Farming Practices in Moldova for Preventing Pollution and Degradation of the Environment
Agriculture of Moldova is at a crossroad. The technological approach to farm intensification based on increased inputs of nonrenewable sources of energy (mineral fertilizers, especially nitrogen, and pesticides) accompanied by reduced biodiversity in agroecosystems has led to many negative consequences in agriculture. Agriculture needs systemic changes at the level of the landscape and individual farms. Evidence is presented from long-term experiments carried out in Moldova since the 1960s at the Research Institute of Field Crops. “Selecţia” These results show the energy intensive nature of our agroecosystems and their longterm impacts in depleting soil organic matter. The use of fertilizers has covered up negative effects associated with intensive rotations on the productivity of crops. Gains due to breeding intensive varieties winter wheat have been less than expected. The use of crop rotations that include perennial forages, organic + mineral fertilizers can reduce the need for intensive agrochemical inputs. Only such changes can help to prevent, but not to control pollution and degradation of the environment. The key for a new approach to an intensive agriculture on a sustainable basis is the recognition of the soil as being a living organism and the crucial role of enhanced rotations and soil organic matter management.
Keywordsfarming intensification mineral fertilizers soil management crop rotation.
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