Second Harmonic Detection Generated from Fastened Bolt

  • M. Fukuda
  • K. Imano
Conference paper
Part of the Acoustical Imaging book series (ACIM, volume 30)


The second harmonic components before/after the bolt was fastened were detected by using double-layered piezoelectric transducer (DLPT). The resonance frequency of DLPT changes to 1 MHz (f 0/2) when connected in parallel, but remains at 2 MHz (f 0) when connected in series. An effective fundamental transmission (1 MHz) is obtained when the DLPT is electrically connected in parallel while efficient second harmonic reception (2 MHz) is obtained when the DLPT is connected in series. In our system, the pulse inversion averaging (PIA) method was applied to enhance the second harmonic component. A hexagon head bolt (the diameter of a screw: 12 mm, the length: 100 mm) was used in experimental. The bolt was fastened by 40 N-m. The detected second harmonic component after the bolt was fastened was increased by approximately 10 dB compared with before the bolt was fastened.


Fastened bolt Second harmonic Pulse wave Non-destructive testing Double-layered piezoelectric transducer Pulse echo 



This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (Start-up) (No. 20860020) from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Fukuda
    • 1
  • K. Imano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Resource ScienceAkita UniversityAkitaJapan

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