A Study of Similarity Measures for In Vivo 3D Ultrasound Volume Registration
Most of the conventional ultrasound machines in hospitals work in two dimensions. However, there are some applications where doctors would like to be able to gather ultrasound data as a three-dimensional (3D) block rather than a two-dimensional (2D) slice. Two different types of 3D ultrasound have been developed to meet this requirement. One type involves a special probe that can record a fixed block of data, either by having an internal sweeping mechanism or by using electronic steering. The other type of 3D ultrasound uses a conventional 2D ultrasound probe together with a position sensor and is called freehand 3D ultrasound. A natural progression of the mechanically-swept 3D ultrasound system is to combine it with the free hand sensor. This results in an extended field of view. There are two major problems with using a position sensor. Firstly, line-of-sight needs to be maintained between the sensor and the reference point. Secondly, the multiple volumes rarely register because of tissue displacement and deformation. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to get rid of the inconvenient position sensor and to use an automatic image-based registration technique. We provide an experimental study of several intensity-based similarity measures for the registration of 3D ultrasound volumes. Rather than choosing a conventional voxel array to represent the 3D blocks, we use corresponding vertical and horizontal image slices from the blocks to be matched. This limits the amount of data thus making the calculation of the similarity measure less computationally expensive.
KeywordsSimilarity measures 3D ultrasound Automatic registration
This work is supported by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) grant EP/F016476/1.
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