Key Challenges in Forest Protected Area Management

  • Monika BertzkyEmail author
  • Bastian Bomhard
Part of the Managing Forest Ecosystems book series (MAFE, volume 19)


Human population growth, unsustainable development, and their consequences have taken and will continue to take their toll on the world’s biodiversity and natural resources. Establishing and effectively managing protected areas is a cornerstone of in-situ conservation of biodiversity and natural resources. To date, more than 13% of the world’s forest area has been designated primarily for biodiversity conservation, and these forest protected areas are part of a global network of more than 120,000 protected areas established for conservation purposes.

Managing protected areas effectively despite development and other pressures has always been a challenge. Here we argue, however, that effective protected area management has become a task of growing complexity because of the following obstacles that have emerged in the recent past:
  1. 1.

    Changing conservation paradigms that expect protected areas to reconcile biodiversity conservation and sustainable development

  2. 2.

    Challenging conservation targets that increasingly require protected area managers to measure, monitor, and report on the performance of protected areas

  3. 3.

    Global change and climate change, which have begun to exacerbate the impact on protected areas of conventional pressures, and therefore start to challenge the whole concept of in-situ conservation

Here we discuss these challenges with the emphasis on forest protected areas and consider the widening gap between what is expected from protected areas and what they can achieve given the resources and support provided. We argue that without the following steps, a great deal of the biodiversity that still exists in protected areas, especially in the tropics, will be lost within a few decades:
  1. 1.

    Re-positioning of biodiversity conservation at the top of political and public agendas

  2. 2.

    Significant investments in the effective management of protected areas

  3. 3.

    Similar investments in the establishment of biodiversity-friendly landscapes around protected areas



Protected Area Biodiversity Conservation Armed Conflict World Heritage Site Human Population Growth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We would like to thank Alexander Belokurov and Joe Greenman for constructive comments that helped improve the manuscript.


  1. Adams WM, Hutton J (2007) People, parks and poverty: political ecology and biodiversity conservation. Conserv Soc 5:147–183Google Scholar
  2. Agrawal A, Gupta K (2005) Decentralization and participation: the governance of common pool resources in Nepal’s Terai. World Dev 33:1101–1114Google Scholar
  3. Agrawal A, Ostrom E (2001) Collective action, property rights, and devolution of forest and protected area management. In: Meinzen-Dick R, Knox A, Di Gregorio M (eds) Collective action, property rights and devolution of natural resource management: exchange of knowledge and implications for policy, pp 75–109. Proceedings of the International Conference, Puerto Azul, Philippines, June 21–25: Feldafing: German Foundation for International DevelopmentGoogle Scholar
  4. Batsukh N, Belokurov A (2005) Mongolia: management effectiveness assessment of the Mongolian protected areas system using WWF’s RAPPAM Methodology, WWF, Gland, Switzerland, pp 44Google Scholar
  5. Bennett AF (2003) Linkages in the landscape: the role of corridors and connectivity in wildlife conservation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland/CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  6. Bennett G, Mulongoy KJ (2006) Review of experience with ecological networks, corridors and buffer zones. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  7. BirdLife International (2003) Sundaland forests. In: B International (ed) Saving Asia’s threatened birds: a guide for government and civil society. BirdLife International, Cambridge, pp 256Google Scholar
  8. BirdLife International (2008) State of the world’s birds. BirdLife International, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  9. Bishop K, Phillips A, Warren L (1995) Protected forever? Factors shaping the future of protected areas policy. Land Use Policy 12:291–305Google Scholar
  10. Bishop K, Dudley N, Phillips A, Stolton S (2004) Speaking a common language. The uses and performance of the IUCN System of Management Categories for Protected Areas. IUCN, UNEP-WCMC, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  11. Block WM, Franklin AB, Ward JPJ, Ganey JL, White GC (2001) Design and implementation of monitoring studies to evaluate success of ecological restoration on wildlife. Restoration Ecol 9:293–303Google Scholar
  12. Bonham CA, Sacayon E, Tzi E (2008) Protecting imperiled “paper parks”: potential lessons from the Sierra Chinajá, Guatemala. Biodivers Conserv 17:1581–1593Google Scholar
  13. Borrini-Feyerabend G (2003) Governance of protected areas – innovation in the air.... In: IUCN Commission on Environmental, and Social Policy (ed) Community empowerment for conservation. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, pp 92–101Google Scholar
  14. Borrini-Feyerabend G (2004) Governance of protected areas, participation and equity. CBD Technical Series No. 15. In: SotCoB Diversity (ed) Biodiversity issues for consideration in the planning, establishment and management of protected area sites and networks. SCBD, Montreal, Canada, pp 100–110Google Scholar
  15. Brandon K, Wells M (1992) Planning for people and parks: design dilemmas. World Dev 20:557–570Google Scholar
  16. Brockington D (2004) Community conservation, inequality and injustice: myths of power in protected area management. Conserv Soc 2:411–432Google Scholar
  17. Brockington D, Igoe J (2006) Eviction for conservation: a global overview. Conserv Soc 4:424–470Google Scholar
  18. Brockington D, Igoe J, Schmidt-Soltau K (2006) Conservation, human rights, and poverty reduction. Conserv Biol 201:250–252Google Scholar
  19. Brown K (2003) Three challenges for a real people-centred conservation. Global Ecol Biogeogr 12:89–92Google Scholar
  20. Bruner AG, Gullison RE, Rice RE, da Fonseca GAB (2001) Effectiveness of parks in protecting tropical biodiversity. Science 291:125–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Büscher B, Dietz T (2005) Conjunctions of governance: the state and the conservation-development nexus in Southern Africa. J Transdisciplinary Environ Stud 4:1–15Google Scholar
  22. Büscher B, Whande W (2007) Whims of the winds of time? Emerging trends in biodiversity conservation and protected area management. Conserv Soc 5:22–43Google Scholar
  23. Carey C, Dudley N, Stolton S (2000) Squandering Paradise? The importance and vulnerability of the world’s protected areas. WWF International, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  24. Caro T, Scholte P (2007) When protection falters. Afr J Ecol 45:233–235Google Scholar
  25. Cernea MM, Schmidt-Soltau K (2006) Poverty risks and national parks: policy issues in conservation and resettlement. World Dev 34:1808–1830Google Scholar
  26. Chape S, Spalding M, Jenkins MD (2008) The world’s protected areas. Prepared by the UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, University of California Press, Berkeley, USAGoogle Scholar
  27. Coad L, Campbell A, Miles L, Humphries K (2008) The costs and benefits of forest protected areas for local livelihoods: a review of the current literature: Working Paper. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, U.KGoogle Scholar
  28. Cohen JE (2003) Human population: the next half century. Science 302:1172–1175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Colchester M, Boscolo M, Contreras-Hermosilla A, Del Gatto F, Dempsey J, Lescuyer G, Obidzinski K, Pommier D, Richards M, Sembiring SN, Tacconi L, Vargas Rios MT, Wells A (2006) Justice in the forest: Rural livelihoods and forest law enforcement. Center for International Forestry Research, CIFOR, Bogor, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  30. Cordeiro NJ, Burgess ND, Dovie DBK, Kaplin BA, Plumptre AJ, Marrs R (2007) Conservation in areas of high population density in sub-Saharan Africa. Biol Conserv 134:155–163Google Scholar
  31. Curran LM, Trigg SN, McDonald AK, Astiani D, Hardiono YM, Siregar P, Caniago I, Kasischke E (2004) Lowland forest loss in protected areas of Indonesian Borneo. Science 303:1000–1003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Daily GC, Ehrlich PR (1992) Population, sustainability, and earth‘s carrying capacity. Bioscience 42:761–771Google Scholar
  33. De Poorter M, Pagad S, Irfan Ullah M (2007) Invasive alien species and protected areas. A scoping report. Part I: Scoping the Scale and Nature of Invasive Alien Species, Threats to Protected Areas, Impediments to IAS, Management and Means to Address those Impediments: IUCN Invasive Species Specialist GroupGoogle Scholar
  34. Diqiang L, Jianhua Z, Ke D, Bo W, Chunquan Z (2003) China: management effectiveness assessment of protected areas in the Upper Yangtze ecoregion using WWF’s RAPPAM methodology. WWF, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  35. Dudley N (2003) No place to hide: effects of climate change on protected areas, WWF Climate Change Programme, Berlin, Germany, pp 11Google Scholar
  36. Dudley N (2004) Protected areas and certification. In: Scanlon J, Burhenne-Guilmin F (eds) International environmental governance. An international regime for protected areas. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland/Cambridge, pp 41–56Google Scholar
  37. Dudley N (2008) Guidelines for applying protected area management categories. IUCN, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  38. Dudley N, Parrish J (2006) Closing the gap. creating ecologically representative protected area systems: a guide to conducting the gap assessments of protected area systems for the convention on biological diversity. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  39. Dudley N, Phillips A (2006) Forests and Protected Areas: Guidance on the use of the IUCN protected area management categories. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland/CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  40. Dudley N and Stolton S (1999) Conversion of paper parks to effective management: developing a target. Report to the WWF-World Bank Alliance from the IUCN/WWF Forest Innovation Project. IUCN and WWF, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  41. Dudley N, Stolton S (2002) To dig or not to dig? Criteria for determining the suitability or acceptability of mineral exploration, extraction and transport from ecological and social perspectives. A discussion paper for WWF. WWF International and WWF-UK, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  42. Dudley N, Stolton S (2003) Running pure: the importance of forest protected areas to drinking water. World Bank/WWF Alliance for Forest Conservation and Sustainable Use, WWF International, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  43. Dudley N, Hockings M, Stolton S (2003) Protection assured. Guaranteeing the effective management of the world‘s protected areas – a review of options. A background paper for the World Commission of Protected Areas. IUCN, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  44. Dudley N, Hockings M, Stolton S (2004) Options for guaranteeing the effective management of the World‘s Protected Areas. J Environ Policy Plann 6:131–142Google Scholar
  45. Ellis EA, Porter-Bolland L (2008) Is community-based forest management more effective than protected areas? A comparison of land use/land cover change in two neighboring study areas of the Central Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. For Ecol Manage 256:1971–1983Google Scholar
  46. Ervin J (2003) WWF: Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area Management (RAPPAM) Methodology. WWF, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  47. FAO (2007) State of the World‘s Forest 2007. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  48. Finer M, Jenkins CM, Pimm SL, Keane B, Ross C (2008) Oil and gas projects in the Western Amazon: threats to wilderness, biodiversity, and indigenous people. PLoS One 3:e2932. doi: 2910.1371/journal.pone.0002932Google Scholar
  49. Fischer F (2004) Status of the Comoé National Park, Côte d‘Ivoire, and the effects of war. Parks 14:17–25Google Scholar
  50. Fischer F (2005) Elephants in Côte d‘Ivoir – a warning for West African conservation. Pachyderm 38:64–75Google Scholar
  51. Goodman PS (2003) South Africa: management effectiveness assessment of protected areas in KwaZulu-Natal using WWF’s RAPPAM methodology. WWF, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  52. Gosling M (2008) ‘Climate change’ park for SA. Originally published on page 6 of The Cape Times on November 11, 2008. Accessed on 22 December 2008
  53. Hannah L, Lovejoy T (2003) Climate change and biodiversity: synergistic impacts. Center for Applied Biodiversity, Conservation International, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  54. Hannah L, Midgley G, Hughes G, Bomhard B (2005) The view from the Cape: extinction risk, protected areas, and climate change. Bioscience 55:231–242Google Scholar
  55. Hannah L, Midgley G, Andelman S, Araújo MB, Hughes G, Martinez-Meyer E, Pearson RG, Williams PH (2007) Protected area needs in a changing climate. Front Ecol Environ 5:131–138Google Scholar
  56. Hayes T, Ostrom E (2005) Conserving the world‘s forests: Are protected areas the only way? Indiana Law Rev 38:595–617Google Scholar
  57. Hockings M (2003) Systems for assessing the effectiveness of management in protected areas. Bioscience 53:823–832Google Scholar
  58. Hockings M, Stolton S, Leverington F, Dudley N Courrau J (2006) Evaluating effectiveness: a framework for assessing management effectiveness of protected areas. 2nd edn. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland/CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  59. Hockings M, Stolton S, Dudley N, James R, Mathur V, Courrau J, Makombo J, Parrish J (2008) Enhancing our Heritage Toolkit: Assessing management effectiveness of natural World Heritage Sites – World Heritage Series n°23. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  60. Inogwabini B-I, Ilambu O, Gbanzi MA (2005) Protected areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Conserv Biol 19:15–22Google Scholar
  61. IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: the scientific basis: contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  62. IUCN (2005) Benefits Beyond Boundaries. Proceedings of the Vth IUCN World Parks Congress. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland/CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  63. Jha S, Bawa KS (2006) Population growth, human development, and deforestation in biodiversity hotspots. Conserv Biol 20:906–912PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Karanth KK (2007) Making resettlement work: the case of India‘s Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary. Biol Conserv 139:315–324Google Scholar
  65. Kothari A (2004) Displacement fears. Frontline 21, accessed online at on September 22, 2008
  66. Kothari A (2006) Community conserved areas. In: Lockwood M, Worboys GL, Kothari A (eds) Managing protected areas. a global guide. Earthscan, London, pp 549–574Google Scholar
  67. Kothari A, Pathak N, Vania F (2000) Where communities care – community based wildlife and ecosystem management in South Asia. Evaluating Eden Series no 3. Kalpavrish and International Institute for Environment and Development, IIED, LondonGoogle Scholar
  68. Lacerda L, Schmitt K, Cutter P, Meas S (2004) Management effectiveness assessment of the system of protected areas in Cambodia using WWF’s RAPPAM methodology. Ministry of Environment, Biodiversity and Protected Areas Management Project, Phnom Penh, CambodiaGoogle Scholar
  69. Laurance WF (2005) When bigger is better: the need for Amazonian mega-reserves. Trends Ecol Evol 20:645–648PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lee TM, Jetz W (2008) Future battlegrounds for conservation under global change. Proceedings of the Royal Society B Online early, 1–10Google Scholar
  71. Leverington F, Hockings M, Lemos Costa K (2008a) Management effectiveness evaluation in protected areas: Report for the project ‘Global study into management effectiveness evaluation of protected areas. The University of Queensland, IUCN WCPA, TNC, WWF, Gatton, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  72. Leverington F, Hockings M, Pavese H, Lemos Costa K, Courrau J (2008b) Management effectiveness evaluation in protected areas – A global study. Supplementary report No.1: Overview of approaches and methodologies. The University of Queensland, Gatton, TNC, WWF, IUCN-WCPA, Gatton, Australia, pp 145Google Scholar
  73. Lewis SL, Malhi Y, Phillips OL (2004) Fingerpinting the impacts of global change on tropical forests. Philos Trans R Soc B 359:437–462Google Scholar
  74. Liu J, Linderman M, Ouyang Z, An L, Yang J, Zhang H (2001) Ecological degradation in protected areas: the case of wolong nature reserve for giant pandas. Science 292:98–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Locke H, Dearden P (2005) Rethinking protected area categories and the new paradigm. Environ Conserv 32:1–10Google Scholar
  76. Lockwood M, Kothari A (2006) Social Context. In: Lockwood M, Worboys GL, Kothari A (eds) Managing protected areas – a global guide. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  77. Lopoukhine N (2006) Foreword. In: Kothari A, Lockwood M, Worboys GL (eds) Managing protected areas. A global guide. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  78. Madhusudan MD, Shankar Raman TR (2003) Conservation as if biological diversity matters: preservation versus sustainable use in India. Conserv Soc 1:49–59Google Scholar
  79. Mbile P, Vabi M, Meboka M, Okon D, Arrey-Mbo J, Nkongho F, Ebong E (2005) Linking management and livelihood in environmental conservation: case of the Korup National Park Cameroon. J Environ Manage 76:1–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005a) Ecosystems and human well-being: biodiversity synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, USA, pp 621Google Scholar
  81. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Island, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  82. Miranda M, Burris P, Shearman P, Briones JO, La Vina A, Menard S (2003) Mining and critical ecosystems: mapping the risks. World Resources Institute, WRI, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  83. Molnar A, Scherr S, Khare A (2004) Who conserves the world’s forests: community driven strategies to protect forests and respect rights. For Trends Ecoagric Partners, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  84. Mubalama L, Bashigg E (2006) Caught in the crossfire: the forest elephant and law enforcement in a region of political instability, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Pachyderm 40:69–79Google Scholar
  85. Mubalama L, Mbula D (2005) Less room for a small population of elephants in severely encroached Mikeno massif, southern Virunga National Park, Democratic Republic of Congo. Pachyderm 38:106–109Google Scholar
  86. Mulongoy KJ, Chape SP (2004) Protected Areas and Biodiversity: An overview of key issues: . CBD Secretariat and UNEP-WCMC, Montreal, Canada/CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  87. Myers N (2001) Environmental refugees: a growing phenomenon of the 21st century. Philos Trans R Soc B 356. doi:01tb0016.0011-0001tb0016.0015Google Scholar
  88. Nagendra H (2008) Do parks work? impact of protected areas on land cover clearing. Ambio 37:330–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Nagendra H, Pareeth S, Sharma B, Schweik CM, Adhikari KR (2008) Forest fragmentation and regrowth in an institutional mosaic of community, government and private ownership in Nepal. Landscape Ecol 23:41–54Google Scholar
  90. Nellemann C, Miles L, Kaltenborn BP, Virtue M, Ahlenius H (2007) The last stand of the orangutan – State of emergency: illegal logging, fire and palm oil in Indonesia’s national parks. United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP, GRID-Arendal, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  91. Nepali SC, Upadhyay GP, Thagunna SS (2006) Nepal: Management effectiveness assessment of protected areas using WWF’s RAPPAM methodology. WWF Nepal Program and WWF International, Kathmandu, Nepal, and Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  92. Pal Singh P (2008) Exploring biodiversity and climate change benefits of community-based forest management. Glob Environ Change 18:468–478Google Scholar
  93. Phillips A (2001) Mining and Protected Areas. Working Paper No. 62 of the Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development Project. London, UK: International Institute for Environment and Development and Geneva, Switzerland: World Business Council for Sustainable Development.Google Scholar
  94. Phillips A (2003) Turning ideas on their head. New Paradigm Protected Areas. George Wright Forum 20:8–32Google Scholar
  95. Pomeroy RS, Watson LM, Parks JE, Cid GA (2005) How is your MPA doing? A methodology for evaluating the management effectiveness of marine protected areas. Ocean Coastal Manage 48:485–502Google Scholar
  96. Pounds JA, Puschendorf R (2004) Clouded futures. Nature 427:107–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Pounds JA, Bustamante MR, Coloma LA, Consuegra JA, Fogden MPL, Foster PN, La Marca E, Masters KL, Merino-Viteri As, Puschendorf R, Ron SR, Sánchez-Azofeifa GA, J. Still C, Young BE (2006) Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming. Nature 439:161–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Rao M, Rabinowitz A, Khaing ST (2002) Status review of the protected-area system in Myanmar, with recommendations for conservation planning. Conserv Biol 16:360–368Google Scholar
  99. Reid H, Simms A, Johnson V (2007) Up in smoke? Asia and the Pacific. The threat from climate change to human development and the environment. The fifth report report from the Working Group on Climate Change and Development. New economic foundation, nef, LondonGoogle Scholar
  100. Ricketts TH, Dinerstein E, Boucher T, Brooks TM, Butchart SHM, Hoffmann M, Lamoreux JF, Morrison J, Parr M, Pilgrim JD, Rodrigues ASL, Sechrest W, Wallace GE, Berlin K, Bielby J, Burgess ND, Church DR, Cox N, Knox D, Loucks C, Luck GW, Master LL, Moore R, Naidoo R, Ridgely R, Schatz GE, Shire G, Strand H, Wettengel W and Wikramanayake E (2005) Pinpointing and preventing imminent extinctions. PNAS. doi:0509060102Google Scholar
  101. Rodgers WA, Nabanyumya R, Mupada E, Persha L (2002) Community conservation of closed forest biodiversity in East Africa: can it work? Unasylva 209(53):41–47Google Scholar
  102. Rodrigues ASL (2006) ECOLOGY: are global conservation efforts successful? Science 313:1051–1052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Rowell A, Moore PF (2000) Global review of forest fires. WWF International and IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  104. Rutherford MC, Powrie LW, Schulze RE (1999) Climate change in conservation areas of South Africa and its potential impact on floristic composition: a first assessment. Divers Distrib 5:253–262Google Scholar
  105. Saxon E (2008) Noah‘s parks: a partial antidote to the Anthropocene extinction event. Biodiversity 9:5–10Google Scholar
  106. Scherl LM, Wilson A, Wild R, Blockhus J, Franks P, Mc Neely JA, McShane TO (2004) Can protected areas contribute to poverty reduction? Opportunities and limitations. IUCN – The World Conservation Union, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  107. Scientific Expert Group on Climate Change (SEG) (2007) Confronting Climate Change: Avoiding the Unmanageable and Managing the Unavoidable. Report prepared for the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. Sigma Xi, Research Triangle Park, N.C., and the United Nations Foundation, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  108. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (2005) Handbook of the Convention on Biological Diversity Including its Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, 3rd edn. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, SCBD, Montreal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  109. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity S (2003) Interlinkages between biological diversity and climate change. Advice on the integration of biodiversity considerations into the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto protocol. In: CBD Technical Series no. 10. SCBD, Montreal, Canada, pp 154Google Scholar
  110. Shafer CL (1999) National park and reserve planning to protect biological diversity: some basic elements. Landscape Urban Plann 44:123–153Google Scholar
  111. Simms A (2006) Up in smoke? Latin America and the Caribbean. The threat from climate change to the environment and human development. The third report from the Working Group on Climate Change and Development. New economic foundation, nef., London, pp 44Google Scholar
  112. Singh J, van Houtum H (2004) Post-colonial nature conservation in Southern Africa: same emperors, new clothes? GeoJournal 58:253–263Google Scholar
  113. Sodhi NS, Koh LP, Brook BW, Ng PKL (2004) Southeast Asian biodiversity: an impending disaster. Trends Ecol Evol 19:654–660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Stolton S, Hockings M, Dudley N, MacKinnon K and Whitten T (2003) Reporting Progress in Protected Areas - A Site-Level Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool: World Bank/WWF Alliance for Forest Conservation and Sustainable Use. Gland, Switzerland: WWF International and Washington, D.C., USA: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  115. Thompson MH, Dumont CP, Gaymer CF (2008) ISO 14001: Towards international quality environmental management standards for marine protected areas. Ocean Coastal Manage 51:727–739Google Scholar
  116. Tshering K (2003) Bhutan: management effectiveness assessment of four protected areas using WWF’s RAPPAM methodology. WWF, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  117. Tucker G, Bubb P, de Heer M, Miles L, Lawrence A, Bajracharya SB, RCN, Sherchan R, Chapagain NR (2005) Guidelines for Biodiversity Assessment and Monitoring for Protected Areas. King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation, KMTNC, Kathmandu, NepalGoogle Scholar
  118. Tyrlyshkin V, Blagovidov A, Belokurov A (2003) Russia: management effectiveness assessment of protected areas using WWF’s RAPPAM methodology. WWF, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  119. UNEP-WCMC (2008) Annual report on protected areas: a review of global conservation progress in 2007. United Nations Environment Programme – World Conservation Monitoring Centre, UNEP-WCMC, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  120. United Nations (2006) World Population Prospects. The 2004 Revision. Volume III. Analytical Report. United Nations, UN, Department of Social and Economic Affairs, Population Division, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  121. United Nations (2008) The Millennium Development Goals Report 2008. United Nations, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  122. Vié J-C, Hilton-Taylor C, Stuart SN (2008) The 2008 review of the IUCN Red List of threatened species. IUCN, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  123. Wilshusen PR, Brechin SR, Fortwangler CL, West PC (2002) Reinventing a SquareWheel: critique of a resurgent ‚protection paradigm‘ in international biodiversity conservation. Soc Nat Resour 15:17–40Google Scholar
  124. Wright JS, Sanchez-Azofeifa GA, Portillo-Quintero C, Davies D (2007) Poverty and corruption compromise tropical forest reserves. Ecol Appl 17:1259–1266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. WWF (2004) Are protected areas working? An analysis of forest protected areas by WWF. WWF International, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  126. WWF (2007) Tracking progress in managing protected areas around the world. An analysis of two applications of the management effectiveness tracking tool developed by WWF and the World Bank. WWF International, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  127. WWF International (2007) Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool. Reporting Progress at Protected Area Sites, 2nd edn. WWF International, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
  128. WWF, Zoological Society of London and Global Footprint Network (2008) Living Planet Report 2008. WWF International, Gland, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MülheimGermany
  2. 2.WuppertalGermany

Personalised recommendations