Advertisement

Legal Aspects of Conflict-Induced Migration by Women

Chapter
  • 1.1k Downloads

Abstract

People migrate to avoid anticipated conflict, to flee ongoing conflict, and to escape the consequences of past conflict. The capacity to migrate and the migratory experience itself are inflected by gender. The purpose of this paper is to survey how international legal norms and institutions frame and respond to conflict-induced migration, with particular attention to the impact of gender on access to legal status and protection (Martin 2003).

Keywords

Sexual Violence Female Genital Mutilation Refugee Woman Trafficking Victim Transnational Organize Crime 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

International Instruments and United Nations Documents

  1. Cartagena Declaration on Refugees (November. 22, 1984). Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, OAS Doc. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.66/doc.10, rev. 1, at 190–193 (1984–1985).Google Scholar
  2. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, G.A. res. 39/46, annex, 39 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 51) at 197, U.N. Doc. A/39/51 (1984), entered into force June 26, 1987.Google Scholar
  3. Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, 1001 U.N.T.S. 45, entered into force June 20, 1974.Google Scholar
  4. Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (28 July 1951). 189 U.N.T.S. 2545 (entered into force 22 April 1954), supplemented by the Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees, 606 U.N.T.S. 8791, entered into force 4 October 1967.Google Scholar
  5. Council of Europe. Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings and its Explanatory Report (2005). Council of Europe Treaty Series No. 197. Available at http://www.coe.int/T/E/human_rights/trafficking/PDF_Conv_197_Trafficking_E.pdf.
  6. Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.2 (1998), noted in Comm. Hum. Rts. res. 1998/50.Google Scholar
  7. Inter-Agency Steering Committee (IASC) (September 2005). “Guidelines for Gender-Based Interventions in Humanitarian Settings: Focusing on Prevention and Response to Sexual Violence”. http://www.humanitarianinfo.org/iasc/content/products/docs/tfgender_GBVGuide lines2005.pdf
  8. IASC (December 2006). “Women, Girls, Boys and Men – Different Needs, Equal Opportunities, a Gender Handbook on Humanitarian Action”. http://www.humanitarianinfo.org/iasc/content/documents/default.asp?docID=194 8&publish=0
  9. Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, G.A. Res. 25, annex II, U.N. GAOR, 55th Sess., Supp. No. 49, at 60, U.N. Doc. A/45/49 (Vol. I) (2001), entered into force Sept. 9, 2003.Google Scholar
  10. United Nations Economic and Social Council (29 February 2000). Commission on Human Rights, Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, on trafficking in women, women’s migration and violence against women, submitted in accordance with Commission on Human Rights resolution 1997/44, E/CN.4/2000/68.Google Scholar
  11. United Nations Security Council Res. 1325 (2000). adopted by the Security Council at its 4213th meeting, 31 October 2000; available online: http://www.un.org/events/res_1325e.pdf
  12. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (7 May 2002). “Guidelines on International Protection: Gender-Related Persecution within the context of Article 1A(2) of the 1951 Convention and/or its 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees”, HCR/GIP/02/01.Google Scholar
  13. UNHCR Executive Committee (ExCom) (17 February 2006a). “Issues Related to Women at Risk: Discussion Paper on a Possible Executive Committee Conclusion on Displaced Women and Girls at Risk”, EC/57/SC/CRP.7 (http://www.unhcr.org/excom/EXCOM/43f5f5f92.pdf)
  14. UNHCR Executive Committee (ExCom) (6 November 2006b). Conclusion on Women and Girls at Risk No. 105 (LVI) – 2006.Google Scholar

Articles, Monographs and Caselaw

  1. Aeschlimann, A. (October 2005, 25). “Protection of IDPs: An ICRC View,” Forced Migration Review IDP Supplement.Google Scholar
  2. Bagshaw, S. and Paul, D. (2004). “Protect or Neglect: Toward a More Effective United Nations Approach to the Protection of Internally Displaced Persons,” Brookings-SAIS Project on Internal Displacement & UN OCHA.Google Scholar
  3. Bannerjee, P. (December 2006). IDP Protection at the National Level in South Asia, Forced Migration Review(Special Issue: Putting IDPs on the Map), 19.Google Scholar
  4. Brookings Institution (21 February 2007). “National and Regional Laws and Policies on Internal Displacement,” (n.d.) http://www.brook.edu/fp/projects/idp/idp_policies.htm
  5. Center for Refugee and Gender Studies, Gender Guidelines (Australia, Canada, EU, Ireland, Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, Sweden, UK, US), http://cgrs.uchastings.edu/law/gender_guidelines.php.
  6. Center for Refugee and Gender Studies, Scholarly Articles (bibliography), http://cgrs.uchastings.edu/law/articles.php.
  7. Manuel Jose Cepeda-Espinosa (December 2006 21, 22). “How Far May Colombia’s Constitutional Court Go to Protect IDP Rights?”, Forced Migration Review, Special Issue: Putting IDPs on the Map.Google Scholar
  8. Citizenship and Immigration Canada, Immigration Manual, IP1 Temporary Resident Permits, Chapter 16, http://www.cic.gc.ca/manuals-guides/english/ip/ip01e.pdf.
  9. Cohen, R. and Deng, F. (1998). “Masses in Flight: The Global Crisis of Internal Displacement,” Washington: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  10. Collinson, S. (February 2005). “Lessons Learned from Specific Emergency Situations: A Synthesis”, in Castles et al., (ed.) Developing DFID’s Policy Approach to Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons, Volume II: Commissioned Papers http://www.rsc.ox.ac.uk/PDFs/Policy%20Approaches%20to%20Refugees%20and%20IDPs%20RSC-DFID%20Vol%20II.pdf
  11. Crawley, H. (2001). Refugees and Gender: Law and Process. Bristol: Jordan/RWLG.Google Scholar
  12. Crawley, H. and Lester, T. (2004). “Regional Analysis of Gender-Related Persecution in European National Legislation and Practice,” UNHCR, Bureau for Europe and Evaluation and Policy Analysis Unit, http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/research/opendoc.pdf?tbl=RESEARCH&id=40c071354
  13. Demir, J.S. (April 2003). “The Trafficking of Women for Sexual Exploitation: A Gender-Based and Well-Founded Fear of Persecution?”, UNHCR New Issues in Refugee Research. Working Paper No. 80, http://www.unhcr.org/research/RESEARCH/3e71f84c4.pdf.
  14. Feller, E. (December 2006). “UNHCR’s Role in IDP Protection: Opportunities and Challenges”, Forced Migration Review, Special Issue: Putting IDPs on the Map, 11.Google Scholar
  15. Kalïn, W. (1999). “Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement: Annotations, Studies in Transnational Legal Policy”, No. 32 (Washington DC: American Society of International Law and the Brookings Institution Project on Internal Displacement).Google Scholar
  16. Krill, F. (2001). “The ICRC’s Policy on Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons,” 83 International Review of the Red Cross, 607.Google Scholar
  17. Lleshanaku v. Ashcroft, 100 Fed. Appx. 546 (7th Cir. 2004) (US).Google Scholar
  18. Macklin, A. (1995) “Refugee Women and the Imperitive of Categories,” 17 Human Rights Quarterly 213.Google Scholar
  19. Macklin, A. (1998) “Cross-Border Shopping for Ideas” 13 Georgetown Immigration Law Journal 25.Google Scholar
  20. Martin, S. (2006). “Internal Trafficking” 25 Forced Migration Review, 12.Google Scholar
  21. Martin, S. (2003). Refugee Women (2nd Ed.) Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  22. McNamara, D. (9 December 2006). “Humanitarian Reform and New Institutional Responses”, Forced Migration Review, Special Issue: Putting IDPs on the Map.Google Scholar
  23. Mooney, E. (26 May 2004). “Prioritizing Protection and Assistance for Africa’s Internally Displaced Women and Children”, Brooking’s Institution, http://www.brookings.edu/fp/projects/idp/20042605mooney.htm – 71 k – 2004-05-26
  24. Morris, T. (2006). “UNHCR, IDPs and Clusters”, 25 Forced Migration Review 54.Google Scholar
  25. Pantuliano, S. and O’Callaghan, S. (December 2006). “The Protection Crisis: A Review of Field-Based Strategies for Protection in Darfur,” Humanitarian Policy Group Discussion Paper (Overseas Development Institute).Google Scholar
  26. Providing Capacity to do Protection: ProCap (14 December 2006). Forced Migration Review Special Issue: Putting IDPs on the Map. Google Scholar
  27. Schlapkohl, L. (April 21, 2006). “Human Trafficking and the Common European Asylum System: Victim Protection and Assistance in the European Union”, (unpublished MA Thesis) http://fletcher.tufts.edu/research/2006/SCHLAPKOHL.pdf
  28. Spijkerboer, T. (2000). Gender and Refugee Status Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.Google Scholar
  29. VXAJ v. Minister for Immigration and Anor (2006). FMCA 234 (Australia).Google Scholar
  30. VD (Trafficking) Albania CG (2004). UKIAT 00115 (26 May 2004) (UK).Google Scholar
  31. Ward v. Canada (1993). 2 SCR 689.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations