Skip to main content

Metaphor and Cognition

Abstract

Over the past half century metaphor has moved from being a peripheral topic in the philosophy of art to the status of a major philosophical, linguistic, psychological, and scientific issue in the theory of cognition. For over 2,000 years prior to this dramatic change of status, metaphor was regarded as nothing more than a figure of speech serving various rhetorical purposes, but not an essential part of human thought. In sharp contrast, contemporary empirical research on language and cognition affords metaphor pride of place at the center of abstract conceptualization and reasoning. This new view appears to require a serious reconsideration of some of the grounding assumptions of mainstream philosophy of mind and language.

Keywords

  • Conceptual Mapping
  • Target Domain
  • Source Domain
  • Literal Meaning
  • Conceptual Metaphor

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-2646-0_22
  • Chapter length: 14 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   229.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-90-481-2646-0
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   449.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

References

  • Ahrens K, Huang C-R (2002) Time passing is motion. Lang Linguist 3 3:491-519

    Google Scholar 

  • Aldrich V (1968) Visual metaphor. J Aesthetic Educ 2 1:73-86

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Aristotle (1941) Poetics. In: McKeon R (ed) The basic works of Aristotle (trans: Bywater I). Random House, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Beardsley M (1962) The metaphorical twist. Philos Phenomenol Res 22(3):293-307

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Black M (1954-1955) Metaphor. Proc Aristotelian Soc N.S.55:273-294

    Google Scholar 

  • Black M (1977) More about metaphor. Dialectica 31(3-4):431-457

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Boroditsky L, Ramscar M (2002) The roles of body and mind in abstract thought. Psychol Sci 13(2):185-189

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bowdle B, Gentner D (2005) The career of metaphor. Psychol Rev 112(1):193-216

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cooper D (1986) Metaphor. Basil Blackwell, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  • Davidson D (1978) What metaphors mean. Critic Inq 5(1):31-47

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fernandez-Duque D, Johnson M (1999) Attention metaphors: how metaphors guide the cognitive psychology of attention. Cogn Sci 23(1):83-116

    Google Scholar 

  • Gibbs R (1994) The poetics of mind. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Goodman N (1968) The languages of art. Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis

    Google Scholar 

  • Grady J (1997) Foundations of meaning: primary metaphor and primary scenes. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Linguistics, University of California, Berkeley

    Google Scholar 

  • Hausman C (1989) Metaphor and art: interactionism and reference in the verbal and nonverbal arts. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Henle P (1958) Metaphor. In: Henle (ed) Language, thought, and culture. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, pp 173-195

    Google Scholar 

  • Hester M (1966) Metaphor and aspect seeing. J Aesthet Art Critic 25(2):205-212

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson M (ed) (1981) Philosophical perspectives on metaphor. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnson M (1993) Moral imagination: implications of cognitive science for ethics. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL

    Google Scholar 

  • Kearns M (1987) Metaphors of mind: in fiction and psychology. University of Kentucky Press, Lexington

    Google Scholar 

  • Kovecses Z (2000) Metaphor and emotion: language, culture, and body in human feeling. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Lakoff G (1996) Moral politics: what conservatives know that liberals don’t. University of Chicago Press, Chicago

    Google Scholar 

  • Lakoff G (2008) The neural theory of metaphor. In: Gibbs R (ed) The Cambridge handbook of metaphor and thought. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Lakoff G, Johnson M (1980) Metaphors we live by. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL

    Google Scholar 

  • Lakoff G, Johnson M (1999) Philosophy in the flesh: the embodied mind and its challenge to western thought. Basic Books, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Lakoff G, Nunez R (2000) Where mathematics come from: how the embodied mind brings mathematics into being. Basic Books, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Lakoff G, Turner M (1989) More than cool reason: a field guide to poetic metaphor. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL

    Google Scholar 

  • MacCormac E (1985) A cognitive theory of metaphor. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA

    Google Scholar 

  • Magnani L, Nersesian N (eds) (2002) Model-based reasoning: science, technology, values. Kluwer, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Maring B (2003) The metaphorical bases of children’s developing theories of mind. Unpub. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Psychology, University of Oregon

    Google Scholar 

  • McNeill D (1992) Hand and mind: what gestures reveal about thought. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL

    Google Scholar 

  • McNeill D (2005) Gesture & thought. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL

    Google Scholar 

  • Nunez R, Sweetser E (2006) With the future behind them: convergent evidence from aymara language and gesture in the cross-linguistic comparison of spatial construals of time. Cogn Sci 30(3):401-450

    Google Scholar 

  • Ortony A (ed) (1979) Metaphor and thought. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Ricoeur P (1975) The rule of metaphor: multidisciplinary studies of the creation of meaning in language (trans: Czerny R with McLaughlin K, Costello J). University of Toronto Press, Toronto

    Google Scholar 

  • Rohrer T (2001) Understanding through the body: fMRI and ERP studies of metaphoric and literal language. Paper presented at the 7th International Cognitive Linguistics Association conference. University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA, July 2001

    Google Scholar 

  • Rorty R (1989) The contingency of language. In Contingency, irony, and solidarity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 3-22

    Google Scholar 

  • Searle J (1979) Metaphor. In expression and meaning. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 76-116

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Slingerland E (2004) Conceptual metaphor theory as methodology for comparative religion. J Am Acad Religion 72(1):1-31

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sweetser E (1990) From etymology to pragmatics: metaphorical and cultural aspects of semantic structure. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  • Taub S (2001) Language from the body: iconicity and metaphor in American sign language. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Vervaeke J, John Kennedy J (1996) Metaphors in language and thought: falsification and multiple meanings. Metaphor Symbol Activity 11(4):273-284

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Vosniadou S, Ortony A (1983) The emergence of the literal-metaphorical-anomalous distinction in young children. Child Dev 54:154-161

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Winner E (1988) The point of words: children’s understanding of metaphor and irony. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA

    Google Scholar 

  • Winter S (2001) A clearing in the forest: law, life, and mind. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Johnson, M. (2010). Metaphor and Cognition. In: Schmicking, D., Gallagher, S. (eds) Handbook of Phenomenology and Cognitive Science. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2646-0_22

Download citation