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Ultradeep Rocks and Diamonds in the Light of Advanced Scientific Technologies

  • Larissa F. DobrzhinetskayaEmail author
  • Richard Wirth
Chapter
Part of the International Year of Planet Earth book series (IYPE)

Abstract

This is a review paper which summarizes recent achievements in studies of superdeep mantle rocks and diamonds from kimberlite and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) terranes using advanced analytical techniques and instrumentations such as focused ion beam (FIB)-assisted transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron-assisted infrared spectroscopy. In combination, they allow characterization of geological materials formed at varying pressures, temperatures, and stresses in different chemical environments, which has enabled us to make amazing advances in understanding large-scale processes operating in the Earth through plate tectonics. Mineralogical characterisations of the ultradeep earth materials using novel techniques with high spatial and energy resolution are resulting in unexpected discoveries of new phases, thereby providing better constraints on deep mantle processes. One of such results is that the nanometric fluid inclusions in diamonds from kimberlite and UHPM terranes contain similar elements such as Cl, K, P, and S. Such similarity reflects probably the high solubility of these elements in a diamond-forming C–O–H supercritical fluid at high pressures and temperatures. The paper emphasizes the necessity of further studies of diamonds occurred within geological setting (oceanic islands, foearcs and mantle sections of ophiolites) previously unrecognized as suitable places for high pressure minerals formation.

Keywords

Mantle Ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism Diamond Synchrotron Focused ion beam Electron microscopy 

Notes

Acknowledgement

We thank student S. Augustin for preparing TEM foils with FIB at GFZ Potsdam. LFD is thankful to GFZ for her travel grant, and for a friendly and highly intellectual environment during her long-lasting collaborations with the Department of Chemistry of the Earth – (division of Experimental Geochemistry and Mineral Physics). Our thanks to Z. Liu for assistance in synchrotron related studies. IR measurements were performed at the U2A beam line at NSLS of Brookhaven National Laboratory, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Contract DEAC02-98CH10886. The U2A beam line is supported by COMPRES, the Consortium for Materials Properties Research in Earth Sciences under the U.S. NSF Cooperative Agreement Grant (EAR 01-35554) and DOE (CDAC, Contract No. DE-FC03-03N00144). This work is completed under auspices of the International Lithosphere Program, Task Force IV: “Ultradeep subduction of continental crust”. Part of the research is supported (to LFD) by the U.S. NSF grants: EAR 0521896.

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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaRiversideUSA
  2. 2.Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam, Deutsches GeoforschungsZentrum (GFZ), German Research Centre for Geosciences, Experimental Geochemistry and Mineral PhysicsPotsdamGermany

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