Adaptive Forest Management: A Prerequisite for Sustainable Forestry in the Face of Climate Change

  • Andreas BolteEmail author
  • Christian Ammer
  • Magnus Löf
  • Gert-Jan Nabuurs
  • Peter Schall
  • Peter Spathelf
Part of the Managing Forest Ecosystems book series (MAFE, volume 19)


Since Europe appears to be more affected by climate change than the global average, novel concepts for the adaptation of forest and forestry to future climate and site conditions are urgently needed in order to maintain a sustainable use of forest resources. In Central Europe, extreme weather events like heat waves, drought, and storms, which may increase in frequency and intensity, as well as raised activity of biotic agents, are thought to put a high level of disturbance pressure on forests. Based on recent studies and conceptual papers, we introduce a concept for adaptive forest management in Central Europe including various options for (1) perpetuation of forest structures, (2) active adaptation, and (3) passive adaptation. The feasibility of this concept in forest planning is discussed in light of examples from Bavaria (Germany) and southern Sweden.

In addition the text addresses the implementation of adaptive forest management in silvicultural operations in order to assist forest adaptation to climate change, touching the fields of tree species selection, site preparation, regeneration techniques, thinning, and felling types. Though today’s debates on forest adaptation focus on forest transformation due to a replacement of tree species reputed to be sensitive to climate change pressures, we conclude that there is a large variety of promising silvicultural options such as site preparation and changed thinning and felling systems that reduce competition within the overstorey, but also particularly for regeneration. The use of species of different succesional stages in mixtures and of tested introduced species and provenances may also provide a dditional options for the adaptation of forest to climate change. However, research activities dealing with adequate adaptive measures must be intensified in order optimize the suggested adaptive management options.


Tree Species Forest Owner Black Locust European Beech Site Preparation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aldinger E, Michiels H-G (2001) Schlussfolgerungen zur natürlichen Wiederbewaldung in Baden-Württemberg aus standortskundlicher Sicht – Kriterien zur Beurteilung der Naturverjüngung auf Sturmwurfflächen. In: Huss J, Hehn M (eds): Wiederbewaldung von Sturmwurfflächen. Waldbauliche Strategien in Forschung und Praxis: Erfahrungen und Empfehlungen. Freiburger Forstliche Forschung 25:123–131Google Scholar
  2. Ammer C, Albrecht L, Borchert H, Brosinger F, Dittmar C, Elling W, Ewald J, Felbermeier B, Gilsa H v, Huss J, Kenk G, Kölling C, Kohnle U, Meyer P, Mosandl R, Moosmayer HU, Palmer S, Reif A, Rehfuess KE, Stimm B. (2005) Zur Zukunft der Buche (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Mitteleuropa. - Kritische Anmerkungen zu einem Beitrag von Rennenberg et al. (2004). Allg Forst- u Jagdztg 176: 60–67Google Scholar
  3. Ammer C, Dully I, Faißt G, Holland-Moritz H, Immler T, Kölling C, Marx N, Seidl G, Seitz R, Wolf M, Wolferstetter T (2006) Hinweise zur waldbaulichen Behandlung von Borkenkäferkalamitätsflächen in Mittelfranken. Ber Bayer Landesanst Wald Forstwirts 54:60Google Scholar
  4. Ammer C, Bickel E, Kölling C (2008) Converting Norway spruce stands with beech – a review on arguments and techniques. Aust J For Sci 125:3–26Google Scholar
  5. Anonymus (2007a) Statens Offentliga Utredningar (SOU). Sverige Inför Klimatförändringarna – Hot och Åtgärder. Slutbetänkande av Klimat- och sårbarhetsutredningen. SOU 2007:60. Sveriges Riksdag, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  6. Anonymus (2007b) Statistical yearbook of forestry. Sveriges Officiella Statistik. Skogsstyrelsen, JönköpingGoogle Scholar
  7. Battisti A, Stastny M, Netherer S, Robinet C, Schopf A, Roques A, Larsson S (2005) Expansion of geographic range in the pine processionary moth caused by increased winter temperatures. Ecol Appl 15(6):2084–2096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beniston M, Stephenson DB, Christensen OB, Ferro CAT, Frei C, Goyette S, Halsnaes K, Holt T, Jylha K, Koffi B, Palutikof J, Scholl R, Semmler T, Woth K (2007) Future extreme events in European climate: an exploration of regional climate model projections. Climatic Change 81:71–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bierbaum R, Holdren JP, MacCracken M, Moss RH, Raven PH, Schellnhuber HJ (2007) Confronting climate change: avoiding the unmanageable and managing the unavoidable. SIGMA XI, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  10. Bodin P, Wiman BLB (2007) The usefulness of stability concepts in forest management when coping with increasing climate uncertainties. For Ecol Manage 242:541–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bohn U, Neuhäusl R, Hettwer C, Gollub G, Weber H (2000/2003) Karte der natürlichen Vegetation Europas/Map of the Natural Vegetation of Europe. Maßstab/Scale 1:2500000. CDROM and text, Landwirtschaftsverlag, MünsterGoogle Scholar
  12. Boisvenue C, Running SW (2006) Impacts of climate change on natural forest productivity – evidence since the middle of the 20th century. Glob Change Biol 12(5):862–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bolte A, Ibisch P (2008) Neun Thesen zu Klimawandel, Waldbau und Waldnaturschutz. AFZ-DerWald 62:572–576Google Scholar
  14. Bolte A, Czajkowski T, Kompa T (2007) The north-eastern distribution area of European beech – a review. Forestry 80(4):413–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bolte A, Ibisch P, Menzel A, Rothe A (2008) Was Klimahüllen uns verschweigen. AFZ-DerWald 63:800–803Google Scholar
  16. Bonn S (2000) Konkurrenzdynamik in Buchen/Eichen-Mischbeständen und zu erwartende Modifikationen durch Klimaänderungen. Allg Forst- u Jgdztg 171:81–87Google Scholar
  17. Booth TH, Searle SD, Boland DJ (1989) Bioclimatic analysis to assist provenance selection for trials. New For 3(3):225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Box EO (1981) Macroclimate and plant forms: an introduction to predictive modeling in phytogeography. Tasks for Vegetation Science. Dr. W. Junk BV Publ., The HagueGoogle Scholar
  19. Braun S, Schindler C, Volz R, Flückiger W (2003) Forest damages by the storm ‘Lothar’ in permanent observation plots in Switzerland: the significance of soil acidification and nitrogen deposition. Water Air Soil Pollut 142:327–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bréda N, Granier A, Aussenac G (1995) Effects of thinning on soil and tree water relations, transpiration and growth in an oak forest (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.). Tree Physiol 15:295–306CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Broadmeadow M, Ray D, Samuel CJA (2005) Climate change and the future for broadleaved tree species in Britain. Forestry 78(2):145–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bullard S, Hodges JD, Johnson RL, Straka TJ (1992) Economics of direct seeding and planting for establishing oak stands on old-field sites in the south. South J Appl For 16:34–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bytnerowicz A, Omas K, Paoletti E (2007) Integrated effects of air pollution and climate change on forests: A northern hemisphere perspective. Environ Poll 147:438–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cescatti A, Piutti E (1998) Silvicultural alternatives, competition regime and sensibility to climate in an European beech forest. For Ecol Manage 102:213–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Christensen JH, Christensen OB (2007) A summary of the PRUDENCE model projections of changes in European climate by the end of this century. Climatic Change 81:7–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Christensen JH, Hewitson B (2007) Regional climate projections. In: IPCC (ed) Climate change 2007: The physical scientific basis. Contribution of the working group I to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  27. Christensen JH, Carter TR, Giorgi F (2002) PRUDENCE employs new methods to assess European climate change. EOS Trans Am Geophys Union 83:147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ciais Ph, Ciais Reichstein M, Viovy N, Granier A Og´ee J, Allard V, Buchmann N, Aubinet M, Bernhofer Chr, Carrara A, Chevallier F, De Noblet D, Friend A, Friedlingstein P, Grünwald T, Heinesch B, Keronen P, Knohl A, Krinner G, Loustau D, Manca G, Matteucci G, Miglietta F, Ourcival JM, Pilegaard K, Rambal S, Seufert G, Soussana JF, Sanz MJ, Schulze ED Vesala T, Valentini R (2005) European-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003. Nature 437:529–533Google Scholar
  29. Cogliastro D, Gagnon D, Coderre B (1990) Response of seven hardwood tree species to herbicide, rototilling, and legume cover at two southern Quebec plantation sites. Can J For Res 20:1172–1182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Czajkowski T, Bolte A (2006) Unterschiedliche Reaktion deutscher und polnischer Herkünfte der Buche (Fagus sylvatica L.) auf Trockenheit. Allg Forst- u Jagdztg 177:30–40Google Scholar
  31. Czajkowski T, Kühling M, Bolte A (2005) Einfluss der Sommertrockenheit im Jahre 2003 auf das Wachstum von Naturverjüngungen der Buche (Fagus sylvatica L.) im nordöstlichen Mitteleuropa. Allg Forst- u Jagdztg 176:133–143Google Scholar
  32. Dale VH, Joyce LA, McNulty S, Neilson RP, Ayres MP, Flannigan MD, Hanson PJ, Irland LC, Lugo AE, Peterson CJ, Simberloff D, Swanson FJ, Stocks BJ, Wotton BM (2001) Climate change and forest disturbances. Bioscience 51:723–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Davies RJ (1988) Sheet mulching as an aid to broadleaved tree establishment II.Comparison of various sizes of black polythene mulch and herbicide treated spots. Forestry 61:107–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dobbertin M, DeVries W (2008) Interactions between climate change and forest ecosystems. In: Fischer R (ed) Forest ecosystems in a changing environment: identifying future monitoring and research needs. Report and Recommendations COST Strategic Workshop 11–13 March 2008 Istanbul, Turkey. Accessed 15 July 2008
  35. Donner BL, Running SW (1986) Water stress response after thinning Pinus contorta stands in Montana. For Sci 32:614–625Google Scholar
  36. EEA (2004) Impacts of Europe’s changing climate – An indicator-based assessment. EEA-Report 2/2004, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  37. EEA (2008) Global and European temperature (CSI 012), Assessment April 2008. Copenhagen. Accessed 13 July 2008
  38. Ellenberg H (1988) Vegetation ecology of central Europe. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  39. Engelmark O, Sjöberg K, Andersson B, Rosvall O, Agren GE, Baker WL, Barklund P, Björkman C, Despain DG, Elfving B, Ennos RA, Karlman M, Knecht MF, Knight DH, Ledgard NJ, Lindelöw A, Nilsson C, Peterken GF, Sörlina S, Sykes MT (2001) Ecological effects and management aspects of an exotic tree species: the case of lodgepole pine in Sweden. For Ecol Manage 141:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Felbermeier B (1994) Arealveränderungen der Buche infolge von Klimaänderungen. Allg Forstzeitschr 49(5):222–224Google Scholar
  41. Felbermeier B, Burschel P (1994) Klimaänderung und Wald. Rundgespräche der Kommission für Ökologie 8:139–146Google Scholar
  42. Fiedler F (1962) Die Entwicklung des Vorwaldgedankens unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Birke. Arch Forstwes 11:174–190Google Scholar
  43. Fuhrer J, Beniston M, Fischlin A, Frei Ch, Goyette S, Jasper K, Pfister Ch (2006) Climate risks and their impact on agriculture and forests in Switzerland. Climatic Change 79:79–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Geßler A, Keitel C, Kreuzwieser J, Matyssek R, Seiler W, Rennenberg H (2007) Potential risks for European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in a changing climate. Trees 21:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Harris JA, Hobbs RJ, Higgs E, Aronson J (2006) Ecological restoration and global climate change. Restor Ecol 14:170–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Haylock MR, Goodess CM (2004) Interannual variability of European extreme winter rainfall and links with mean large-scale circulation. Int J Climatol 24:759–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. Summary for policymakers. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. WMO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  48. Irrgang S (2002) Klimaänderung und Waldentwicklung in Sachsen – Auswirkungen auf die Forstwirtschaft. Forstarchiv 73:137–148Google Scholar
  49. Jansen M, Döring C, Ahrends B, Bolte A, Czajkowski T, Panferov O, Albert M, Spellmann H, Nagel J, Lemme H, Habermann M, Staupendahl K, Möhring B, Böcher M, Storch S, Krott K, Nuske R, Thiele JC, Nieschulze J, Saborowski J, Beese F (2008) Anpassungsstrategien für eine nachhaltige Waldbewirtschaftung unter sich wandelnden Klimabedingungen – Entwicklung eines Entscheidungsunterstützungssystems “Wald und Klimawandel (DSS-WuK). Forstarchiv 79:131–142Google Scholar
  50. Johnsen Ø, Skrøppa T, Junttila O, Dæhlen OG (1996) Influence of the female flowering environment on autumn frost-hardiness of Picea abies progenies. Theor Appl Genetics 92:797–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Johnsen Ø, Fossdal CG, Nagy N, Mølmann J, Dæhlen OG, Skrøppa T (2005) Climatic adaptation in Picea abies progenies is affected by the temperature during zygotic embryogenesis and seed maturation. Plant Cell Environ 28:1090–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kätzel R (2009) Genetic resource conservation: the foundation for adaptability in sustainably managed forests. In: Spathelf P (ed) Sustainable forest management in a changing world: A European perspective. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  53. Kjellstrom E, Barring L, Jacob D, Jones R, Lenderink G, Schar C (2007) Modelling daily temperature extremes: recent climate and future changes over Europe. Climatic Change 81:249–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Klein Tank AMG, Können GP (2003) Trends in indices of daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe, 1946–1999. J Clim 16:3665–3680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Knoke T, Stimm B, Ammer C, Moog M (2005) Mixed forests reconsidered: a forest economics contribution on an ecological concept. For Ecol Manage 213:102–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Knoke T, Ammer C, Stimm B, Mosandl R (2008) Admixing broadleaved to coniferous tree species: a review on yield, ecological stability and economics. Eur J For Res 127:89–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kölling C (2007) Klimahüllen für 27 Waldbaumarten. Allg. Forstz./Der Wald 62:1242-1245 (in German).Google Scholar
  58. Kölling C, Ammer C (2006) Waldumbau unter den Vorzeichen des Klimawandels. AFZ-DerWald 61(20):1086–1089Google Scholar
  59. Kölling C, Zimmermann L (2007) Die Anfälligkeit der Wälder Deutschlands gegenüber dem Klimawandel. Gefahrstoffe/Reinhaltung der Luft 67:259–268Google Scholar
  60. Kölling C, Zimmermann L, Walentowski H (2007) Klimawandel: was geschieht mit Buche und Fichte? AFZ-DerWald 62(11):584–588Google Scholar
  61. Krehan H, Steyrer G (2005) Borkenkäfer-Monitoring 2005, Forstschutz Aktuell 34:18–21 (in German)Google Scholar
  62. Krissl W, Müller F (1990) Zweckmäßige Dauermischungsformen und Mischungsregulierung. Öster Forstztg 101(3):29–32Google Scholar
  63. Lagergren F, Lindroth A (2002) Transpiration response to soil moisture in pine and spruce trees in Sweden. Agr For Meteorol 112:67–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lagergren F, Lankreijer H, Kučera J, Cienciala E, Mölder M, Lindroth A (2008) Thinning effects on pine-spruce forest transpiration in central Sweden. For Ecol Manage 255:2312–2323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Larsen JB, Nielson AB (2007) Nature-based forest management - Where are we going? Elaborating forest development types in and with practice. For Ecol Manage 238:107–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Leckebusch GC, Ulbrich U (2004) On the relationship between cyclones and extreme windstorm events over Europe under climate change. Global Planet Change 44:181–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Leckebusch GC, Koffi B, Ulbrich U, Pinto JG, Spangehl T, Zacharias S (2006) Analysis of frequency and intensity of European winter storm events from a multi-model perspective, at synoptic and regional scales. Clim Res 31:59–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lexer MJ, Hönninger K, Scheifinger H, Matulla C, Groll N, Kromp-Kolb H, Schadauer K, Starlinger F, Englisch M (2002) The sensitivity of Austrian forests to scenarios of climate change: a large-scale risk assessment based on a modified gap model and inventory data. For Ecol Manage 162:53–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lockow KW (2002) Ergebnisse der Anbauversuche mit amerikanischen und japanischen Baumarten. In: LFE (ed) Ausländische Baumarten in Brandenburgs Wäldern. Potsdam and Eberswalde. 41–101Google Scholar
  70. Löf M (2000a) Establishment and growth in seedlings of Fagus sylvatica and Quercus robur: Influence of interference from herbaceous vegetation. Can J For Res 30:855–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Löf M (2000b) Influence of patch scarification and insect herbivory on growth and survival in Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies L. Karst. and Quercus robur L. seedlings following a Norway spruce forest. For Ecol Manage 134:111–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Löf M, Rydberg D, Bolte A (2006) Mounding site preparation for forest restoration: Survival and short term growth response in Quercus robur L. seedlings. For Ecol Manage 232:19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Löf M, Madsen P, Stanturf JA (2008) Restoration of broadleaved forests in southern Sweden – some thoughts about a new management concept. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 102:43–51Google Scholar
  74. Loreau M, Behera N (1999) Phenotypic Diversity and Stability of Ecosystem Processes. Theor Popul Biol 56:29–47CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Lüdge W (1971) Der Einfluß von Laubholzunterbau auf die Schädlingsdichte in den Kiefernbeständen der Schwetzinger Hardt. Allg Forst- u Jagdztg 142:173–178Google Scholar
  76. Lüpke B v (2004) Risikominderung durch Mischwälder und naturnaher Waldbau – ein Spannungsfeld. Forstarchiv 75:43–50Google Scholar
  77. Luterbacher J, Dietrich D, Xoplaki E, Grosjean M, Wanner H (2004) European seasonal and annual temperature variability, trends, and extremes since 1500. Science 303:1499–1502CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Madsen P, Löf M (2005) Reforestation in southern Scandinavia using direct seeding of oak (Quercus robur L.). Forestry 78:55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. MCPFE (2007) Europe’s forest in 2007. MCPFE Liasion Unit Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland,. Accessed 5 November 2008
  80. Meilby H, Strange N, Thorsen BJ (2001) Optimal spatial harvest planning under risk of windthrow. For Ecol Manage 149(1–3):15–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Miina S (ed) (2003) Does the forest sector have enough foresight? Future forum on forest, University of Joensuu. Newsletter 02/2003, Joensuu (Finland), Accessed 27 July 2008
  82. Millar CI, Stephenson NL, Stephens SL (2007) Climate change and forests of the future: managing in the face of uncertainty. Ecol Appl 17(8):2145–2151CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Misson L, Vincke C, Devillez F (2003) Frequency responses of radial growth series after different thinning intensities in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands. For Ecol Manage 177:51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. MLUV (2004) Waldbau-Richtlinie 2004 ’Grüner Ordner’ der Landesforstverwaltung Brandenburg. PotsdamGoogle Scholar
  85. Nabuurs GJ, Pussinen A, Karjalainen T, Erhard M, Kramer K (2002) Stemwood volume increment changes in European forests due to climate change – a simulation study with the EFISCEN model. Glob Change Biol 8(4):304–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nabuurs GJ, Pussinen A, van Brusselen J, Schelhaas MJ (2007) Future harvesting pressure on European forests. Eur J For Res 126:391–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Nilsson U, Gemmel P, Löf M, Welander T (1996) Germination and early growth of sown Quercus robur L. in relation to soil preparation, sowing depths and prevention against predation. New For 12:69–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nörr R (2004) Erfolg von Buchensaaten. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 59:1146–1149Google Scholar
  89. Övergaard R, Gemmel P, Karlsson M (2007) Effects of weather conditions on mast year frequency in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Sweden. Forestry 80:553–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Paoletti E, Bytnerowicz A, Andersen C, Augustaitis A, Ferretti M, Grulke N, Günthardt-Goerg MS, Innes J, Johnson D, Karnosky D, Luangjame J, Matyssek R, McNulty S, Müller-Starck G, Musselman R, Percy K (2007) Impacts of air pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems — emerging research needs. TheScientificWorldJOURNAL 7, S1:1–8Google Scholar
  91. Parker WC, Colombo SJ, Cherry ML, Flannigan MD, Greifenhagen S, McAlpine RS, Papadopol C, Scarr T (2000) Third millennium forestry: what climate change might mean to forests and forest management in Ontario. For Chron 76:445–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Parry ML (ed) (2000) Assessment of potential effects and adaptation for climate change in Europe: the Europe ACACIA project. Norwich, UKGoogle Scholar
  93. Pretzsch H (2003) Diversität und Produktivität von Wäldern. Allg Forst- u Jagdztg 174:88–98Google Scholar
  94. Profft I, Seiler M, Arenhövel W (2007) Die Zukunft der Fichte in Thüringen vor dem Hintergrund des Klimawandels. Forst und Holz 62:19–25Google Scholar
  95. Profft I, Baier U, Seiler M (2008) Borkenkäfer als Vitalitätsindikator für einen standortgerechten Fichtenanbau. Forst und Holz 63:32–37Google Scholar
  96. Rehfeldt GE, Tchebakova NM, Parfenova YI, Wykoff WR, Kuzmina NA, Milyutin LI (2002) Intraspecific responses to climate in Pinus sylvestris. Glob Change Biol 8:912–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rennenberg H, Seiler W, Matyssek R, Geßler A, Kreuzwieser J (2004) Die Buche (Fagus sylvatica L.) – ein Waldbaum ohne Zukunft im südlichen Mitteleuropa? Allg Forst- u Jagdztg 175:210–224Google Scholar
  98. Röhrig E, Bartsch N, Lüpke B v (2006) Waldbau auf ökologischer Grundlage, 7th edn. Ulmer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  99. Roloff, A (2008) Waldbaumarten und ihre Verwendung im Klimawandel. Arch. Forstwes. u. Landsch.ökol. 42:97–109Google Scholar
  100. Saxe H, Cannell MGR, Johnsen Ø, Ryan MG, Vourlitis G (2001) Tree and forest functioning in response to global warming. New Phytol 149:369–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schär C, Vidale PL, Lüthi D, Frei C, Häberli C, Liniger M, Appenzeller C (2004) The role of increasing temperature variability in European summer heat waves. Nature 427:332–336CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Schelhaas MJ, Nabuurs GJ, Schuck A (2003) Natural disturbances in the European forests in the 19th and 20th centuries. Glob Change Biol 9:1620–1633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schmidli J, Frei C (2005) Trends of heavy precipitation and wet and dry spells in Switzerland during the 20th century. Int J Climatol 25:753–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Schmidt W (2006) Zeitliche Veränderung der Fruktifikation bei der Rotbuche (Fagus sylvatica L.) in einem Kalkbuchenwald (1981–2004). Allg. Forst- u. Jagdztg 177:9–19Google Scholar
  105. Seidl R, Rammer W, Jäger D, Lexer MJ (2008) Impact of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) disturbance on timber production and carbon sequestration in different management strategies under climate change. For Ecol Manage 256:209–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Simonin K, Kolb TE, Montes-Helu M, Koch GW (2006) Restoration thinning and influence of tree size and leaf area to sapwood area ratio on water relations of Pinus ponderosa. Tree Physiol 26:493–503CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Simonin K, Kolb TE, Montes-Helu M, Koch GW (2007) The influence of thinning on components of stand water balance in a ponderosa pine forest stand during and after extreme drought. Agric For Meteor 143:266–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sonesson J (2006) Klimatet och skogen – underlag för nationell forskning. Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademiens Tidskrift 145(9):41Google Scholar
  109. Spittlehouse DL, Stewart RB (2003) Adaptation to climate change in forest management. BC J Ecosys Manage 4:1–11Google Scholar
  110. StMUGV (2007) Klimaprogramm Bayern 2020. Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Umwelt, Gesundheit und Verbraucherschutz, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  111. Stogsdill WR, Wittwer RF, Hennessy TC, Dougherty PM (1989) Relationship between throughfall and stand density in a Pinus taeda plantation. For Ecol Manage 29:105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tebaldi C, Hayhoe K, Arblaster JM, Meehl GA (2006) Going to the extremes. An intercomparison of model-simulated historical and future changes in extreme events. Climatic Change 79:185–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Thomasius H (1991) Mögliche Auswirkungen einer Klimaänderung auf die Wälder Mitteleuropas. Forstwiss Centralbl 110:305–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Tognetti R, Michelozzi M, Borghetti M (1995) The response of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings from two Italian populations to drought and recovery. Trees 9:348–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wagner S (2004) Möglichkeiten und Beschränkungen eines funktionsorientierten Waldbaus. Forst und Holz 59:105–111Google Scholar
  116. Wagner S, Fischer H (2007) Klimawandel – wie reagiert der Waldbau? ProWALD 3:4–7Google Scholar
  117. Walther G-R (2003) Plants in a warmer world. Perspectives Plant Ecol Evol System 6:169–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Bolte
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christian Ammer
    • 2
  • Magnus Löf
    • 3
  • Gert-Jan Nabuurs
    • 4
    • 5
  • Peter Schall
    • 2
  • Peter Spathelf
    • 6
  1. 1.Johann Heinrich v. Thünen-Institut (vTI)Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Institute of Forest Ecology and Forest InventoryEberswaldeGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of Forestry and Forest Ecology, Dept. of Silviculture and Forest Ecology of the Temperate ZonesUniversity of GöttingenGöttingenGermany
  3. 3.Swedish Agricultural University (SLU), Southern Swedish Forest Research CentreAlnarpSweden
  4. 4.ALTERRAWageningenThe Netherlands
  5. 5.EFIJoensuuFinland
  6. 6.University of Applied Science EberswaldeEberswaldeGermany

Personalised recommendations