A Landscape Ecology Approach for the Study of Ecological Connectivity Across Tropical Marine Seascapes

  • Rikki Grober-Dunsmore
  • Simon J. Pittman
  • Chris Caldow
  • Matthew S. Kendall
  • Thomas K. Frazer


Connectivity across the seascape is expected to have profound consequences for the behavior, growth, survival, and spatial distribution of marine species. A landscape ecology approach offers great utility for studying ecological connectivity in tropical marine seascapes. Landscape ecology provides a well developed conceptual and operational framework for addressing complex multi-scale questions regarding the influence of spatial patterning on ecological processes. Landscape ecology can provide quantitative and spatially explicit information at scales relevant to resource management decision making. It will allow us to begin asking key questions such as ‘how much habitat to protect?’, ‘What type of habitat to protect?’, and ‘Which seascape patterns provide optimal, suboptimal, or dysfunctional connectivity for mobile marine organisms?’. While landscape ecology is increasingly being applied to tropical marine seascapes, few studies have dealt explicitly with the issue of connectivity. Herein, we examine the application of landscape ecology to better understand ecological connectivity in tropical marine ecosystems by: (1) reviewing landscape ecology concepts, (2) discussing the landscape ecology methods and tools available for evaluating connectivity, (3) examining data needs and obstacles, (4) reviewing lessons learned from terrestrial landscape ecology and from coral reef ecology studies, and (5) discussing the implications of ecological connectivity for resource management. Several recent studies conducted in coral reef ecosystems demonstrate the powerful utility of landscape ecology approaches for improving our understanding of ecological connectivity and applying results to make more informed decisions for conservation planning.


Seascape ecology Landscape ecology Connectivity Spatial scale Pattern metrics Fish 


  1. Andreassen HP, Ims RA (2001) Dispersal in patchy vole populations: role of patch configuration, density dependence, and demography. Ecology 82:2911–2926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrefouet S, Kramer P, Torres-Pulliza D et al (2003) Multi-site evaluation of IKONOS data for classification of tropical coral reef environments. Remote Sens Environ 88:128–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrén H (1994) Effect of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscapes with dif-ferent proportions of suitable habitat: a review. Oikos 71:355–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Appeldoorn RS, Friedlander A, Sladek Nowlis J et al (2003) Habitat connectivity in reef fish communities and marine reserve design in Old Providence-Santa Catalina, Colombia. Gulf Caribb Res 14:61–77Google Scholar
  5. Ault TR, Johnson CR (1998) Spatially and temporally predictable fish communities on coral reefs. Ecol Monogr 68:25–50Google Scholar
  6. Beets J, Muehlstein L, Haught K et al (2003) Habitat connectivity in coastal environments: patterns and movements of Caribbean coral reef fishes with emphasis on bluestriped grunt, Haemulon sciurus. Gulf Caribb Res 14:29–42Google Scholar
  7. Birkeland C (1985) Ecological interactions between mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs. In: Birke-land C (ed) Ecological interactions between tropical coastal ecosystems. UNEP Regional Seas Reports 73. Earth-print, Stevenage, UKGoogle Scholar
  8. Bohnsack JA, Bannerot SP (1986) A stationary visual census technique for quantitatively assessing community structure of coral reef fishes. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 41Google Scholar
  9. Bohnsack JA, Harper DE, McClellan DB et al (1994) Effects of reef size on colonization and assemblage structure of fishes at artificial reefs off southeastern Florida, USA. Bull Mar Sci 55:796–823Google Scholar
  10. Brock VE (1954) A method of estimating reef fish populations. J Wildl Manage 18:297–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bunn AG, Urban DL, Keitt TH (2000) Landscape connectivity: a conservation application of graph theory. J Environ Manage 59(SI 4):265–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Burke N (1995) Nocturnal foraging habitats of French and bluestriped grunts, Haemulon flavolineatum and H. sciurus at Tobacco Caye, Belize. Environ Biol Fish 42:365–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burrough PA (1986) Principles of Geographic Information Systems for land resources assessment. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  14. Butler MJ, Dolan TW, Hunt JH et al (2005) Recruitment in degraded marine habitats: a spatially explicit, individual-based model for spiny lobster. Ecol Appl 15:902–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Calabrese JM, Fagan WF (2004) A comparison-shopper’s guide to connectivity metrics. Front Ecol Environ 2:529–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carleton Ray G (1991) Coastal-zone biodiversity patterns. BioScience 41:490–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chapman MR, Kramer DL (2000) Movements of fishes within and among fringing coral reefs in Barbados. Environ Biol Fish 57:11–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chateau O, Wantiez L (2007) Site fidelity and activity patterns of a humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulates (Labridae), as determined by acoustic telemetry. Environ Biol Fish 80:503–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chittaro PM, Fryer BJ, Sale R (2004) Discrimination of French grunts (Haemulon flavolineatum Desmarest, 1823) from mangrove and coral reef habitats using otolith microchemistry. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 308:169–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Christensen JD, Jeffrey CFG, Caldow C et al (2003) Cross-shelf habitat utilization patterns of reef fishes in southwestern Puerto Rico. Gulf Caribb Res 14:9–27Google Scholar
  21. Clark R, Monaco ME, Appeldoorn RS, Roque B (2005) Fish habitat utilization in a Puerto Rico coral reef ecosystem. Proc Gulf Caribb Fish Inst 56:467–485Google Scholar
  22. Cowen RK, Paris CB, Srinivasan A (2006) Scaling of connectivity in marine populations. Science 311:522–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Crooks KR, Sanjayan M (2006) Connectivity conservation. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dahlgren CP, Eggleston DB (2000) Ecological processes underlying ontogenetic habitat shifts in a coral reef fish. Ecology 81:2227–2240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dorenbosch M, Grol MGG, Christianen MJA et al (2005) Indo-Pacific seagrass beds and mangroves contribute to fish density and diversity on adjacent coral reefs. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 302:63–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dorenbosch M, Grol MGG, Nagelkerken I et al (2006a) Different surrounding landscapes may result in different fish assemblages in East African seagrass beds. Hydrobiologia 563:45–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dorenbosch M, Grol MGG, Nagelkerken I et al (2006b) Seagrass beds and mangroves as potential nurseries for the threatened Indo-Pacific humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus and Caribbean rainbow parrotfish, Scarus guacamaia. Biol Conserv 129:277–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dorenbosch M, van riel MC, Nagelkerken I et al (2004a) The relationship of reef fish densities to the proximity of mangrove and seagrass nurseries. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 60:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dorenbosch M, Verberk WCEP, Nagelkerken I et al (2007) Influence of habitat configuration on connectivity between fish assemblages of Caribbean seagrass beds, mangroves and coral reefs. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 334:103–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dorenbosch M, Verweij MC, Nagelkerken I et al (2004b) Homing and daytime tidal movements of juvenile snappers (Lutjanidae) between shallow-water nursery habitats in Zanzibar, western Indian Ocean. Environ Biol Fish 70:203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dunning JB, Danielson BJ, Pulliam HR (1992) Ecological processes that affect populations in complex landscapes. Oikos 65:169–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fagan WF, Calabreses JM (2006) Quantifying connectivity: balancing metric performance with data requirements. In: Crooks KR, Sanjayan M (eds) Connectivity conservation. Conservation biology 14, Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  33. Forman RTT (1995) Land mosaics: the ecology of landscapes and regions. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  34. Forman RTT, Godron M (1986) Landscape ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Gardner RH, O’Neill RV (1991) Pattern, process and predictability: the use of neutral models for landscape analysis. In: Turner MG, Gardner RH (eds) Quantitative methods in landscape ecology: the analysis and interpretation of landscape heterogeneity. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Garrabou J, Riera J, Zabala M (1998) Landscape pattern indices applied to Mediterranean subtidal rocky benthic communities. Landsc Ecol 13:225–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gaucherel C, Fleury D, Auclair D (2006) Neutral models for patchy landscapes. Ecol Modell 197:159–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gillanders BM, Able KW, Brown JA et al (2003) Evidence of connectivity between juvenile and adult habitats for mobile marine fauna: an important component of nurseries. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 247:281–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gillis EA, Krebs CJ (2000) Survival of dispersing versus philopatric juvenile snowshoe hares: do dispersers die? Oikos 90:343–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gladfelter WB, Ogden JC, Gladfelter EH (1980) Similarity and diversity among coral reef fish communities: a comparison between tropical western Atlantic (Virgin Islands) and tropical central pacific (Marshall Islands) patch reefs. Ecology 61:1156–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grober-Dunsmore R (2005) The application of terrestrial landscape ecology principles to the design and management of marine protected areas in coral reef ecosystems. Ph.D. dissertation submitted to University of Florida, Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Florida, 219 pp.Google Scholar
  42. Grober-Dunsmore R, Beets J, Frazer T et al (2008) Influence of landscape structure on reef fish assemblages. Landsc Ecol 23(SI):37–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Grober-Dunsmore R, Bonito V (2009) Movement of reef fishes inside and outside of Votua MPA, Fiji Islands. Report to NOAA Coral Reef International 2009 Coral Reef library, 24pp.Google Scholar
  44. Grober-Dunsmore R, Frazer T, Beets J et al (2004) The significance of adjacent habitats on reef fish assemblage structure: are relationships detectable and quantifiable at a landscape scale? Proc Gulf Caribb Fish Inst 55:713–734Google Scholar
  45. Grober-Dunsmore R, Frazer TK, Lindberg WJ et al (2007) Reef fish and habitat relationships in a Caribbean seascape: the importance of reef context. Coral Reefs 26:201–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gustafson EJ, Parker GR (1992) Relationships between landcover proportion and indexes of landscape spatial pattern. Landsc Ecol 7:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gutzwiller KJ (2002) Applying landscape ecology in biological conservation. Springer-Verlag, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hanski I (1998) Metapopulation dynamics. Nature 396:41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hargis CD, Bissonette JA, David JL (1998) The behavior of landscape metrics commonly used in the study of habitat fragmentation. Landsc Ecol 13:167–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Helfman GS, Meyer JL, McFarland WN (1982) The ontogeny of twilight migration patterns in grunts (Pisces, Haemulidae). Anim Behav 30:317–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Holland KN, Peterson JD, Lowe CG et al (1993) Movements, distribution and growth rates of the white goatfish Mulloides flavolineatus in a fisheries conservation zone. Bull Mar Sci 52:982–992Google Scholar
  52. Hovel KA, Lipcius RN (2002) Effects of seagrass habitat fragmentation on juvenile blue crab survival and abundance. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 271:75–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hovel KA, Regan HM (2008) Using an individual-based model to examine the roles of habitat fragmentation and behavior on predator–prey relationships in seagrass landscapes. Landsc Ecol 23(S1):75–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Irlandi EA, Ambrose WG, Orlando BA (1995) Landscape ecology and the marine environment-how spatial configuration of seagrass habitat influences growth and survival of the Bay scallop. Oikos 72:307–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Irlandi EA, Crawford MK (1997) Habitat linkages: the effect of intertidal saltmarshes and adjacent sub-tidal habitats on abundance, movement, and growth of an estuarine fish. Oecologia 110:222–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jelbart JE, Ross PM, Connolly RM (2006) Edge effects and patch size in seagrass landscapes: an experimental test using fish. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 319:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jelbart JE, Ross PM, Connolly RM (2007) Fish assemblages in seagrass beds are influenced by the proximity of mangrove forests. Mar Biol 150:993–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Karl JW, Heglund PJ, Garton EO et al (2000) Sensitivity of species habitat-relationship model performance to factors of scale. Ecol Appl 10:1690–1705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kendall MS, Christensen JD, Hillis-Starr Z (2003) Multi-scale data used to analyze the spatial distribution of French grunts, Haemulon flavolineatum, relative to hard and soft bottom in a benthic landscape. Environ Biol Fish 66:19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kendall MS, Kruer CR, Buja KR, Christensen JD, Finkbeiner M, Monaco ME (2002) Methods used to map the benthic habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. NOAA/NOS Biogeography Program Technical Re-port. Silver Spring, MD, p 45Google Scholar
  61. Kendall MS, Miller T (2008) The influence of thematic and spatial resolution on maps of a coral reef ecosystem. Marine Geodesy 31:75–102Google Scholar
  62. Kramer DL, Chapman MR (1999) Implications of fish home range size and relocation for marine reserve function. Environ Biol Fish 55:65–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Levin SA (1992) The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology 73:1943–1967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Li HB, Reynolds JF (1993) A new contagion index to quantify spatial patterns of landscapes. Landsc Ecol 8:155–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Li HB, Wu JG (2004) Use and misuse of landscape indices. Landsc Ecol 19:389–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lugendo BR, Nagelkerken I, Jiddawi N et al (2007b) Fish community composition of a tropical non-estuarine embayment in Zanzibar (Tanzania). Fish Sci 73:1213–1223Google Scholar
  67. Lugendo BR, Nagelkerken I, Kruitwagen G et al (2007a) Relative importance of mangroves as feeding habitat for fish: a comparison between mangrove habitats with different settings. Bull Mar Sci 80:497–512Google Scholar
  68. Lugendo BR, Nagelkerken I, van der Velde G et al (2006) The importance of mangroves, mud and sand flats, and seagrass beds as feeding areas for juvenile fishes in Chwaka Bay, Zanzibar: gut content and stable isotope analyses. J Fish Biol 69:1639–1661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lunetta RS, Congalton RG, Fenstermaker LK et al (1991) Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 57:677–687Google Scholar
  70. MacArthur RH, Wilson EO (1967) The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  71. Malczewski J (1999) GIS and multicriteria decision analysis. John Whiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  72. Margules CR, Pressey RL (2000) Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405:243–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McGarigal K, Cushman SA, Neel MC (2002) FRAGSTATS: spatial pattern analysis program for categorical maps. University of Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts. http://www.umass.edu/landeco/research/fragstats/fragstats.html/
  74. McGarigal K, McComb WC (1995) Relationships between landscape structure and breeding birds in the Oregon Coast Range. Ecol Monogr 65:235–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Meyer CG, Holland KN, Papastamatiou YP (2007) Seasonal and diel movements of giant trevally Caranx ignobilis at remote Hawaiian atolls: implications for the design of marine protected areas. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 333:13–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Meyer CG, Holland KN, Wetherbee BM et al (2000) Movement patterns, habitat utilization, home range size and site fidelity of whitesaddle goatfish, Parupeneus porphyreus, in a marine reserve. Environ Biol Fish 59:235–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Micheli F, Peterson CH (1999) Estuarine vegetated habitats as corridors for predator movements. Conserv Biol 13:869–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mitchell MS, Lancia RA, Gerwin JA (2001) Using landscape-level data to predict the distribution of birds on a managed forest: effects of scale. Ecol Appl 11:1692–1708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Moilanen A, Nieminen M (2002) Simple connectivity measures in spatial ecology. Ecology 83:1131–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Molles MC (1978) Fish species-diversity on model and natural reef patches-experimental insular bio-geography. Ecol Monogr 48:289–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mumby PJ (2006) Connectivity of reef fish between mangroves and coral reefs: algorithms for the design of marine reserves at seascape scales. Biol Conserv 128:215–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mumby PJ, Edwards AJ, Arias-Gonzalez JE et al (2004) Mangroves enhance the biomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean. Nature 427:533–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mumby PJ, Harborne AR (1999) Development of a systematic classification scheme of marine habitats to facilitate regional management of Caribbean coral reefs. Biol Conserv 88:155–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Nagelkerken I (2007) Are non-estuarine mangroves connected to coral reefs through fish migration? Bull Mar Sci 80:595–607Google Scholar
  85. Nagelkerken I, Dorenbosch M, Verberk WCEP et al (2000a) Importance of shallow-water biotopes of a Caribbean bay for juvenile coral reef fishes: patterns in biotope association, community structure and spatial distribution. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 202:219–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nagelkerken I, Dorenbosch M, Verberk WCEP et al (2000b) Day-night shifts of fishes between shallow-water biotopes of a Caribbean bay, with emphasis on the nocturnal feeding of Haemulidae and Lutjanidae. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 194:55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Nagelkerken I, Faunce CH (2007) Colonisation of artificial mangroves by reef fishes in a marine seascape. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 75:417–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Nagelkerken I, Kleijnen S, Klop T et al (2001) Dependence of Caribbean reef fishes on mangroves and seagrass beds as nursery habitats: a comparison of fish faunas between bays with and without mangroves/seagrass beds. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 214:225–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Nagelkerken I, Roberts CM, van der Velde G et al (2002) How important are mangroves and seagrass beds for coral-reef fish? The nursery hypothesis tested on an island scale. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 244:299–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Nagelkerken I, van der Velde G (2002) Do non-estuarine mangroves harbour higher densities of juvenile fish than adjacent shallow-water and coral reef habitats in Curacao (Netherlands Antilles)? Mar Ecol Prog Ser 245:191–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ogden JC, Ehrlich PR (1977) Behavior of heterotypic resting schools of juvenile grunts (Pomadasyidae). Mar Biol 42:273–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ogden JC, Gladfelter EH (1983) Coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves: their interaction in the coastal zones of the Caribbean. UNESCO Rep Mar Sci 23:1–133Google Scholar
  93. Parrish JD (1989) Fish communities of interacting shallow-water habitats in tropical oceanic regions. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 58:143–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pearson SM, Turner MG, Gardner RH et al (1996) An organism-based perspective of habitat fragmentation. In: Szaro RC (ed) Biodiversity in managed landscapes: theory and practice. Oxford University Press, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  95. Pither J, Taylor PD (1998) An experimental assessment of landscape connectivity. Oikos 83:166–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Pittman SJ (2002) Linking fish and prawns to their environment in shallow-water marine landscapes. Ph thesis, Geographical Sciences Department and The Ecology Centre, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  97. Pittman SJ, Caldow C, Hile SD et al (2007b) Using seascape types to explain the spatial patterns of fish in the mangroves of SW Puerto Rico. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 348:273–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Pittman SJ, Christensen JD, Caldow C et al (2007a) Predictive mapping of fish species richness across shallow-water seascapes in the Caribbean. Ecol Modell 204:9–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pittman SJ, McAlpine CA (2003) Movement of marine fish and decapod crustaceans: process, theory and application. Adv Mar Biol 44:205–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pittman SJ, McAlpine CA, Pittman KM (2004) Linking fish and prawns to their environment: a hierarchical landscape approach. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 283:233–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Plotnick RE, Gardner RH, O’Neill RV (1993) Lacunarity indexes as measures of landscape tex-ture. Landsc Ecol 8:201–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Possingham H, Ball I, Andelman S (2000) Mathematical models for identifying representative reserve networks. In: Ferson S, Burgman M (eds) Quantitative methods for conservation biology. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  103. Pressey RL (1999) Applications of irreplaceability analysis to planning and management problems. Parks 9:42–51Google Scholar
  104. Recksiek CW, Appeldoorn RS, Turningan RG (1991) Studies of fish traps as stock assessment devices on a shallow reef in south-western Puerto Rico. Fish Res 10:177–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Riitters KH, O’Neill RV, Hunsaker CT et al (1995) A factor analysis of landscape pattern and structure metrics. Landsc Ecol 10:23–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Robbins BD, Bell SS (1994) Seagrass landscapes: a terrestrial approach to the marine subtidal environment. Trends Ecol Evol 9:301–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rothley KD, Rae C (2005) Working backwards to move forwards: graph-based connectivity metrics for reserve network selection. Environ Modell Assess 10:107–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rozas LP, Minello TJ (1998) Nekton use of salt marsh, seagrass, and nonvegetated habitats in a south Texas (USA) estuary. Bull Mar Sci 63:481–501Google Scholar
  109. Sale PF (2002) The science we need to develop for more effective management. In: Sale PF (ed) Coral reef fishes: dynamics and diversity in a complex ecosystem. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  110. Saura S, Martinez-Millan J (2001) Sensitivity of landscape pattern metrics to map spatial extent. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 67:1027–1036Google Scholar
  111. Schippers P, Verboom J, Knaapen JP et al (1996) Dispersal and habitat connectivity in complex heterogeneous landscapes: an analysis with a GIS-based random walk model. Ecogeography 19:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Schneider MF (2001) Habitat loss, fragmentation and predator impact: spatial implications for prey conservation. J Appl Ecol 38:720–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schumaker NH (1996) Using landscape indices to predict habitat connectivity. Ecology 77:1210–1225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sheaves M (2005) Nature and consequences of biological connectivity in mangrove sytems. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 302:293–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sisk TD, Haddad NM, Ehrlich PR (1997) Bird assemblages in patchy woodlands: modeling the effects of edge and matrix habitats. Ecol Appl 7:1170–1180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Stamps JA, Buechner M, Krishnan VV (1987) The effects of edge permeability and habitat geometry on emigration from patches of habitat. Am Nat 129:533–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Starr RM, Sala E, Ballesteros E et al (2007) Spatial dynamics of the Nassau grouper Epi-nephelus striatus in a Caribbean atoll. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 343:239–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Taylor DS, Reyier EA, Davis WP et al (2007) Mangrove removal in the Belize cays: effects on mangrove-associated fish assemblages in the intertidal and subtidal. Bull Mar Sci 80:879–890Google Scholar
  119. Taylor PD, Fahrig L, With KA (2006) Landscape connectivity: a return to the basics. In: Crooks KR, Sanjayan M (eds) Connectivity conservation. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  120. Tewfik A, Bene C (2003) Effects of natural barriers on the spillover of a marine mollusc: implications for fisheries reserves. Aquat Conserv 13:473–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Tischendorf L (2001) Can landscape indices predict ecological processes consistently? Landsc Ecol 16:235–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Tischendorf L, Fahrig L (2000) How should we measure landscape connectivity? Landsc Ecol 15:633–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Treml E, Halpin P, Urban D et al (2008) Modeling population connectivity by ocean currents, a graph-theoretic approach for marine conservation. Landsc Ecol 23(S1):19–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Turner MG (1989) Landscape ecology the effect of pattern on process. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 20:171–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Turner MG (2005) Landscape ecology: what is the state of the science? Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 36:319–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Turner MG, Gardner RH, O’Neill RV (2001) Landscape ecology in theory and practice: pattern and process. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  127. Turner SJ, Hewitt JE, Wilkinson MR et al (1999) Seagrass patches and landscapes: the influence of wind-wave dynamics and hierarchical arrangements of spatial structure on macrofaunal seagrass communities. Estuaries 22:1016–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Underwood AJ, Chapman MG, Connell SD (2000) Observations in ecology: you can’t make progress on processes without understanding the patterns. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 250:97–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Urban D, Keitt T (2001) Landscape connectivity: a graph theoretic perspective. Ecology 82:1205–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Urban DL (2005) Modeling ecological processes across scales. Ecology 86:1996–2006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Vanderklift MC, How J, Wernberg T et al (2007) Proximity to reef influences density of small predatory fishes, while type of seagrass influences intensity of their predation on crabs. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 340:235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Verweij MC, Nagelkerken I (2007) Short and long-term movement and site fidelity of juvenile Haemulidae in back-reef habitats of a Caribbean embayment. Hydrobiologia 592:257–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Vierweij MC, Nagelkerken I, Hol KEM et al (2007) Space use of Lutjanus apodus including movement between a putative nursery and a coral reef. Bull Mar Sci 81:127–138Google Scholar
  134. Ward TJ, Vanderklift MA, Nicholls AO et al (1999) Selecting marine reserves using habitats and species assemblages as surrogates for biological diversity. Ecol Appl 9:691–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wiens J (1989) Spatial scaling in ecology. Funct Ecol 3:385–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Wiens JA (2006) Connectivity research – what are the issues? In: Crooks KR, Sanjayan M (eds) Connectivity conservation. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  137. Wiens JA, Milne BT (1989) Scaling of landscapes in landscape ecology, or landscape ecology from a beetle’s perspective. Landsc Ecol 3:87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wiens JA, Stenseth NC, Vanhorne B et al (1993) Ecological mechanisms and landscape ecology. Oikos 66:369–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Wiens JA, Van Horne B, Noon BR (2002) Landscape structure and multi-scale management. In: Liu J, Taylor WW (eds) Integrating landscape ecology into natural resource management. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  140. With KA (1997) The application of neutral landscape models in conservation biology. Conserv Biol 11:1069–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. With KA (2002) The landscape ecology of invasive spread. Conserv Biol 16:1192–1203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. With KA, Crist TO (1995) Critical thresholds in species responses to landscape structure. Ecology 76:2446–2459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. With KA, Gardner RH, Turner MG (1997) Landscape connectivity and population distributions in heterogeneous environments. Oikos 78:151–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wu JG (2006) Landscape ecology, cross-disciplinarity, and sustainability science. Landsc Ecol 21:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Zeller DC (1998) Spawning aggregations: patterns of movement of the coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae) as determined by ultrasonic telemetry. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 162:253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Zeller DC, Russ GR (1998) Marine reserves: patterns of adult movement of the coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae)). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 55:917–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rikki Grober-Dunsmore
    • 1
  • Simon J. Pittman
    • 2
    • 3
  • Chris Caldow
    • 2
  • Matthew S. Kendall
    • 2
  • Thomas K. Frazer
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute of Applied Sciences Private Bag Laucala CampusUniversity of South Pacific Suva Fiji IslandsSuvaFiji Islands
  2. 2.NOAA/NOS/NCCOS/CCMA Biogeography Branch N/SCI-1Silver SpringUSA
  3. 3.Marine Science CenterUniversity of the Virgin IslandsSt. ThomasUSA
  4. 4.University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Program in Fisheries and Aquatic SciencesGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations