xie G, Sun D (2007) PMSE Prep 97:730-732.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Jeng RJ, Chen YM, Jain AK, Kumar J, Tripathy SK (1992) Chem Mater 4(5):972-975.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Oviatt HW, Shea KJ, Kalluri S, Shi Y, Steier WH ,Dalton LR (1995) Chem Mater 7(3):493-498.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Han S, Li Z, Ji S, Dai D, Zhang R, Zhu C, Wang C (2000) J Sol-Gel Sci Tech, 18(2):137-144.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Choi KM, Shea KJ (1998) Plastics Engineering, Photonic Polymer Systems, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, pp. 437-480.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Luther-Davies B, Samoc M, Woodruff M (1996) Chem Mater 8(11):2586-2594.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Su H-W, Chen W-C, Lee W-C, King J-S (2007) Macromol Mater Eng 292(5):666-673.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Xie P, Guo JS, Dai DR, Jin SZ, Liu DS, Li Z, Zhang RB (1996) Polym Adv Technol 7:98-103.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Prasad PN, Williams DJ (1991) Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sutherland RL (1996), Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sarkar A, Mirza S, Rahman S, Rayfield G, (2011) Carbon Nanotubes For Optical Power Limiting Applications, In Wang ZM, Neogi A (Eds) Nanoscale Photonics and Electronics, Springer.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Su X, Guang S, Xu H, Liu X, Li S, Wang X, Deng Y, Wang P (2009) Macromol 42:8969-8976.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Su X, Guang S, Li C, Xu H, Liu X, Wang X, Song Y (2010) Macromolecules 43(6):2840-2845.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ceyhan T, Yuksek M, Yaglioglu HG, Salih B, Erbil MK, Elmali A, Bekaroglu O (2008) Dalton Trans 2407-2413.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Costela A, Garcia-Moreno I, Cerdan L, Martin V, Garcia O, Sastre R (2009) Adv Mater 21:4163-4166.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Garcia O, Sastre R, Garcia-Moreno I, Martin V, Costela A (2008) J Phys Chem 112:710.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Argitis A, Niakoula D, Douvas AM, Gogolides E, Raptis I (2009) Int J Nanotech 6(1-2):71-87.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Xia Y, Rogers JA, Paul KE, Whitesides GM (1999) Chem Rev 99(7):1823-1848.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hirai T, Leolukman M, Liu CC, Han E, Kim YJ, Ishida Y, Hayakawa T, Kakimoto M, Nealey PF, Gopalan P (2009) Adv Mater 21(43):4334-4338.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Dai J, Chang SW, Hamad A, Yang D, Felix N, Ober CK (2006) Chem Mater 18:3404-3411.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kanagasabapathy, S., Barclay, G.G., Cameron, J.F., Pohlers, G., Huby,F., Wiley, K. Abstracts of Papers, 227th ACS National Meeting, Anaheim, CA, USA, March 28-April 1, 2004, POLY-550.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Korchkov VP, Martynova TN (1985) Zhur Prikladnoi Khimii 58(9):2089-2096.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Gonsalves KE, Wang J, Wu H (2000) J Vac Sci Technol B Microelectron Nanometer Struct Process Meas Phenom 18(1):325-327.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Wu H, Hu Y, Gonzales KE, Yakaman MJ (2001) J Vac Sci Technol B 19:851.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Azam AM, Gonzales KE, Golovkina V, Cerrina F (2003) Microelectron Eng 65:454.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wu H, Gonazles KE (2001) Adv Mater 13:670.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Bellas V, Tegou E, Raptis I, Gogolides E, Argitis P, Iatrou H, Hadjichristidis N, Sarantopoulou E, Cefalas AC (2002) J Vac Sci Technol B 20:2902.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Gonzales KE, Merhari L, Wu H, Hu Y (2001) Adv Mater 13:703.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Sarantopoulou E, Kollia Z, Kocevar K, Musevic I, Kobe S, Drazic G, Gogolides E, Argitis P, Cefalas AC (2003) Mater Sci Eng C23(6-8):995-999.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Ali MA, Gonsalves KE, Batina N, Golovkina V, Cerrina F (2003) Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 5039:1173-1180.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Tegou E, Bellas V, Gogolides E, Argitis P, Dean KR, Eon D, Cartry G, Cardinaud C (2003) Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 5039:453-461.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Gogolides E, Argitis P, Bellas V, Tegou E (2003) World Patent WO2003102695.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Koh K, Sugiyama S, Morinaga T, Ohno K, Tsujii Y, Fukada T, Yamahiro M, Ijima T, Oikawa H, Watanabe K, Miyashita T (2005) Macromolecules 38:1264.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Eon D, Cartry G, Fernandez V, Cardinaud C, Tegou E, Bellas V, Argitis P, Gogolides E (2004) J Vac Sci Technol B Microelectron Nanometer Struct Process Meas Phenom 22(5):2526-2532.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Eon D, Raballand V, Cartry G, Cardinaud C, Vourdas N, Argitis P, Gogolides E (2006) J Vac Sci Technol B Microelectron Nanometer Struct Process Meas Phenom 24(6):2678-2688.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Douvas AM, Van Roey F, Goethals M, Papadokostaki KG, Yannakopoulou K, Niakoula D, Gogolides E, Argitis P (2006) Chem Mater 18:4040-4048.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Tegou E, Bellas V, Gogolides E, Argitis P, Eon D, Cartry G, Cardinaud C (2004) Chem Mater 16:2567-2577.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Zheng L, Waddon AJ, Farris RJ, Coughlin BE (2002) Macromolecules 35:2375.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Kim J-B, Ganesan R, Choi J-H, Yun H-J, Kwon Y-G, Kim K-S, Oh TH (2006) J Mater Chem 16:3448-3451.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Park JY, Kim MG, Kim J-B (2008) Macromol Rapid Commun 29(18):1532-1537.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Allen RD, Sooriyakumaran R, Sundberg LK (2006) US Pat 0189779 A1.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Hao J, Lin MW, Palmieri F, Nishimura Y, Chao H-L, Stweart MD, Collins A, Jen K, Wilson CG (2007) Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 6517:651729-1-651729-9.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Palmieri F, Stewart MD, Wetzel J, Hao J, Nishimura Y, Jen K, Flannery C, Li B, Chao H-L, Young S, Kim WC, Ho PS, Wilson CG (2006) Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 6151:61510 J/1-61510 J/9.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Palmieri F, Stewart M, Jen K, Wilson CG, Schmid G (2007) Solid State Technol 50(9):42-45.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Sellinger A, Laine RM (1996) Chem Mater 8:1592-1593.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Hartmann-Thompson C, Hu J, Xu N (2007) unpublished results, Michigan Molecular Institute.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Xu Y, Zhu X, Yang S (2009) ACS Nano 3(10):3251-3259.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Moon JH, Seo JS, Xu Y, Yang S (2009) J Mater Chem 19:4687-4691.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Jang JH, Ullal CK, Gorishny T, Tsukruk VV, Thomas EL (2006) Nano Lett 6:740-743.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Jeganathan SG, Bramer D, Kote R, Maladkar GJ (2008) US 0029739.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Hartmann-Thompson C, Keeley D, Pollock K, Keinath SE, Dvornic PR, Dantus M, Gunaratne T, Lecaptain D (2008) Chem Mater 20(8):2829-2838.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Bai H, Li, C, Shi G (2008) Chem Phys Chem 9(13):1908-1913.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Tanaka K, Inafuku K, Chujo Y (2008) Bioorg Med Chem 16(23):10029-10033.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Carlson CA, Lloyd JA, Dean SL, Walker NR, Edmiston PL (2006) Anal Chem 78(11):3537-3542.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Haupt K, Mosbach K (2000) Chem Rev 100:2495-2504.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Haidekker MA, Ling T, Anglo M, Stevens HY, Frangos JA, Theodorakis EA (2001) Chem Biol 8:123.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    McCusker C, Carroll JB, Rotello VM (2005) Chem. Commun:996-998.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Haugland RP (2005) The Handbook. A Guide To Fluorescent Probes and Labelling Technologies, 10th edn. Invitrogen Corp, Eugene, Oregon.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Zou Q-C, Yan Q-J, Song G-W, Zhang S-L, Wu L-M (2007) Biosens Bioelectron 22(7):1461-1465.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Sirbuly DJ, Letant SE, Ratto TV (2008) Adv Mater 20(24):4724-4727.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Shahriari MR (2007) US Pat. 0122311 A1.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Ballantine DS, Rose SL, Grate JW, Wohljen H (1986) Anal Chem 58:3058.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Albert KJ, Lewis NS, Schauer CL, Sotzing GA, Sitzel SE, Vaid TP Walt DR (2000) Chem Rev 100:2595-2626.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Grate JW (2000) Chem Rev 100:2627-2648.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Grate JW (2008) Chem Rev 108:726-745.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Hartmann-Thompson C, Hu J, Dvornic PR, Kaganove SN, Keinath SE, Keeley D (2004) Chem Mater 16(24):5357-5364.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Hartmann-Thompson C, Keeley DL, Voit B, Eichhorn KJ, Mikhaylova M (2008) J Appl Polym Sci 107(3):1401-1406.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Barie N, Rapp M, Ache HJ (1998) Sens Actuators B 46:97-103.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Hartmann-Thompson C, Keeley D, Dvornic PR, Keinath SE, McCrea K (2007) J Appl Polym Sci 104(5):3171-3182.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Hartmann-Thompson C (2009) US Pat. 0263287 A1.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lambert AG, Davies PB, Neivandt DJ (2005) Appl Spectrosc 40:103-145.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Smentkowski VS, Duong HM, Tamaki R, Keenan MR, Ohlhausen JAT,Kotula PG (2006) Appl Surf Sci 253(2):1015-1022.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Esker AR, Dawson KJ, Huffer SM, Karabiyik,U, Deng J, Viers BD, Ferguson-McPherson MK, Morris JR, Mao M, Ducker WA, Satija SK (2005) Polym Prepr (Am Chem Soc Div Polym Chem) 46(1):76-77.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Trammell SA, Zeinali M, Melde BJ, Charles PT, Velez FL, Dinderman MA, Kusterbeck A, Markowitz MA (2008) Anal Chem 80(12):4627-4633.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Siemens AG (2004) US Pat. 0025568 A1.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Tsujimura Y, Yamane M, Wakida S-I (2001) Anal Sci 17(4):485-489.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Merzlyuk RM, Yashina NI, Shevchenko YN (1997) Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii (Sankt-Peterburg) 70(4):631-635.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Castaldo A, Massera E, Quercia L, Di Francia G (2006) Sens Actuators B 118:328-332.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Gardner JW, Bartlett PN (1999) Electronic Noses: Principles and Applications. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Lonegran MC, Severin EJ, Doleman BJ, Beaber SA, Grubbs RH, Lewis NS (1996) Chem Mater 8:2298-2312.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Hartmann-Thompson C (2009) Carbon-Polymer Composite Sensors in Electronic Noses. In: Lechkov M, Prandzheva S (eds) Encyclopedia of Polymer Composites: Properties, Performance and Applications, Nova Science Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Gardner JW, Shurmer HV, Corcoran P (1991) Sens Actuators B 4:117.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Castaldo A, Massera E, Quercia L, DiFranca G (2007) Macromol Symposia 247:350-356.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Massera E, Castaldo A, Quercia L, DiFranca G (2008) Sens Actuators B129(1):487-490.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Castaldo A, Quercia . DiFrancia G, Cassinese A, D’Angelo P (2008) J Appl Phys 103(5):054511/1-054511/6.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Ryan MA, Shevade AV, Zhou H, Homer ML (2004) Polymer Carbon Black Composite Sensors in Electronic Noses for Air Quality Monitoring, NASA Bulletin, 714-719.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Losada J, Garcia Armada MP, Cuadrado I, Alonso B, Gonzalez B, Casado CM, Zhang J (2004) J Organometal Chem 689(17):2799-2807.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Hobson ST, Cemavolic S, Patel SV, Warburton M, Mlsna TE (2006) ECS Trans 2(25):11-18.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Colilla M, Darder M, Aranda P, Ruiz-Hitzky EJ (2005) Mater Chem 15(35-36):3844-3851.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    O’Hayre R, Cha S-W, Colella W, Prinz FB (2006) Fuel Cell Fundamentals, John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Hickner MA, Ghassami H, Kim YS, Einsla BB, McGrath JE (2004) Chem Rev104:4587-4612.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Costamagna P,Yang C, Bocarsly AB, Srinivasan S (2002) Electrochim Acta 47:1023.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Alberti G,Casciola M (2003) Annu Rev Mater Res 33:129-154.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Silva V,Weisshaar S, Reissner R, Ruffmann B, Vetter S, Mendes A, Madeira L, Nunes S (2005) J Power Sources 145:485-494.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Park YS, Yamazaki Y (2005) Solid State Ionics 176:1079-1089.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Prashantha K, Park SG (2005) J Appl Polym Sci 98:1875-1878.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Miyake N, Wainright JS, Savinell RP (2001) J Electrochem Soc 148:A905.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Shao Z-G, Joghee P, Hsing IM (2004) J Membrane Sci 229:43-51.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Lin CW, Thangmuthu R, Chang PH (2005) J Membrane Sci 254(1-2):197-205.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Antonucci PL, Ario AS, Creti P, Ramunni E, Antonucci V (1997) Solid State Ionics 125:431.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Adjemian KT, Lee SJ, Srinivasan S, Benziger J, Bocarsly AB (2002) J Electrochem Soc 149:A256.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Ren S, Sun G, Li C, Liang Z, Wu Z, Jin W, Qin X, Yang X (2006) J Membrane Sci 282(1-2):450-455.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Hong L, Liu Z-L, Zhang X, Guo B (2008) US Pat. 0233451 A1.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Tay SW, Zhang X-H, Liu Z-L, Hong L, Chan SH (2008) J Membrane Sci 321:139-145.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Su YH, Liu YL, Sun YM, Lai JY, Guiver MD, Gao Y (2006) J Power Sources 155:111-117.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Chang HY, Lin CW (2003) J Membrane Sci 218:295-306.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Wilson BC, Jones CW (2004) Macromolecules 37:9709-9714.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Kim D, Scibioh A, Kwak S, Oh I-H, Ha H-Y (2004) Electrochem Commun 6:1069-1074.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Acosta JL,Gonzalez, L, Ojeda MC, del Rio C (2003) J Appl Polym Sci 90:2715-2720.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Wang H, Holmberg BA, Huang L, Wang Z, Mitra A, Norbeck JM, Yan Y (2002) J Mater Chem 12:834-837.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Kim DS, Park HB, Lee YM, Park YH, Rhim JW (2004) J Appl Polym Sci 93:209-218.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Gomes D, Buder I, Nunes SP (2006) Desalination 1999:274-276.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Ladewig BP, Knott RB, Hill AJ, Riches JD, White JW, Martin DJ, Diniz DA, Costa JC, Lu GQ (2007) Chem Mater 19(9):2372-2381.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Lin YF, Yen CY, Ma CCM, Liao SH, Lee CH, Hsiao YH, Lin HP (2007) J Power Sources 171(2):388-395.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Su YY, Liu YL, Sun YM, Lai JY, Wang DM, Gao Y, Liu B, Guiver MD (2007) J Membrane Sci 296(1+2):21-28.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Su YY, Wei TH, Hsu CH, Liu YL, Sun YM, Lai JY (2006) Desalination 200(1-3):656-657.Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Holmberg BA, Wang H, Norbeck JM, Yan Y (2004) Polym Prepr (Am Chem Soc Div Polym Chem) 45(1):24-25.Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Poinsignon C, Denoyelle A, Sanchez JY (1992) French Pat. FR 2670212 A1.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Poinsignon C, Denoyelle A, Sanchez JY, Armand M (1995) EP0560899 B1.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Carlier E, Revillon A, Guyot A, Baumgartner P (1993) React Polym 21(1-2):15-25.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Decker B, Hartmann-Thompson C, Carver PI, Keinath SE, Santurri PR (2010) Chem Mater 22(3):942-948.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Subianto S, Mistry MK, Choudhury NR, Dutta NK, Knott R (2009) Appl Mater Interfaces 1(16):1173-1182.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Hartmann-Thompson C, Merrington A, Carver PI, Keeley DL, Rousseau JL, Hucul D, Bruza KJ, Thomas LS, Keinath SE, Nowak RM, Katona DM, Santurri PR (2008) J Appl Polym Sci 110:958-974.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Liu L, Song L, Zhang G, Guo H, Hu Y, Fan W (2006) Mater Lett 60(15):1823-1827.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Nowak R, Hartmann-Thompson C, Bruza K, Thomas L, Meier D (2008) World Pat. WO 2008127645 A1.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Unpublished results, Hartmann-Thompson C, Keeley D, Michigan Molecular Institute, 2009.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Chang Y-W, Wang E, Shin G, Han J-E, Mather PT (2007) Polym Adv Technol 18:535-543.Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Park YI, Moon J, Kim HK (2005) Electrochem Solid-State Lett 8:A191-A194.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Choi J, Lee KM, Wycisk R, Pintauro PN, Mather PT (2008) Macromolecules 41:4569-4572.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Lee HS, Roy A, Badami AS, McGrath JE (2006) Polym Mater Sci Eng 51:210-211.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Wang H, Badami AS, Roy A, McGrath JE (2006) Polym Mater Sci Eng 51:202-203.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Serpico JM, Ehrenberg SG, Fontanella JJ, Jiao X, Perahia D, McGrady KA, Sanders EH, Kellogg GE, Wnek GE (2002) Macromolecules 3:5916-5921.Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Choi J, Lee KM, Wycisk R, Pintauro PN, Mather PT (2008) Electro Chem Soc Trans 16(2):1433-1442.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Zhang X, Tay SW, Liu Z, Hong L (2009) J Membrane Sci 329:228-235.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Gao Y, Robertson GP, Guiver MD, Wang G, Jian X, Mikhailenko SD, Li X, Kaliaguine S (2006) J Membr Sci 278:26-34.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Costa ROR, Vasconcelos WL, Tamaki R, Laine RM (2001) Macromolecules 34:5398-5407.Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Zhang X-H, Tay SW, Hong L, Liu Z-L (2008) J Membrane Sci 320:310-318.Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Zhao L, Huang Y (2008) Huaxue Yu Nianhe 30(1):9-12, 33.Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Khiterer M, Loy DA, Cornelius CJ,Fujimoto CH, Small JH, McIntire TM, Shea KJ (2006) Chem Mater 18(16):3665-3673.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Khiterer M, Loy DA, Small JH, Shea KJ (2004) Polym Prepr 45(1):686-687.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Kalaw GJD, Yang Z, Musselman IH, Yang D-J, Balkus KJ, Ferraris JP (2008) Sep Sci Technol 43:3981-4008.Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Honma I, Nakajima H,Nishikawa O, Sugimoto T, Nomura S (2003) J Electrochem Soc 150(5):A616-A619.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Kim YJ, Choi WC, Woo SI, Hong WH (2004) J Membrane Sci 238(1-2):213-222.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Nam S-E, Song S-A, Kim S-G, Park S-M, Kang Y, Lee JW, Lee KH (2006) Desalination 200(1-3):584-585.Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Nam S-E, Lee K-H, Kang Y, Park S-M, Lee JW (2007) Sep Sci Technol 42(13):2927-2945.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Pezzin SH, Stock N, Shishatskiy S, Nunes SP (2008) J Membrane Sci 325(2):559-569.Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Karthikeyan CS, Nunes SP, Schulte K (2006) Macromol Chem Phys 207(3):336-341.Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Fujinami T, Mase T, Takami M (2009) US Pat. 0117439 A1.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Wu Y, Wu C, Xu T, Lin X, Fu Y (2009) J Membrane Sci 338(1-2):51-60.Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    van Schalkwijk WA, Scrosati B (2002) Advances in Lithium Ion Batteries, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Linden D, Reddy TB (eds) (2002) Handbook of Batteries, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Hawker CJ, Chu F, Pomery PJ, Hill DJT (1996) Macromolecules 29:3831-3838.Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    Tiglaar DM, Meador MAB, Bennett WR (2007) Macromolecules 40(12):4159-4164.Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    Tiglaar DM, Meador MAB, Kinder JD, Bennett WR (2006) Macromolecules 39(1):120-127.Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    Itoh T, Horii S, Hashimoto S, Uno T, Kubo M (2004) Ionics 10:450-457.Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    Tsujiko A (2007) World Pat. 024003.Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    Bai Y, Pan CH, Wu F, Wu C, Ye L, Feng ZG (2007) Gaodeng Xuexiao Huaxue Xuebao 28(9):1796-1800.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Pan CH, Bai Y, Wu F, Ye L, Wu C, Feng ZG (2007) Gongneng Cailiao 38(2):210-213.Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Shi Q, Zhou X (2004) Gaofenzi Xuebao 1:114-120.Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    Liccocia S, Traversa E (2004) Nano-Micro Interface: 289-301.Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Quartarone E, Mustarelli P, Magistris A (1998) Solid State Ionics 110:1.Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    Maitra P, Ding J, Wunder SL (2003) Polym Mater Sci Eng 88:568-569.Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Maitra P, Wunder SL (2002) Chem Mater 14:4494-4497.Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Maitra P, Ding J, Huang H, Wunder S (2003) Langmuir 19:8894-9004.Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Zhang H, Kulkani S, Wunder SL (2004) Polym Mater Sci Eng 91:509-510.Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Maitra P, Wunder SL (2003) Electrochem Solid-State Lett 7(4):A88-A92.Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    Zhang H, Kulkani S, Wunder SL (2006) J Electrochem Soc 153(2):A239-A248.Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Zhang H, Kulkani S, Wunder SL (2007) J Phys Chem B 111(14):3583-3590.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Nunes SC, Bermudez VZ, Ostrovskii D, Silva MM, Barros S, Smith MJ, Carlos LD, Rocha J, Morales E (2005) J Electrochem Soc 152(2):A429-A438.Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Bronstein LM, Karlinsey, RL, Stein B, Yi Z, Carini J, Zwanziger JW (2006) Chem Mater 18(3):708-715.Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Kim H-S, Mah, S-K (2008) US Pat. 80166634 A1.Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    Hennige V, Hying C, Hoerpel G, Jost C, Kuehnle A (2004) German Pat. DE 10304734 A1.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Ismailov BA, Zhdanov AA, Zhurnal Obschchei Khimii, 1982, 52(3):642-6.Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Blanski RL, Phillips S, Rodgers SL, Lichtenhahn JD, Schwab JJ (2007) US Patent 7217683 B1.Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Dare EO (2006) Turkish J Chem, 30:585-593.Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    Noda I, Isikawa M, Yamawaki M, Sasaki Y (1997) Inorg Chim Acta 263(1-2):149-152.Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Misra R, Rollins K, Morgan S (2008) Polym Prepr 49(1):517-518.Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Misra R, Fu BX, Morgan SE (2007) J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 45:2441-2445.Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    Misra R, Morgan SE (2006) Polym Prepr 47(1):410-411.Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    Misra R, Fu BX, Plagge A, Morgan SE (2009) J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 47(11):1088-1102.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Michigan Molecular InstituteMidlandUSA

Personalised recommendations