Advertisement

An Overview of Medical Geology Issues in Australia and Oceania

  • Karin LjungEmail author
  • Annemarie de Vos
  • Angus Cook
  • Philip Weinstein
Chapter
Part of the International Year of Planet Earth book series (IYPE)

Abstract

Australia and Oceania together make up some of the oldest and youngest geologic formations on the planet, ranging from rocks dating back to 4,400 million years to newly formed volcanic isles in the Pacific. The health issues related to these diverse geological materials range from those derived from exposure to metals and minerals to volcanic emissions including gas and ash, bushfires, dust storms, as well as health threats posed by natural hazards. With the position of a large part of this region within the Ring of Fire, many Australian and Oceanian lives are impacted upon by the forces related to tectonic movement, including earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. There are also a number of medical geology issues related to the soil in this area. These include geophagy, melioidosis – an infectious disease caused by soil bacteria, and the impacts from ecosystem transformations caused by the disturbance of acid sulfate soils. An example of this is the increase of vector-borne mosquitoes carrying the Ross River virus with the formation of acidic ponds through acid sulfate soil oxidation. The potential adverse health outcomes from disturbing some parts of the land have long been acknowledged by traditional Aboriginal landowners of Australia, who refer to an area particularly rich in uranium and other metals as Sickness Country.

Keywords

Australia Oceania metals Volcanic eruptions Acid sulfate soils Geophagy Vector-borne diseases Sickness country 

References

  1. Advameg (2009) Encyclopedia of the Nations, Vol 2009. Illinois: Advameg Inc.Google Scholar
  2. Angeloni J, Peek A, Appleyard S, Wong S, Watkins R (2004) Acid sulfate soils: distribution, impacts and regulation (a Western Australian perspective). Corros Prev 106:1–13.Google Scholar
  3. Asbestos Diseases Society of Australia Inc. (2004) Asbestos Products. In Asbestos Information. Perth: Asbestos Diseases Society of Australia Inc.Google Scholar
  4. Attfield MD, Costello J (2004) Quantitative exposure-response for silica dust and lung cancer in Vermont granite workers. Am J Ind Med 45:129–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2006) Special article – a century of mining in Australia. In Coal and Mineral Industries Division (ed) Australian Mining Industry 1998–1999. Adelaide: Department of Industry Science and Resources.Google Scholar
  6. Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008a: Mining. In B Pink (ed) Yearbook of Australia 2008 (Vol. 1301). Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
  7. Australian Bureau of Statistics 2008b: Feature article 4: Natural disasters in Australia. In: Pink B (ed) Yearbook of Australia 2008, vol 1301. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.Google Scholar
  8. Balmes JR (1987) Respiratory effects of hard-metal dust exposure. Occup Med 2:327–244.Google Scholar
  9. Banack SA, Murch SJ, Cox PA (2006) Neurotoxic flying foxes as dietary items for the Chamorro people, Marianas Islands. J Ethnopharmacol 106:97–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Banks (1770) Banks Journal – Daily Entries. In National Library of Australia Southseas Collection. Canberra: National Library of Australia,Google Scholar
  11. Baris I, Simonato L, Artvinli M, Pooley F, Saracci R, Skidmore J, Wagner C (1987) Epidemiological and environmental evidence of the health effects of exposure to erionite fibres: A four-year study in the Cappadocian region of Turkey. Int J Cancer 39:10–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bates MN, Garrett N, Shoemack P (2002) Investigation of health effects of hydrogen sulfide from a geothermal source. Arch Environ Health 57:405–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Baumann F, Rougier Y, Ambrosi JP, Robineau BP (2007) Pleural mesothelioma in New Caledonia: an acute environmental concern. Cancer Detect Prev 31:70–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. BHP Billiton (2008) About BHP Billiton and Manganese. Melbourne: BHP Billiton.Google Scholar
  15. Broom A, Lindsay M, Oliveira N, Jasinska E, Heuzen Bv, Sturrock K, Vetten S, Maley F, Durling S, Dodsley N, Voss S, Ypelaar I, Smith D, Shellam G (2000) The University of Western Australia Arbovirus Surveillance and Research Laboratory Annual Report: 1998–2000. In The University of Western Australia Arbovirus Surveillance and Research Laboratory Annual Report, Perth.Google Scholar
  16. Brown T, Morley A, Sandersen N, Tait R (1983) Report of a large fish kill resulting from natural acid water. J Fish Biology 22:335–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bureau of Meteorology (2006) Fire Seasons. In Bureau of Meteorology, Australian Government (eds). Melbourne: Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  18. Bureau of Meteorology 2009a: “Darkness at noon” – the summer of 1944/1945. In Bureau of Meteorology, Australian Government (eds). Melbourne: Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  19. Bureau of Meteorology 2009b: Dust-storms. In Bureau of Meteorology, Australian Government (eds). Melbourne: Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  20. Bureau of Meteorology 2009c: The Melbourne dust-storm of February 1983. In Bureau of Meteorology, Australian Government (eds). Melbourne: Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  21. Burt T, Blumbergs P, Currie B (1993) A dominant hereditary ataxia resembling Machado-Joseph disease in Arnhem Land, Australia. Neurology 43:1750–1752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burt T, Currie B, Kilburn C, Lethlean AK, Dempsey K, Blair I, Cohen A, Nicholson G (1996) Machado-Joseph disease in east Arnhem Land, Australia: Chromosome 14q32.1 expanded repeat confirmed in four families. Neurology 46:1118–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Callinan R, Fraser G, Melville M (1993) Seasonally recurrent fish mortalities and ulcerative disease outbreaks associated with acid sulfate soils in Australian estuaries. In D Dent, M van Mensvoort (eds) Selected Papers of the Ho Chi Minh City Symposium on Acid Sulphate Soils, Vol Publication 53. Wageningen: International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement.Google Scholar
  24. Caparros-Lefebvre D, Lees AJ (2005) Atypical unclassifiable parkinsonism on Guadeloupe: an environmental toxic hypothesis. Mov Disord 20(Suppl 12):S114–S118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen L, Verrall K, Tong S (2006) Air particulate pollution due to bushfires and respiratory hospital admissions in Brisbane, Australia. Int J Environ Health Res 16:181–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cheney NP (1995) Bushfires – An Integral Part of Australia’s Environment. In Yearbook of Australia 1995, Vol. 1301.Google Scholar
  27. Churches T, Corbett S (1991) Asthma and air pollution in Sydney. NSW Public Health Bull 2:72–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. CIA (2009) The 2008 World Factbook. US Government. https://http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html. Accessed 31 March 2009.
  29. Collipp PJ, Chen SY, Maitinsky S (1983) Manganese in infant formulas and learning disability. Ann Nutr Metab 27: 488–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Commonwealth of Australia (2008) National Indigenous Housing Guide. Department of Families Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (ed). Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  31. Cook A, Weinstein P (2005) Volcanic emissions and health risks of metal contaminants in New Zealand. In T Moore, A Black, J Centeno, J Harding, D Trumm (eds) Metal contaminants: sources, effects and integration in New Zealand. Christchurch: University of Canterbury Press.Google Scholar
  32. Cook FJ, Hicks W, Gardner EA, Carlin GD, Froggatt DW (2000) Export of acidity in drainage water from acid sulphate soils. Marine Pollut Bull 41:319–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cooper CW, Mira M, Danforth M, Abraham K, Fasher B, Bolton P (1994) Acute exacerbations of asthma and bushfires. Lancet 343:1509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Costa D, Dreher K (1997) Bioavailable transition metals in particulate matter mediate cardiopulmonary injury in healthy and compromised animal models. Environ Health Perspect 105:1053–1060.Google Scholar
  35. Cowan J (2006) Angurugu Community Grapples with Machado Joseph Disease. ABC Online – Stateline Northern Territory. http://www.abc.net.au/stateline/nt/content/2006/s1606126.htm. Accessed 31 March 2009.
  36. Cox P, Banack SA, Murch S (2003) Biomagnification of cyanobacterial neurotoxins and neurodegenerative disease among the Chamorro people of Guam. PNAS 100: 13380–13383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cox PA, Banack S, Murch S, Sacks O (2006) Commentary on: Return of the cycad hypothesis does the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC) of Guam have new implications for global health? Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 32:679–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cox PA, Sacks OW (2002) Cycad neurotoxins, consumption of flying foxes, and ALS-PDC disease in Guam. Neurology 58:956–959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cronin SJ, Sharp DS (2002) Environmental impacts on health from continuous volcanic activity at Yasur (Tanna) and Ambrym, Vanuatu. Int J Environ Health Res 12:109–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Currie B, Fisher D, Howard D, Burrom J, Lo D, Selva-nayagam S, Anstey N, Huffam S, Snelling P, Marks P, Stephens D, Lum G, Jacups S, Krause V (2000) Endemic melioidosis in tropical Northern Territory: a 10-year prospective study and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 31:981–986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Davidson G (2009) Uranium- and platinum-rich unconformity-style ore deposit genesis in the South Alligator Valley, Northern Territory. In School of Earth Sciences (ed) ARC Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits, Vol. 2009. Hobart: University of Tasmania.Google Scholar
  42. Dent D (1986) Acid Sulphate Soils: A Baseline for Research and Development (Vol. 39). Wageningen: ILRI Publications.Google Scholar
  43. Department of Environment and Conservation 2007a: DEC investigates further bird deaths. Media statement 17 January 2007.Google Scholar
  44. Department of Environment and Conservation 2007b: Esperance bird death test results. Media statement 9 March 2007.Google Scholar
  45. Department of Health (2006) Port Hedland dust study results released. Department of Health, Media Release 13 July 2006. Government of Western Australia. http://www.health.wa.gov.au/press/view_press.cfm?id=606. Accessed 31 March 2009.
  46. Department of Human Services (2008) Community factsheet – dust storms and health. Department of Human Services (ed). Public Health Emergency Management Community Fact Sheet. http://www.health.vic.gov.au/environment/downloads/dust_storms_and_health.pdf Accessed 31 March 2009.
  47. Department of Primary Industries (2004) The 1939 Fires. Knowledge Resource Centre (ed). The Virtual Exhibition. Victoria: Department of Primary Industries. http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/virtualexhibition/39fires/index.htm. Accessed 31 March 2009.Google Scholar
  48. Department of Sustainability and Environment (2006) AshWednesday – Significant Fire Years (ed). Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment. http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/DSE/nrenfoe.nsf/childdocs/-D79E4FB0C437E1B6CA256DA60008B9EF-7157D5E68CDC2002CA256DAB0027ECA3?open. Accessed 31 March 2009.Google Scholar
  49. Department of Sustainability and Environment (2009) Bushfire Statistics. Victoria: Department of Sustainability and Environment. http://www.dse.vic.gov.au/DSE/nrenfoe.nsf/childdocs/-D79E4FB0C437E1B6CA256DA60008B9EF-3D569492B50F5A78CA256DA600095F56?open. Accessed 31 March 2009.Google Scholar
  50. Donaldson J (2002) “Manganese madness” Clues to the aetiology of human brain disease emerges from a geological anomaly. Med Geol Newsl 4:8–10.Google Scholar
  51. Durand M, Florkowski C, George P, Walmsley T, Weinstein P, Cole J (2004) Elevated trace element output in urine following acute volcanic gas exposure. J Volcanol Geother Res 134:139–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Durand M, Wilson JG (2006) Spatial analysis of respiratory disease on an urbanized geothermal field. Environ Res 101:238–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Earth Observatory 2005a: Dust storm in Australia. NASA (ed) Earth Observatory, 2009. EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=14580. Accessed 31 March 2009.
  54. Earth Observatory 2005b: Sulfur dioxide leaks from the Amb-rym volcano. NASA (ed) Earth Observatory, 2009. EOS Pro-ject Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=14796. Accessed 31 March 2009.
  55. Earth Observatory (2006) Ghostly face in South Australian desert. NASA (ed) Earth Observatory, 2009. EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=7076. Accessed 31 March 2009.
  56. Earth Observatory (2008) Lahar on Mount Ruapehu, New Zea-land. NASA (ed) Earth Observatory, 2009. EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/view.php?id=18166. Accessed 31 March 2009.
  57. Eastwell H (1979) A pica epidemic: a price for sedentarism among Australian ex-hunter-gatherers. Psychiatry 42:264–273.Google Scholar
  58. Ericson JE, Crinella FM, Clarke-Stewart KA, Allhusen VD, Chan T, Robertson RT (2007) Prenatal manganese levels linked to childhood behavioral disinhibition. Neurotoxicol Teratol 29:181–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Esperance Port Authority (2008) Lead Removal Plan. C/2300. Retrieved 5 October 2009 from http://www.esperanceport.com.au/downloads/report/LRP_Final.pdf.
  60. Fältmarsch R (2006) Effect of toxic metals mobilised from Finnish acid sulphate soils on terrestrial and aquatic biota and human health: A literature review. In 18th World Congress of Soil Science (Vol. 174–4). Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  61. Feldman J, Tilling RI (2007) Danger Lurks Deep: The Human Impact of Volcanoes. Feature Article. Geotimes November 2007.Google Scholar
  62. Geoscience Australia (2003) Australian Mines Atlas: Copper. Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources (ed) AIMR Report, 2005. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  63. Gillette D (1997) Soil derived dust as a source of silica: Aerosol properties, emissions, deposition, and transport. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 7:303–311.Google Scholar
  64. Global Identifier Number (2009). Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ACDR). http://www.glidenumber.net/glide/public/search/search.jsp. Accessed 4 March 2009.
  65. Global Volcanism Program (1990) BGVN 15:06. Rabaul. CO2 kills six at Tarvurvur, seismicity remains low. In Global Volcanism Program (ed) Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol 2009. Smithsonian National Museum for Natural History.Google Scholar
  66. Government of Western Australia (2007) Response of the Western Australian government to the Western Australian Legislative Assembly, Education and Health Standing Committee in relation to the cause and extent of lead pollution in the Esperance area.Google Scholar
  67. Greene R, Gatehouse R, Scott K, Chen X (2001) Symposium report: Aeolian dust – implications for Australian mineral exploration and environmental management. Austr J of Soil Res 39:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hales S, Weinstein P, Woodward A (1999) Ciguatera (Fish Poisoning), El Nino, and Pacific sea surface temperatures. Ecosyst Health 5:20–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hansell A, Horwell C, Oppenheimer C (2006) The health hazards of volcanoes and geothermal areas. Occup Environ Med 63:149–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hansell A, Oppenheimer C (2004) Health hazards from volcanic gases: a systematic literature review. Arch Environ Health 59:628–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hansen J, de Klerk NH, Musk AW, Hobbs MS (1998) Environmental exposure to crocidolite and mesothelioma: exposure-response relationships. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 157:69–75.Google Scholar
  72. Healthy Living Northern Territory (2005) Melioidosis – information sheet. Diabetes Association of the Northern Territory (ed). http://www.healthylivingnt.org.au/content/?action=getfile&id=45-. Accessed 31 March 2009.
  73. Hendrickx M (2008) Naturally occurring asbestos in eastern Australia: A reveiw of geological occurrence, disturbance and mesothelioma risk. Environ Geol. Doi 10.1007/s00254-008-1370-5. Accessed 31 March 2009.Google Scholar
  74. Hicks W, Bowman G, Fitzpatrick R (1999) Environmental impacts of acid sulfate soils near Cairns, QLD. Technical Report 15/99. CSIRO Land and Water. http://www.clw.csiro.au/publications/technical99/tr15-99.pdf. Accessed 31 March 2009.
  75. Hof PR, Perl DP (2002) Neurofibrillary tangles in the primary motor cortex in Guamanian amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex. Neurosci Lett 328:294–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. IARC (1987) Asbestos. In IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity: An Updating (Vol. 1, Suppl 7). Lyon: Who Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
  77. Ince PG, Codd GA (2005) Return of the cycad hypothesis – does the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC) of Guam have new implications for global health? Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 31:345–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (2008) Tsunami, The Great Waves, Revised edition. In: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (ed) IOC Brochure 2008-1. Paris: UNESCO, .Google Scholar
  79. Jalaludin B, Smith M, O’Toole B, Leeder S (2000) Acute effects of bushfires on peak expiratory flow rates in children with wheeze: A time series analysis. Austr NZ J Public Health 24:174–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Jardine A, Lindsay M, Johansen C, Cook A, Weinstein P (2008) Impact of dryland salinity on population dynamics of vector mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) of Ross River virus in areas of southwestern Western Australia. J Med Entomol 45: 1011–1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Jardine A, Speldewinde P, Carver S, Weinstein P (2007) Dryland salinity and ecosystem distress syndrome: Human health implications. Eco Health 4:10–17.Google Scholar
  82. Johnson D (2004) The Geology of Australia, Illustrated edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, .Google Scholar
  83. Johnston FH, Kavanagh AM, Bowman DMJS, Scott RK (2002) Exposure to bushfire smoke and asthma: An ecological study. Med J Austr 76:535–538.Google Scholar
  84. Kiloh LG, Lethlean AK, Morgan G, Cawte JE, Harris M (1980) An endemic neurological disorder in tribal Australian aborigines. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 43:661–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kobold K (2006) Termite Mounds NT. Image Licensed Under the Creative Commons Attribution SharAlike 2.0: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/
  86. Kondakis XG, Makris N, Leotsinidis M, Prinou M, Papapetropoulos T (1989) Possible health effects of high manganese concentration in drinking water. Arch Environ Health 44:175–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Laufer B (1930) Geophagy (Vol. XVIII). Chicago: Field Museum Press.Google Scholar
  88. Leigh J, Driscoll T (2003) Malignant mesothelioma in Australia, 1945–2002. Int J Occup Environ Health 9:206–217.Google Scholar
  89. Ljung K, Maley F, Cook A, Weinstein P (2009) Acid sulfate soils and human health – a millenium ecosystem assessment. Environ Int 35:1234–1242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Longo BM (2009) The Kilauea Volcano adult health study. Nurs Res 58:23–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Longo BM, Rossignol A, Green JB (2008) Cardiorespiratory health effects associated with sulphurous volcanic air pollution. Public Health 122:809–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Luce D, Bugel I, Goldberg P, Goldberg M, Salomon C, Billon-Galland MA, Nicolau J, Quenel P, Fevotte J, Brochard P (2000) Environmental exposure to tremolite and respiratory cancer in New Caledonia: a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 151:259–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Luke RH, McArthur AG (1978) Bushfires in Australia. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.Google Scholar
  94. Macdonald B, White I, Heath L, Smith J, Keene A, Tunks M, Kinsela A (2006) Tracing the outputs from drained acid sulphate flood plains to minimize threats to coastal lakes. In C Hoanh, T Tuong, J Gowing, B Hardy (eds) Environment and livelihoods in tropical coastal zones. Wallingford, Oxfordshire: CAB International.Google Scholar
  95. McKay AD, Miezitis Y, Jaireth S (2008) Australian Uranium Resources, May 2008 edn. 1:10,000,000 scale map. Australian Government (ed), May 2008 edn. Canberra. http://www.ga.gov.au/servlet/BigObjFileManager?bigobjid=GA11404 -. Accessed 31 March 2009.
  96. McMichael A, Woodruff R, Whetton P, Hennessy K, Nicholls N, Hales S, Woodward A, Kjellstrom T (2003) Human health and climate change in Oceania: A risk assessment 2002. Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing (ed). Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  97. Mergler D (1999) Neurotoxic effects of low level exposure to manganese in human populations. Environ Res 80:99–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Montine TJ, Li K, Perl DP, Galasko D (2005) Lack of beta-methylamino-l-alanine in brain from controls, AD, or Chamorros with PDC. Neurology 65:768–769.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Musk AW, de Klerk NH, Eccles JL, Hansen J, Shilkin KB (1995) Malignant mesothelioma in Pilbara Aborigines. Aust J Public Health 19:520–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Musk AW, de Klerk NH, Reid A, Ambrosini GL, Fritschi L, Olsen NJ, Merler E, Hobbs MS, Berry G (2008) Mortality of former crocidolite (blue asbestos) miners and millers at Wittenoom. Occup Environ Med 65:541–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. National Action Plan (2001) Australia’s Salinity Problem. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry Department of the Environment and Water Resources (eds). Canberra: National Action Plan, Government of Australia.Google Scholar
  102. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (2008) Machado Joseph Disease Fact Sheet. Bethesda: National Institute of Health. Publication No. 02-2716.Google Scholar
  103. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (2007). Asbestos and Other Mineral Fibers: A Roadmap for Scientific Research. Retrieved 5 October 2008 from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/review/public/099/pdfs/NIOSHAsbestosRoadmap.pdf.
  104. Nemery B (1990) Metal toxicity and the respiratory tract. Eur Respirol J 3:202–219.Google Scholar
  105. New South Wales Health (2003) Dust Storms. In Department of Health (ed). New South Wales Health Factsheet. Sydney: New South Wales Government.Google Scholar
  106. New South Wales Government (2008) Acid Sulfate Soils, What are the Effects of Acid Sulfate Soils? http://www.naturalresources.nsw.gov.au/soils/what_effects.shtml. Accessed 23 June 2008.
  107. Nunn P (1991) Causes of environmental changes on Pacific Islands in the last millennium: implications for decision makers. In T Johnson, J Flenley (eds) Aspects of Environmental Change. Palmerston North: Massey University.Google Scholar
  108. Ong L (2006) Island Evolution Part 2: Oeno Island. In NASA (ed) EO-1 Science Team, Earth Observatory. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=6786. Accessed 31 March 2009.
  109. Pablo J, Banack SA, Cox PA, Johnson TE, Papapetropoulos S, Bradley WG, Buck A, Mash DC (2009) Cyanobacterial neurotoxin BMAA in ALS and Alzheimer’s disease. Acta Neurol Scand 4:216–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Pan XL, Day HW, Wang W, Beckett LA, Schenker MB (2005) Residential proximity to naturally occurring asbestos and mesothelioma risk in California. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 172:1019–1025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Playford PE (1998) Voyage of discovery to Terra Australis, by Willem De Vlamingh, 1696–1697. Perth: Western Australian Museum.Google Scholar
  112. Plumlee G, Ziegler T (2007) The medical geochemistry of dusts, soils and other earth materials. In B Lollar (ed) Treatise on Geochemistry (Vol. 9.07). Amsterdam: Elsevier Press.Google Scholar
  113. Powell B, Martens M (2005) A review of acid sulfate soil impacts, actions and policies that impact on water quality in Great Barrier Reef catchments, including a case study on remediation at East Trinity. Marine Pollut Bull 51:149–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Purdey M (2004) The pathogenesis of Machado Joseph Disease: a high manganese/low magnesium initiated CAG expansion mutation in susceptible genotypes? J Am Coll Nutr 23: 715S–729S.Google Scholar
  115. Reed D, Labarthe D, Chen KM, Stallones R (1987) A cohort study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia on Guam and Rota. Am J Epidemiol 125:92–100.Google Scholar
  116. Reid A, Heyworth J, de Klerk N, Musk AW (2008) The mortality of women exposed environmentally and domestically to blue asbestos at Wittenoom, Western Australia. Occup Environ Med 65:743–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Reis J (2006) Oceania_ISO_3166-1. Image licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2.5 License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/.
  118. Robbins K (1980) Abstracts and Reviews: 4 Australia: A Pica Epidemic: A price for sedentarism among Australian ex-hunter-gatherers by Harry D. Eastwell. Psychiatry 42 (1979): 264–273. Transcult Psychiatry 17:168–170.Google Scholar
  119. Rosicky M, Sullivan L, Slavich P, Hughes M (2004) Factors contributing to the acid sulfate soil scalding process in the coastal floodplains of New South Wales, Australia. Aust J Soil Sci 42:587–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Rowland M (2002) Geophagy: An assessment of implications for the development of Australian Indigenous plant processing technologies. Aust Aborig Stud 1:51–66.Google Scholar
  121. Russell D, Helmke S (2002) Impacts of acid leachate on water quality and fisheries resources of a coastal creek in northern Australia. Marine Freshw Res 53:19–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rutherford S, Clark E, McTainsh G, Simpson R, Mitchell C (1999) Characteristics of rural dust events shown to impact on asthma severity in Brisbane, Australia. Int J Biometeorol 42:217–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Singh G, Geissler EA (1985) Late Cainozoic history of vegetation, fire, lake levels and climate, at Lake George, New South Wales, Australia. Philos Trans Royal Soc Lond Series B 311:379–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Singh R, Hales S, de Wet N, Raj R, Hearnden M, Weinstein P (2001) The influence of climate variation and change on diarrhoeal disease in the Pacific Islands. Environ Health Perspect 109:155–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Smith M, Jalaludin B, Byles J, Lim L, Leeder S (1996) Asthma presentations to emergency departments in western Sydney during the January 1994 Bushfires. Int J Epidemiology 25:1227–1236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Smithsonian Institute (2009) How Many Active Volcanoes are There in the World? Program GV (ed) 2009. http://www.volcano.si.edu/faq/index.cfm?faq=03. Accessed 31 March 2009.
  127. Steele JC, McGeer PL (2008) The ALS/PDC syndrome of Guam and the cycad hypothesis. Neurology 70:1984–1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Stephens F, Ingram M (2006) Two cases of fish mortality in low pH, aluminium rich water. J Fish Dis 29:765–770.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Stewart C, Johnston D, Leonard G, Horwell C, Thordarson T, SJC (2006) Contamination of water supplies by volcanic ashfall: A literature review and simple impact modeling. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 158:296–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Summerell G, Dowling T, Richardson D, Walker J, Lees B (2000) Modelling current parna distribution in a local area. Aust J Soil Res 38:867–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Takser L, Mergler D, Hellier G, Sahuquillo J, Huel G (2003) Manganese, monoamine metabolite levels at birth, and child psychomotor development. Neurotoxicology 24:667–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Te Ara (2007) Life on the Edge: New Zealand’s Natural Hazards and Disasters. Auckland: David Bateman Ltd.Google Scholar
  133. Thistlethwaite B, Davis D (1996) Pacific 2010: A sustainable future for Melanesia? In National Centre for Development Studies (ed), Canberra.Google Scholar
  134. Twohig J (2006) Management of asbestos contamination in Wittenoom. In Department of Industry and Resources, Department of Local Government and Regional Development (eds). Canberra: GHD Pty Ltd.Google Scholar
  135. U.S. Geological Survey (1998) Magnitude 7.0 near north coast of Papua New Guinea, 1998 July 17. In Preliminary Earthquake Report. Denver: National Earthquake Information Center, World Data Center for Seismology.Google Scholar
  136. U.S. Geological Survey (2009) Magnitude 8.0 – Samoa islands region. Earthquakes Hazards Program. In: Preliminary Earthquake Report. Denver: National Earthquake Information Center, World Data Center for Seismology.Google Scholar
  137. van den Enden E (2009) Lytico-Bodig. In Medical Problems Caused by Plants. Antwerpen: Institute of Tropical Medicine.Google Scholar
  138. Verheijden MW, Ton A, James AL, Wood M, Musk AW (2002) Respiratory morbidity and lung function in two Aboriginal communities in Western Australia. Respirology 7:247–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Wasserman GA, Liu X, Parvez F, Ahsan H, Levy D, Factor-Litvak P, Kline J, van Geen A, Slavkovich V, LoIacono NJ, Cheng Z, Zheng Y, Graziano JH (2006) Water manganese exposure and children’s intellectual function in Araihazar, Bangladesh. Environ Health Perspect 114:124–129.Google Scholar
  140. Water and Rivers Commission (2002) Investigation of soil and groundwater acidity, Stirling: Report to the Minister for the Environment and Heritage. Perth: Water and Rivers Commission, Department of Environmental Protection.Google Scholar
  141. Western Australia Legislative Committee (2007) Inquiry into the cause and extent of lead pollution in the Esperance area. Report No. 8 in the 37th Parliament. Education and Health Standing Committee. Western Australia: Government Printer, State Law Publisher.Google Scholar
  142. White I, Heath L, Melville M (1999) Ecological impacts of flood mitigation and drainage in coastal lowlands. Aust J Emerg Manag 14:9–15.Google Scholar
  143. White I, Melville M, Macdonald B, Quirk R, Hawken R, Tunks M, Buckley D, Beattie R, Heath L, Williams J (2006) From conflict to industry – regulated best practice guidelines: A case study of estuarine flood plain management of the Tweed River, eastern Australia. In C Hoanh, T Tuong, J Gowing, B Hardy (eds) Environment and Livelihoods in Tropical Coastal Zones. Wallingford: CAB International.Google Scholar
  144. White I, Melville M, Wilson B, Sammut J (1997) Reducing acid discharge from coastal wetlands in eastern Australia. Wetl Ecol Manag 5:55–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. White N (2003) Melioidosis. Lancet 361:1715–1722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. World Health Organisation (2004) Manganese in drinking water – background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO/SDE/WSH/ 03.04/104. Geneva: World Health Organisation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karin Ljung
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Annemarie de Vos
    • 1
  • Angus Cook
    • 1
  • Philip Weinstein
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Population HealthUniversity of Western AustraliaPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  3. 3.School of Population HealthUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations