Advertisement

Second Harmonic Detection Generated from Fastened Bolt

  • M. Fukuda
  • K. Imano
Conference paper
Part of the Acoustical Imaging book series (ACIM, volume 30)

Abstract

The second harmonic components before/after the bolt was fastened were detected by using double-layered piezoelectric transducer (DLPT). The resonance frequency of DLPT changes to 1 MHz (f 0/2) when connected in parallel, but remains at 2 MHz (f 0) when connected in series. An effective fundamental transmission (1 MHz) is obtained when the DLPT is electrically connected in parallel while efficient second harmonic reception (2 MHz) is obtained when the DLPT is connected in series. In our system, the pulse inversion averaging (PIA) method was applied to enhance the second harmonic component. A hexagon head bolt (the diameter of a screw: 12 mm, the length: 100 mm) was used in experimental. The bolt was fastened by 40 N-m. The detected second harmonic component after the bolt was fastened was increased by approximately 10 dB compared with before the bolt was fastened.

Keywords

Fastened bolt Second harmonic Pulse wave Non-destructive testing Double-layered piezoelectric transducer Pulse echo 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (Start-up) (No. 20860020) from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

References

  1. 1.
    Sakai, T.: Zouho Neji Teiketsu Gairon, pp. 108–114. Yokendo Ltd., Tokyo (2005) [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ogi, H., Hirao, M., Yasui, H.: Ultrasonic measurement of bolt-axial stress by a shear-wave electromagnetic acoustic transducer. Hihakai Kensa 47(5), 331–336 (1998) [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kurosaki, S., Sasaki, Y., Izumi, S.: Trial of measurements for axial force of bolt using piezo cable. Hihakai Kensa 56(7), 149–154 (2007) [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Okugawa, M., Egawa, K.: Study on smart washer using piezoelectric material for bolt loosening detection. Hihakai Kensa 52(9), 511–516 (2003) [in Japanese]Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ohara, Y., Yamamoto, S., Mihara, T., Yamanaka, K.: Ultrasonic evaluation of closed cracks using subharmonic phased array. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(5), 3908–3915 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kawashima, K., Murase, M., Shibata, K., Ito, T.: Backscattered transverse wave imaging of cracked-faces with linear and nonlinear ultrasonics. Mater. Trans. 48(6), 1202–1207 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cantrell, J.H.: Dependence of microelastic-plastic nonlinearity of martensitic stainless steel on fatigue damage accumulation. J. Appl. Phys. 100(063508), 1–7 (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Alippi, A., Bettucci, A., Germano, M., Passeri, D.: Harmonic and subharmonic acoustic wave generation in finite structures. Ultrasonics 44, e1313–e1318 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Solodov, I., Wackerl, J., Pfleiderer, K., Busse, G.: Nonlinear self-modulation and subharmonic acoustic spectroscopy for damage detection and location. Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(26), 5386–5388 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fukuda, M., Nishihira, M., Imano, K.: Real time extraction system using double-layered piezoelectric transducer for second-harmonic ultrasonic pulse waves. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(5B), 4556–4559 (2006)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fukuda, M., Nishihira, M., Imano, K.: Real time detection of second-harmonic components generated from plastic-deformed metal rod using double-layered piezoelectric transducer. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(7B), 4529–4531 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fukuda, M., Nishihira, M., Imano, K.: Novel detection system using double-layered piezoelectric transducer in same polarization direction for sub-harmonic components generated from plastic-deformed metal rod. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(5B), 3899–3903 (2008)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Burns, P.N., Simpson, D.H., Averkiou, M.A.: Nonlinear imaging. Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26(1), S19–S22 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Simpson, D.H., Chin, C.T., Burns, P.N.: Pulse inversion doppler: A new method for detecting nonlinear echoes from microbubble contrast agents. IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelect. Freq. Contr. 46(2), 372–382 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Simm, F.C.: Phase inversion wideband non-linear imaging: Applications to tissue harmonic imaging. J. Med. Ultrason. 26(4), 285 (1999)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Fukuda
    • 1
  • K. Imano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Resource ScienceAkita UniversityAkitaJapan

Personalised recommendations