Resolving the Location of Acoustic Point Sources Scattered Due to the Presence of a Skull Phantom
This paper considers resolving the location of a foreign object in the brain without the removal of the skull bone by detecting and processing the acoustic waves emitted from the foreign object modeled as point source. The variable thickness of the skull bone causes propagation acoustic waves to be scattered in such a manner that the acoustic wave undergoes a variable time delay relative to its entry point on the skull. Matched filtering can be used to detect the acoustic wave front, the time delay variations of the skull can be corrected for, and matched filtering time reversal algorithms can then detect the location of the acoustic source. This process is examined experimentally in a water tank system containing an acoustic source, custom-made skull phantom, and receiver. The apparatus is arranged in transmission mode so that the acoustic waves are emitted from the source, scattered by the phantom, and then received by a second transducer. The skull phantom has been designed so that the acoustic properties (velocity, density, and attenuation correspond approximately to those of a typical human skull. In addition, the phantom has been molded so that the surface closest to the acoustic source has smoothly oscillating ridges and valleys and a flat outer surface, approximately modeling a real-world skull bone. The data obtained from the experiment is processed to detect and extract the scattered acoustic wave front and correct for the time of flight variations in the skull. This re-creates the approximate wave front of a point source, whose location can be resolved via a matched filtering time reversal algorithm. The results of this process are examined for cases where there is no phantom present (no scattering), and with the phantom present. Comparison of these results shows a correlation between the calculated locations of the acoustic source and the expected location.
KeywordsPoint source Skull phantom Ultrasound Time reversal Matched filtering Attenuation Sound speed Scattering
The authors would like to express thanks to the Office of Naval Research, USA for providing the funding for this research.
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