Advertisement

Fertigation in Soil Grown Crops

  • Cees Sonneveld
  • Wim Voogt
Chapter
  • 3.1k Downloads

Abstract

The word fertigation is derived by a composition from the words fertilization and irrigation and the action expressed by it is exactly what the word suggests: fertilization and irrigation in one activity. Since long years fertigation is a common practise in greenhouse industry. The development of this method of fertilizer supply originated from the fifties of the 20th century. In these years a beginning was made with drip irrigation and the small spots wetted by this type of irrigation did not offer any possibilities for top dressings by hand. Therefore with the introduction of drip irrigation also fertilizer diluters were introduced with which concentrated fertilizer solutions could be added to irrigation water streams. Different diluter systems have been developed, but the dilutions realised with these systems were not very precisely. This was not a strong handicap in the beginning, because the water irrigated was supplied by drip irrigation and did not touch the plant canopy. Thus, an accidental somewhat high concentration of fertilizers in the irrigation water did not affect the plant negatively. Afterwards, control and adjustments on the applied quantity of fertilizer always was possible and utmost, in that period the addition was still traditionally based on quantities of fertilizer per area. Later on, when overhead irrigation by sprinkler irrigation was developed, as a matter of course precise dilutions were required. This was essential for overhead sprinkling to prevent leaf damage by possibly high concentrations of fertilizers, as a result of an inaccurate function of the equipment. This precise addition of fertilizers was developed by on line measurement of the electrical conductivity (EC) of the irrigation water combined with injectors for the dosage of concentrated nutrient solution in the water stream. The increase of the EC in the irrigation water was used as a unit for the fertilizer concentration. The once attuned concentration is controlled by proportional adjustment of the injectors on basis of continuously measurements of the EC.

Keywords

Irrigation Water Drip Irrigation Sprinkler Irrigation Greenhouse Soil Greenhouse Crop 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Al-Harbi A R Al-Omram A M and Sheta A S 2005. Effects of growing media and water regimes on growth, yield and water use efficiency of squash (Cucurbita pepo). Acta Hort 697, 231–241.Google Scholar
  2. Bar Yosef B Sagiv B Markovitch T and Levkovitch I 1995. Phosphorus placement effects on sweet corn. Growth, uptake and yield. In: Proc. of the Dahlia Greidinger Intern. Symposium on Fertigation. Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, 25 March – 1 April 1995, 141–154.Google Scholar
  3. Heemskerk M J Van Os E A Ruijs M N A Schotman R W 1997. Verbeteren van watergeefsystemen voor grondgebonden teelten. Proefstation voor Bloemisterij en Glasgroente Naaldwijk, Rapport 84, Deelrapport 1: Inventarisatie en verbetering regenleidingsystemen, 61pp.Google Scholar
  4. Hinsinger P Plassard C Tang C and Jaillard B 2003. Origins of root-mediated pH changes in the rhizosphere and their responses to environmental constraints: A review. Plant Soil 248, 43–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hoffman G J 1986. Salinity. In: Nukayama F S and Bucks D A (eds) Trickle Irrigation for Crop Production. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 345–362.Google Scholar
  6. Junk A 1987. Soil-root interactions in the rhizosphere affecting plant availability of phosphorus. J. Plant Nutr. 10, 1197–1204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Marschner H 1997. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  8. Oster J D Hoffman G J and Robinson F E 1984. Dealing with salinity: Management alternatives: Crop water and soil. California Agric. 38(10), 29–32.Google Scholar
  9. Papadopoulos I 1988. Nitrogen fertigation of trickle-irrigated potato. Fertilizer Research 16, 157–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Sonneveld 1962. Bladbespuiting met voedingselementen. Tuinderij 2, 504–505.Google Scholar
  11. Sonneveld C Koornneef P and Van den Ende J 1966. De osmotische druk en het electrische geleidingsvermogen van enkele zoutoplossingen. Meded. Dir. Tuinbouw 29, 471–475.Google Scholar
  12. Sonneveld C and Van den Ende J 1967. Bijmesten via de regenleiding met behulp van de concentratiemeter. Meded. Dir. Tuinb. 30, 54–60.Google Scholar
  13. Sonneveld C 1976. Aanpassing concentratiemeters. Mededelingen Proefstation Groenten- en Fruitteelt onder Glas 30, 88–89.Google Scholar
  14. Sonneveld C 1979. Changes in chemical properties of soil caused by steam sterilisation. In: Mulder D (ed) Soil Desinfestation, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 39–50.Google Scholar
  15. Sonneveld C and Voogt S J 1981. Nitrogen, potash and magnesium nutrition of some vegetable fruit crops under glass. Neth. J. Agric. Sci. 29, 129–139.Google Scholar
  16. Sonneveld C 1982. EC-waarden meststoffen. Mededelingen Proefstation Groenten- en Fruitteelt onder Glas 36, 65.Google Scholar
  17. Sonneveld C Van den Bos A L Van der Burg A M M and Voogt W 1991. Fertigation in the greenhouse industry in The Netherlands. In: Fertigation/Chemigation. FAO, Rome 1991, 186–193.Google Scholar
  18. Sonneveld C and Voogt W 1994. Effects of calcium and ammonium on the appearance of secondary shoot chlorosis in rockwool grown cucumbers. Proc. Sino Intern. Coll. Soilless Culture, Hangzou 1994, 88–94.Google Scholar
  19. Sonneveld C 1997. Mineralenopname bij teelten onder glas. Proefstation voor Bloemisterij en Glasgroente Naaldwijk, The Netherlands, 35pp.Google Scholar
  20. Sonneveld C and Voogt W 2001. Spoorelementen bepalingen in grond. Resultaten van een enquête onderzoek. Praktijkonderzoek Plant en Omgeving, Sector Glastuinbouw, 27pp.Google Scholar
  21. Van Beusichem M L 1984. Non-ionic nitrogen nutrition of plants. Thesis Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. 141pp.Google Scholar
  22. Van der Post C J and Sonneveld C 1961. Beregening met mestoplossingen. Proefstation voor de Groente- en Fruitteelt onder Glas te Naaldwijk, The Netherlands. Jaarverslag 1961, 47–51.Google Scholar
  23. Van den Bos A L 1991. Stikstofvormen bij intensive bemestingssystemen voor kasteelten. Proefstation voor Tuinbouw onder Glas te Naaldwijk, The Netherlands. Internal Report 1991 no. 21, 18pp.Google Scholar
  24. Van den Ende J and De Graaf R 1974. Comparison of methods of water supply to hothouse tomatoes. Acta Hort. 35, 61–70.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cees Sonneveld
    • 1
  • Wim Voogt
    • 2
  1. 1.NijkerkNetherlands
  2. 2.Wageningen UR Greenhouse HorticultureBleiswijkNetherlands

Personalised recommendations