Earth and Life pp 677-703 | Cite as

The Late Middle Devonian (Givetian) Global Taghanic Biocrisis in Its Type Area (Northern Appalachian Basin): Geologically Rapid Faunal Transitions Driven by Global and Local Environmental Changes

  • James J. ZambitoIVEmail author
  • Carlton E. Brett
  • Gordon C. Baird
Part of the International Year of Planet Earth book series (IYPE)


The late Middle Devonian ‘Taghanic (Pharciceras) Event’ was originally named by Michael House for goniatite turnovers in the New York Appalachian Basin during deposition of the Tully Limestone; subsequently, it has been associated with the extinction of most of the long-lasting ‘Hamilton Fauna’ in this region. Stratigraphic and paleoecologic research in the type area has revealed at least three main faunal transitions, recognized as discrete bioevents: (1) replacement of much of the endemic ‘Hamilton Fauna’ (a subset of the Eastern Americas Realm) with the previously equatorial ‘Tully Fauna’ (a subset of the Old World Realm); (2) subsequent extermination of most of the ‘Tully Fauna’ and recurrence of the ‘Hamilton Fauna’, coincident with the eustatic sea-level rise termed the ‘Taghanic Onlap’; and (3) extinction of much of the ‘Hamilton Fauna’ and return of some ‘Tully’ taxa along with a further incursion of Old World Realm taxa during continued rise in global sea level. The Taghanic Biocrisis is currently recognized globally as a series of pulsed biotic transitions and extinctions, ultimately resulting in an end to previous faunal provinciality and appearance of a global cosmopolitan fauna. We review the current knowledge of these faunal transitions in the type area with respect to geologically rapid global and local environmental changes observed using a high-resolution stratigraphic framework across the entire onshore-offshore environmental gradient. Globally recognized environmental changes, specifically temperature increases, changes between arid and humid intervals, rapid sea-level fluctuations, and widespread black shale deposition account for the faunal transitions discriminated in the type area, but only in the context of regional basin dynamics associated with basin morphology and the degree to which estuarine-type watermass circulation patterns were operating, resulting in salinity variation as a dominant control on faunal distribution. Herein, we outline the interplay between global and local environmental changes that served as driving forces behind the local incursions and extinctions, including the demise of the long-stable ‘Hamilton Fauna’.


New York Hamilton group Tully formation Genesee group Geneseo formation Taghanic Biocrisis Subevents Recurrent faunas Extinctions Faunal transitions Eustasy 



We thank the editor, John Talent, for his patience with us in getting this manuscript completed. Comments by reviewers R. Feist and A. Simpson greatly enhanced the readability of the manuscript and conveyance of ideas therein. Various discussions with RT Becker and JEA Marshall greatly improved our understanding of the Taghanic Biocrisis at a global scale in both marine and terrestrial settings. We are also indebted to TJ Algeo for greatly enhancing our understanding of carbonate depositional environments and watermass circulation models. Our research into the type area of the Taghanic Biocrisis was supported at various times by student grants to JJZ from the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, the American Museum of Natural History, the Evolving Earth Foundation, the Geological Society of America, the Mid America Paleontological Society, the Paleontological Society, the Schuchert and Dunbar Grants In Aid Program at the Yale Peabody Museum, Sigma Xi, the Society for Sedimentary Geology (SEPM), and the University of Cincinnati, Department of Geology. CEB has been supported by NSF EAR 9219807, EAR 9996178, and the USGS STATEMAP program. GCB has been supported by the Pennsylvania Department of Natural Resources (Geological Survey).


  1. Aboussalam SZ (2003) Das “Taghanic-Event” im höheren Mittel-Devon von West-Europa und Marokko. Münst Forsch Geol Paläontol 97:1–332Google Scholar
  2. Aboussalam SZ, Becker RT (2001) Prospects for an upper Givetian substage: fossil record. Mitteilungen Museum Naturkunde Berlin 4:83–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aboussalam SZ, Becker RT (2011) The global Taghanic Biocrisis (Givetian) in the eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 304(1–2):136–164Google Scholar
  4. Algeo TJ, Scheckler SE (1998) Terrestrial-marine teleconnections in the Devonian; links between the evolution of land plants, weathering processes, and marine anoxic events. Phil Trans R Soc London Biol Sci 353:113–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Algeo TJ, Berner RA, Maynard JB, Scheckler SE (1995) Late Devonian oceanic anoxic events and biotic crises; “rooted” in the evolution of vascular land plants? GSA Today 5:45, 64–66Google Scholar
  6. Algeo TJ, Lyons TW, Blakey RC, Over DJ (2007) Hydrographic conditions of the Devono-Carboniferous North American Seaway inferred from sedimentary Mo-TOC relationships. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 256:204–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Algeo TJ, Heckel PH, Maynard JB, Blakey R, Rowe H (2008) Modern and ancient Epeiric seas and the super-estuarine circulation model of marine anoxia. In: Holmden C, Pratt BR (eds) Dynamics of Epeiric seas: sedimentological, paleontological and geochemical perspectives. Geological Association Canada Special Publication, 7–38Google Scholar
  8. Alroy J, Aberhan M, Bottjer DJ, Foote M, Füsich FT, Harries PJ, Hendy AJW, Holland SM, Ivany LC, Kiessling W, Kosnik MA, Marshall CR, McGowan AJ, Miller AI, Olszewski TD, Patzkowsky ME, Peters SE, Villier L, Wagner PJ, Bonuso N, Borkow PS, Brenneis B, Clapham ME, Fall LM, Ferguson CA, Hanson VL, Krug AZ, Layou KM, Leckey EH, Nürnberg S, Powers CM, Sessa JA, Simpson C, Tomašoných, Visaggi CC (2008) Phanerozoic trends in the global diversity of marine invertebrates. Science 321:97–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baird GC, Brett CE (2003) Shelf and off-shelf deposits of the Tully Formation in New York and Pennsylvania: faunal incursions, eustasy and tectonics. Cour Forsch-Inst Senckenberg 242:141–156Google Scholar
  10. Baird GC, Brett CE (2008) Late Givetian Taghanic bioevents in New York State: new discoveries and questions. Bull Geosci 83:357–370. doi:10.3140/bull.geosci.2008.04.357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baird GC, Bartholomew AJ, Brett CE (2003) Late Middle Devonian biotic and sedimentologic events in east-central New York; Tully Formation clastic correlative succession in the Sherburne-Oneonta area. New York State Geol Assoc Guidebook 75:1–54Google Scholar
  12. Baird GC, Brett CE, Kirchgasser WT, Over DJ (2006) An early late Devonian bone bed-pelagic limestone succession; the North Evans-Genundewa limestone story. New York State Geol Assoc Guidebook 78:354–395Google Scholar
  13. Baranov VV, Alkhovik TS (2006) Brachiopods of the family Ambocoeliidae (Spiriferida) from the Givetian of southern Verkhoyansk region (northeastern Russia). Paleontol J 40:162–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barrett SF (1988) The Devonian system in Colombia. In: McMillan NJ, Embry AF, Glass DJ (eds) Devonian of the world. Canadian Soc Petrol Geols Mem 14 (1): 705–717Google Scholar
  15. Barrett SF, Isaacson PE (1988) Devonian paleogeography of South America. In: McMillan NJ, Embry AF, Glass DJ (eds) Devonian of the World. Canadian Soc Petrol Geols Mem 14 (1): 655–668Google Scholar
  16. Bartholomew AJ (2002) Correlation of high order cycles in the Marine–Paralic transition of the upper middle Devonian (Givetian) Moscow formation, Eastern New York State MS thesis University of Cincinnati, 114pGoogle Scholar
  17. Blakey R (2010) NAU geology, paleogeographic reconstructions.
  18. Böhm F, Brachert TC (1993) Deep-water stromatolites and Frutexites Maslov from the early and middle Jurassic of S-Germany and Austria. Facies 28:145–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bonelli JR Jr, Bennington JB, Brett CE, Miller AI (2006) Testing for faunal stability across a regional biotic transition; quantifying stasis and variation among recurring coral-rich biofacies in the Middle Devonian Appalachian Basin. Paleobiology 32:20–37Google Scholar
  20. Boucot AJ (1975) Evolution and extinction rate controls. Elsevier, New York, NY, 427 pGoogle Scholar
  21. Boucot AJ (1988) Devonian biogeography; an update. In: McMillan NJ, Embry AF, Glass DJ (eds) Devonian of the world. Canadian Soc Petrol Geols Mem 14:211–227Google Scholar
  22. Boucot AJ, Brett CE, Oliver WA Jr, Blodgett RB (1986) Devonian faunas of the Sainte-Helene Island breccia, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Can J Earth Sci 23:2047–2056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Boucot AJ, Johnson JG, Talent JA (1969) Early Devonian brachiopod zoogeography. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 119:107Google Scholar
  24. Boyer DL, Droser ML (2007) Devonian monospecific assemblages: new insights into the ecology of reduced-oxygen depositional settings. Lethaia 40:321–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brand U, Azmy K, Jiang G, Lee X (2008) Global Taghanic and Givetian seawater records: an amelioration of faunal realms, climatic conditions and high levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs—Annual Meeting, Houston, TXGoogle Scholar
  26. Brett CE, Baird GC (1985) Carbonate-shale cycles in the Middle Devonian of New York; an evaluation of models for the origin of limestones in terrigenous shelf sequences. Geology (Boulder) 13:324–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Brett CE, Baird GC (1994) Depositional sequences, cycles, and foreland basin dynamics in the late Middle Devonian (Givetian) of the Genesee Valley and western Finger Lakes region. In: Brett CE, Scatterday J (eds). New York State Geol Assoc Guidebook 66:505–586Google Scholar
  28. Brett CE, Baird GC (1995) Coordinated stasis and evolutionary ecology of Silurian to Middle Devonian faunas in the Appalachian Basin. In: Erwin DH, Anstey RL (eds) New approaches to speciation in the fossil record. Columbia University, pp 285–315Google Scholar
  29. Brett CE, Baird GC, Miller KB (1986) Sedimentary cycles and lateral facies gradients across a Middle Devonian shelf-to-basin ramp, Ludlowville Formation, Cayuga Basin. New York State Geol Assoc Guidebook 58:81–127Google Scholar
  30. Brett CE, Baird GC, Miller KB (1990) A temporal hierarchy of paleoecologic processes within a Middle Devonian epeiric sea. Spec Publ (Paleont Soc) 5:178–209Google Scholar
  31. Brett CE, Baird GC, Bartholomew AJ (2007a) Biofacies recurrence in the Middle Devonian of New York State; an example with implications for evolutionary paleoecology. Palaios 22:306–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Brett CE, Bartholomew AJ, Bonelli JR Jr, Hendy AJW, McLaughlin PI (2007b) Response of shallow marine biotas to sea-level fluctuations; a review of faunal replacement and the process of habitat tracking. Palaios 22:228–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Brett CE, Ivany LC, Bartholomew AJ, DeSantis MK, Baird GC (2009) Devonian ecological-evolutionary subunits in the Appalachian Basin; a revision and a test of persistence and discreteness. Geol Soc Spec Publ 314:7–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Brett CE, Ivany LC, Schopf KM (1996) Coordinated stasis; an overview. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 127:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Brice D, Latréche S (1998) Brachiopodes du Bassin d’Illizi (Sahara algerien oriental) près de la limite Givétien-Frasnien. Geobios 31:437–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brice D, Milhau B, Mistiaen B (1994) Affinités nord-americaines de taxons Dévoniens (Givétien–Frasnien) du Boulonnais, nord de la France; migrations et diachronismes. Bull Soc Géol France 165:291–306Google Scholar
  37. Brice D, Carls P, Cocks LRM, Copper P, Garcia-Alcalde JL, Godefroid J, Racheboeuf PR (2000) Brachiopoda: subcommission on Devonian stratigraphy; fossil groups important for boundary definition. Cour Forsch-Inst Senckenberg 220:65–86Google Scholar
  38. Bridge JS, Willis BJ (1991) Middle Devonian near-shore marine, coastal and alluvial deposits, Schoharie Valley, central New York State. New York State Geol Assoc Guidebook 63:131–160Google Scholar
  39. Bridge JS, Willis BJ (1994) Marine transgressions and regressions recorded in Middle Devonian shore-zone deposits of the Catskill clastic wedge. Geol Soc Am Bull 106:1440–1458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Burst JF (1965) Subaqueously formed shrinkage cracks in clay. J Sed Petrol 35:348–353Google Scholar
  41. Cloud PE Jr (1962) Environment of calcium carbonate deposition west of Andros Island, Bahamas. U.S. Geol Surv Prof Pap 350:138pGoogle Scholar
  42. Cooper GA, Williams JS (1935) Tully formation of New York. Geol Soc Am Bull 46:781–868Google Scholar
  43. Day J (1996) Faunal signatures of Middle–Upper Devonian depositional sequences and sea-level fluctuations in the Iowa Basin: U.S. Midcontinent. In: Witzke BJ, Ludvigson GA, Day J (eds) Paleozoic sequence stratigraphy: views from the North American Craton. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 306:277–300Google Scholar
  44. Day J (1998) Distribution of latest Givetian–Frasnian Atrypida (Brachiopoda) in central and western North America. Acta Palaeontol Pol 43:205–240Google Scholar
  45. Day J, Bunker BJ, Norris W, Uyeno T, Witzke BJ (1996) Middle-Upper Devonian relative sea-level histories of central and western North American interior basins. In: Witzke BJ, Ludvigson GA, Day J (eds) Paleozoic sequence stratigraphy: views from the North American Craton. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 306:259–275Google Scholar
  46. de Melo JHG (1988) The Malvinokaffric realm in the Devonian of Brazil. In: McMillan NJ, Embry AF, Glass DJ (eds) Devonian of the world. Canadian Soc Petrol Geol Mem 14 (1): 669–703Google Scholar
  47. Desantis MK, Brett CE, ver Straeten CA (2007) Persistent depositional sequences and bioevents in the Eifelian (early Middle Devonian) of eastern Laurentia; North American evidence of the Kačak events? In: Becker RT, Kirchgasser WT (eds) Devonian events and correlations. Geol Soc London Spec Pub 278:83–104Google Scholar
  48. DiMichele WA, Behrensmeyer AK, Bobe R, Labandeira CC, Olszewski TD, Pandolfi JM, Wing SL (2004) Long-term stasis in ecological assemblages; evidence from the fossil record. Ann Rev Ecol Evol Syst 35:285–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dravis JJ (1983) Hardened subtidal stromatolites, Bahamas. Science 219:385–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ettensohn FR (1985) The Catskill Delta complex and the Acadian Orogeny; a model. In: Woodrow DL, Sevon WD (eds) The Catskill Delata. Geol Soc Amer Spec Pub 201:39–49Google Scholar
  51. Ettensohn FR, Miller ML, Dillman SB, Elam TD, Geller KL Swager DR, Markowitz G, Woock RD, Barron LS (1988) Characterization and implications of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence, eastern and central Kentucky, USA; pycnoclines, transgression, regression and tectonism. In: McMillan NJ, Embry AF, Glass DJ (eds) Devonian of the World. Canadian Soc Petrol Geol Mem 14 pt II: 323–345Google Scholar
  52. Feist R (1991) The Late Devonian trilobite crises. Hist Biol 5:197–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Formolo MJ, Lyons TW (2007) Accumulation and preservation of reworked marine pyrite beneath an oxygen-rich Devonian atmosphere; constraints from sulfur isotopes and framboid textures. J Sed Res 77:623–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. George AD (1999) Deep-water stromatolites, Canning Basin, northwestern Australia. Palaios 14:493–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Goldman D, Mitchell CE (1990) Morphology, systematics, and evolution of Middle Devonian Ambocoeliidae (Brachiopoda), western New York. J Paleontol 64:79–99Google Scholar
  56. Grabau AW (1917) Stratigraphic relationships of the Tully limestone and the Genesee shale in eastern North America. Geol Soc Am Bull 28:945–958Google Scholar
  57. Grasso TX (1986) Redefinition, stratigraphy and depositional environments of the Mottville Member (Hamilton Group) in central and eastern New York. Bull New York State Mus 457:5–31Google Scholar
  58. Hall J (1843) Geology of New York. Part IV, Comprising the survey of the fourth geological district. Carrol & Cook, Albany, NY, 683pGoogle Scholar
  59. Hallam A, Wignall PB (1999) Mass extinctions and sea-level changes. Earth-Sci Rev 48:217–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Heckel PH (1973) Nature, origin, and significance of the Tully Limestone; an anomalous unit in the Catskill Delta, Devonian of New York. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 138:244Google Scholar
  61. Heckel PH (1997) Overview of the Tully Limestone. In: Brett CE, ver Straeten CA (eds) Devonian cyclicity and sequence stratigraphy in New York State. Fieldtrip Guidebook University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, pp 79–85Google Scholar
  62. Hofmann HJ (1973) Stromatolites; characteristics and utility. Earth-Sci Rev 9:339–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Holland SM (2000) The quality of the fossil record; a sequence stratigraphic perspective. Paleobiology 26:148–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. House MR (1985) Correlation of mid-Palaeozoic ammonoid evolutionary events with global sedimentary perturbations. Nature (London) 313:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. House MR (2002) Strength, timing, setting and cause of mid-Palaeozoic extinctions. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 181:5–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Huber NK, Garrels RM (1953) Relation of pH and oxidation potential to sedimentary iron mineral formation. Econ Geol 48:337–357Google Scholar
  67. Hüneke H (2006) Erosion and deposition from bottom currents during the Givetian and Frasnian: response to intensified oceanic circulation between Gondwana and Laurussia. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 234:146–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hüneke H (2007) Pelagic carbonate ooze reworked by bottom currents during Devonian approach of the continents Gondwana and Laurussia. In: Viana AR, Rebesco M (eds) Economic and palaeoceanographic significance of contourite deposits. Geol Soc London Spec Pub 276:299–328Google Scholar
  69. Isaacson PE, Sablock PE (1988) Devonian system in Bolivia, Peru and northern Chile. In: McMillan NJ, Embry AF, Glass DJ (eds) Devonian of the world. Canadian Soc Petrol Geol 14 (1):719–728Google Scholar
  70. Ivany LC, Brett CE, Wall HLB, Wall PD, Handley JC (2009) Relative taxonomic and ecologic stability in Devonian marine faunas of New York State; a test of coordinated stasis. Paleobiology 35:499–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Joachimski MM, Breisig S, Buggisch W, Day J, van Geldern R (2004) Oxygen isotope evolution of biogenic calcite and apatite during the Middle and Late Devonian. Int J Earth Sci 93:542–553Google Scholar
  72. Joachimski MM, Breisig S, Buggisch W, Talent JA, Mawson R, Gereke M, Morrow JR, Day J, Weddige K (2009) Devonian climate and reef evolution: insights from oxygen isotopes in apatite. Earth Plan Sci Lett 284:599–609CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Johnson JG (1970) Taghanic onlap and the end of North America Devonian provinciality. Geol Soc Am Bull 81:2077–2105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Johnson KG, Friedman GM (1968) Depositional environments of Tully Limestone and clastic equivalents (Upper Devonian), east-central New York State. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 101(Abstracts for 1966):263–264Google Scholar
  75. Johnson KG, Friedman GM (1969) The Tully clastic correlatives (Upper Devonian) of New York State; a model for recognition of alluvial, dune(?), tidal, nearshore (bar and lagoon), and offshore sedimentary environments in a tectonic delta complex. J Sed Petrol 39:451–485Google Scholar
  76. Johnson JG, Klapper G, Sandberg CA (1985) Devonian eustatic fluctuations in Euramerica. Geol Soc Am Bull 96:567–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jüngst H (1934) Zur geologischen Bedeutung der Synärese. Ein Beitrag zur Entwässerung der Kolloide im werdenden Genstein. Geol Rundschau 25:312–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kaufmann B (2006) Calibrating the Devonian time scale; a synthesis of U-Pb ID-TIMS ages and conodont stratigraphy. Earth-Sci Rev 76:175–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kim Y, Lee YI (2000) Ironstones and green marine clays in the Dongjeom Formation (Early Ordovician) of Korea. Sed Geol 130:65–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kindle EM (1896) The relation of the fauna of the Ithaca group to the faunas of the Portage and Chemung. Bull Am Paleontol 2:56Google Scholar
  81. Kindle EM (1906) Notes on the range and distribution of Reticularia laevis. J Geol 14(3):188–193Google Scholar
  82. Klapper G (1981) Review of New York Devonian conodont biostratigraphy. In: Oliver WA Jr, Klapper G (eds) Devonian Biostratigraphy of New York Pt 1, Text. International Union of Geological Sciences, Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy, Washington DC, pp 57–66Google Scholar
  83. Koch WF II, Boucot AJ (1982) Temperature fluctuations in the Devonian Eastern Americas Realm. J Paleontol 56:240–243Google Scholar
  84. Kurtz DM (1883) Ithaca and its resources: being an historical and descriptive sketch of the “forest city” and its magnificent scenery, Glens, Falls, Ravines, Cornell University, and the Principal Manufacturing and Commercial Interests. Journal Association Book and Job Print, Ithaca, NY, 121pGoogle Scholar
  85. Lieberman BS (1994) Evolution of the trilobite subfamily Proetinae Salter, 1864, and the origin, diversification, evolutionary affinity, and extinction of the Middle Devonian proetid fauna of eastern North America. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 223:176pGoogle Scholar
  86. Lieberman BS, Brett CE, Eldredge N (1995) A study of stasis and change in two species lineages from the Middle Devonian of New York State. Paleobiology 21:15–27Google Scholar
  87. Linsley DM (1994) Devonian paleontology of New York; containing the brachiopods, bivalves, rostroconchs, gastropods, tergomyans, ammonoids, trilobites, eurypterids and phyllocarids, based on the lithographs of James Hall and John Clarke. Palaeontol Res Inst Spec Pub 21:472Google Scholar
  88. Logan BW, Hoffman P, Gebelein CD (1974) Algal mats, cryptalgal fabrics, and structures, Hamelin Pool, Western Australia. In: Logan BW, Read JF, Hagan GM (eds) Evolution and diagenesis of quaternary carbonate sequences, Western Australia. Am Assoc Petrol Geol Mem 22:140–194Google Scholar
  89. Marshall JEA, Brown JF, Astin TR (2011) Recognising the Taghanic Event in the Devonian terrestrial environment and its implications for understanding land-sea interactions. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 304(1–2):165–183Google Scholar
  90. May A (1995) Relationship among sea-level fluctuation, biogeography and bioevents of the Devonian: an attempt to approach a powerful, but simple model for complex long-range control of biotic crises. Geolines (Praha) 3:38–49Google Scholar
  91. Maynard JB (1986) Geochemistry of oolitic iron ores, an electron microprobe study. Econ Geol 81:1473–1483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. McGhee GR Jr (1982) The Frasnian–Famennian extinction event: a preliminary analysis of Appalachian marine ecosystems. In: Silver LT, Schultz PH (eds) Geological implications of impacts of large asteroids and comets on Earth. Geol Soc Am Sp Pap 190:491–500Google Scholar
  93. McGhee GR Jr (1989) The Frasnian–Famennian extinction event. In: Donovan SK (ed) Mass extinctions: processes and evidence. Columbia University Press, New York, NY, pp 133–151Google Scholar
  94. McGhee GR Jr (1996) The Late Devonian mass extinction; the Frasnian/Famennian crisis. Columbia University Press, New York, NY, 303pGoogle Scholar
  95. McGhee GR Jr (1997) Late Devonian bioevents in the Appalachian Sea; immigration, extinction, and species replacements. In: Brett CE, Baird GC (eds) Paleontological events; stratigraphic, ecological, and evolutionary implications. Columbia University, New York, NY, pp 493–508Google Scholar
  96. McLean RA, Sorauf JE (1988) The distribution of rugose corals in Frasnian outcrop sequences of North America. In: McMillan NJ, Embry AF, Glass DJ (eds) Devonian of the world. Canadian Soc Petrol Geol 14 (1):379–396Google Scholar
  97. Miller AI (1998) Biotic transitions in global marine diversity. Science 281:1157–1160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Monty CLV (1971) An autoecological approach of intertidal and deep water stromatolites. Ann Soc Géol Belgique 94:265–276Google Scholar
  99. Murphy AE, Brett CE, Hollander DJ, Lyons TW, Sageman BB (2000) Black shale deposition and faunal overturn in the Devonian Appalachian Basin; clastic starvation, seasonal water-column mixing, and efficient biolimiting nutrient recycling. Paleoceanography 15:280–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Oliver WA Jr (1990) Extinctions and migrations of Devonian rugose corals in the eastern Americas realm. Lethaia 23:167–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Patzkowsky ME, Holland SM (1999) Biofacies replacement in a sequence stratigraphic framework; Middle and Upper Ordovician of the Nashville Dome, Tennessee, USA. Palaios 14:301–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Pflueger F (1999) Matground structures and redox facies. Palaios 14:25–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Playford PE (1980) Environmental controls on the morphology of modern stromatolites at Hamelin Pool, Western Australia. Ann Rep West Aust Geol Surv 1979:73–77Google Scholar
  104. Plummer PS, Gostin VA (1981) Shrinkage cracks; desiccation or synaeresis? J Sed Petrol 51:1147–1156Google Scholar
  105. Pratt BR (1998) Syneresis cracks; subaqueous shrinkage in argillaceous sediments caused by earthquake-induced dewatering. Sed Geol 117:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Prosser CS (1899) Classification and distribution of the Hamilton and Chemung series of central and eastern New York, Part 2. Ann Rep Regents New York State Mus 2, Rep 51:65–315Google Scholar
  107. Racheboeuf PR, Girard C, Lethiers F, Derycke C, Herrera ZA, Trompette R (2001) Evidence for Givetian Stage in the Mauritanian Adrar (West Africa); biostratigraphical data and palaeogeographic implications. Newslett Stratigr 38:141–162Google Scholar
  108. Racheboeuf PR, Gourvennec R, Deynoux M, Brice D (2004) The Devonian of the Hodh area (Islamic Republic of Mauritania); paleontology and stratigraphy. J Paleont 78:98–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Racki G (1993) Brachiopod assemblages in the Devonian Kowala Formation of the Holy Cross Mountains. Acta Palaeontol Pol 37:297–357Google Scholar
  110. Raup DM Sepkoski JJ Jr (1982) Mass extinctions in the marine fossil record. Science 215:1501–1503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rickard LV (1975) Correlation of Silurian and Devonian Rocks in New York State. NY State Mus Sci Service Map Chart Ser 24:16pGoogle Scholar
  112. Rickard LV (1981) The Devonian system of New York State. In: Oliver WA Jr, Klapper G (eds) Devonian biostratigraphy of New York Pt 1 (Text). International Union of Geological Sciences, Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy, Washington DC, pp 5–21Google Scholar
  113. Rode AL, Lieberman BS (2004) Using GIS to unlock the interactions between biogeography, environment, and evolution in Middle and Late Devonian brachiopods and bivalves. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 211:345–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Rogers WB, Isachsen YW, Mock TD, Nyahay RE (1990) New York State geological highway map. New York State Museum and Science Service Educational Leaflet, No. 33, 1 sheetGoogle Scholar
  115. Sandberg CA, Morrow JR, Ziegler W (2002) Late Devonian sea-level changes, catastrophic events, and mass extinctions. In: Koeberl C, MacLeod KG (eds) Catastrophic events and mass extinctions: impacts and beyond. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 356:473–487Google Scholar
  116. Sessa J (2003) The dynamics of rapid, asynchronous biotic turnover in the middle Devonian Appalachian Basin of New York. MS thesis. University of Cincinnati, 80pGoogle Scholar
  117. Shinn EA, Steinen RP, Lidz BH, Swart PK (1989) Whitings, a sedimentologic dilemma. J Sed Petrol 59:147–161Google Scholar
  118. Sorauf JE, Oliver WA Jr (1976) Septal carinae and microstructure in middle Devonian Heliophyllum (Rugosa) from New York State. J Paleontol 50:331–343Google Scholar
  119. Thayer CW (1972) Marine paleoecology of the Upper Devonian Genesee group of New York. PhD thesis. Yale University, 240pGoogle Scholar
  120. Thayer CW (1974) Marine paleoecology in the Upper Devonian of New York. Lethaia 7:121–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Trainer DW Jr (1932) The Tully limestone of central New York. New York State Mus Bull 291:43pGoogle Scholar
  122. van Geldern R, Alvarez F, Day J., Jansen U, Joachimski MM, Ma XP, Yolkin EA (2006) Carbon, oxygen and strontium isotope records of Devonian brachiopod shell calcite. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 240:47–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Ver Straeten CA, Brett CE (1995) Lower and Middle Devonian foreland basin fill in the Catskill Front; stratigraphic synthesis, sequence stratigraphy, and Acadian Orogeny. New York State Geol Assoc Guidebook 67:313–356Google Scholar
  124. Ver Straeten CA, Brett CE (1997) Lower and Middle Devonian foreland basin fill in the Catskill Front: stratigraphic synthesis, sequence stratigraphy, and the Acadian Orogeny. In: Brett CE, ver Straeten CA (eds) Devonian cyclicity and sequence stratigraphy in New York State, Fieldtrip Guidebook, International Union of Geological Sciences, Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy. University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, pp 23–54Google Scholar
  125. Walliser OH (1990) How to define “global bio-events”. Lect Notes Earth Sci 30:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Walliser OH (1996) Global Events in the Devonian and Carboniferous. In: Walliser OH (ed) Global events and event stratigraphy in the phanerozoic. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 225–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wells AJ, Illing LV (1964) Present-day precipitation of calcium carbonate in the Persian Gulf. In: Wolff KW (ed) Developments in sedimentology, vol 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 429–435Google Scholar
  128. White WA (1961) Colloid phenomena in sedimentation of argillaceous rocks. J Sed Petrol 31:560–570Google Scholar
  129. Williams HS (1884) On the fossil faunas of the upper Devonian along the meridian of 76 degrees 30′, from Tompkins County, New York, to Bradford County, Pennsylvania. Geol Soc Am Bull 3:51–86Google Scholar
  130. Williams HS (1890) The Cuboides zone and its fauna; a discussion of methods of correlation (with discussion by C. D. Walcott). Geol Soc Am Bull 1:481–500Google Scholar
  131. Williams HS (1906) The Devonian section of Ithaca, New York, Part I. J Geol 14:579–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Williams HS (1913) Recurrent Tropidoleptus zones of the Upper Devonian in New York. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 79:103Google Scholar
  133. Williams HS, Tarr RS, Kindle EM (1909) Description of the Watkins Glen–Catatonk District, New York. US Geol Surv Geol Atlas US, Folio 69:242pGoogle Scholar
  134. Witzke BJ (1987) Models for circulation patterns in epicontinental seas applied to Paleozoic facies of North America Craton. Paleoceanography 2:229–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Witzke BJ, Bunker BJ (1997) Sedimentation and stratigraphic architecture of a Middle Devonian (late Givetian) transgressive–regressive carbonate–evaporite cycle, Coralville Formation, Iowa area. In: Klapper G, Murphy MA, Talent JA (eds) Paleozoic sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, and biogeography: studies in Honor of J. Granville (“Jess”) Johnson. Geol Soc Am Sp Pap 321:67–88Google Scholar
  136. Zambito JJ IV, Baird GC, Bartholomew AJ, Brett CE (2007) Re-examination of the type Ithaca Formation; correlations with sections in western New York. New York State Geol Assoc Guidebook 79:83–105Google Scholar
  137. Zambito JJ IV, Baird GC, Brett CE, Bartholomew AJ (2009) Depositional sequences and paleontology of the Middle–Upper Devonian transition (Genesee Group) at Ithaca, New York: a revised lithostratigraphy for the northern Appalachian Basin. In: Over DJ (ed) Studies in Devonian Stratigraphy: proceedings of the 2007 international meeting of the subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy and IGCP 499. Paleontogr Am 63:49–69Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • James J. ZambitoIV
    • 1
    Email author
  • Carlton E. Brett
    • 2
  • Gordon C. Baird
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesCentral Michigan UniversityMt. PleasantUSA
  2. 2.Department of GeologyUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  3. 3.Department of GeosciencesSUNY College at FredoniaFredoniaUSA

Personalised recommendations