Hormonal Control of Grape Berry Ripening

  • C. Davies
  • C. Böttcher

Grape berry ripening, like many other developmental processes, clearly involves the coordination of a large number of events. Some metabolic activities that occur prior to véraison, such as photosynthesis and organic acid accumulation, are either turned off at véraison or are at least down regulated. Other processes, such as the accumulation of anthocyanins in berry skins, commence at véraison. In this chapter we will use the last time-point before an accumulation of sugars is recorded as the working definition of véraison. Where possible the data from papers has been reinterpreted to align with this definition. The changes that occur as the berry begins to ripen have received considerable attention at the physical and biochemical level (Ollat et al. 2002, Conde et al. 2007), but their overall control and coordination remains poorly understood. Not only are the timing and extent of changes in the berry coordinated but this control has to extend over a range of diverse primary and secondary metabolic pathways. In addition, many of the ‘subprograms’ that make up the greater ripening ‘program’, such as colour and sugar accumulation, are responsive to environmental conditions which influence their progress. The control system that initiates and maintains the ripening phase must therefore be complex, able to coordinate diverse portions of metabolism and must be to some extent flexible.


Invertase Activity Anthocyanin Accumulation Grape Berry Sugar Accumulation Berry Development 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alleweldt G, Koch R (1977) Ethylene content in ripening grape berries. Vitis 16:263-271Google Scholar
  2. Atanassova R, Leterrier M, Gaillard C, Agasse A, Sagot E, Coutos-Thevenot P, Delrot S (2003) Sugar-regulated expression of a putative hexose transport gene in grape. Plant Physiol 131:326-334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ban T, Ishimaru M, Kobayashi S, Shiozaki S, Goto-Yamamoto N, Horiuchi S (2003) Abscisic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid affect the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes in ‘Kyoho’ grape berries. J Horticult Sci Biotechnol 78:586-589Google Scholar
  4. Bancos S, Nomura T, Sato T, Molnar G, Bishop GJ, Koncz C, Yokota T, Nagy F, Szekeres M (2002) Regulation of transcript levels of the Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 genes involved in brassinosteroid biosynthesis. Plant Physiol 130:504-513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baydar NG, Harmankaya N (2005) Changes in endogenous hormone levels during the ripening of grape cultivars having different berry set mechanisms Turk J Agric For 29:205-210Google Scholar
  6. Boutte Y, Ikeda Y, Grebe M (2007) Mechanisms of auxin-dependent cell and tissue polarity. Curr Opin Plant Biol 10:616-623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bower J, Holford P, Latche A, Pech JC (2002) Culture conditions and detachment of the fruit influence the effect of ethylene on the climacteric respiration of melon. Postharvest Biol Technol 26:135-146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cakir B, Agasse A, Gaillard C, Saumonneau A, Delrot S, Atanassova R (2003) A grape ASR protein involved in sugar and abscisic acid signalling. Plant Cell 15:2165-2180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cantin CM, Fidelibus MW, Crisostoc CH (2007) Application of abscisic acid (ABA) at veraison advanced red color development and maintained postharvest quality of ‘Crimson Seedless’ grapes. Postharvest Biol Technol 46:237-241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Castellarin SD, Pfeiffer A, Sivilotti P, Degan M, Peterlunger E, Di Gaspero G (2007) Transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in ripening fruits of grapevine under seasonal water deficit. Plant Cell Environ 30:1381-1399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cawthon DL, Morris JR (1982) Relationship of seed number and maturity to berry development, fruit maturation, hormonal changes, and uneven ripening of Concord (Vitis-labrusca L.) grapes. J Am Soc Hort Sci 107:1097-1104Google Scholar
  12. Cazzonelli CI, Cavallaro AS, Botella JR (1998) Cloning and characterisation of ripening-induced ethylene biosynthetic genes from non-climacteric pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruits. Aust J Plant Physiol 25:513-518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheng YF, Dai XH, Zhao YD (2007) Auxin synthesized by the YUCCA flavin Monooxygenases is essential for embryogenesis and leaf formation in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 19:2430-2439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chervin C, El-Kereamy A, Roustan JP, Latche A, Lamon J, Bouzayen M (2004) Ethylene seems required for the berry development and ripening in grape, a non-climacteric fruit. Plant Sci 167:1301-1305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chervin C, Terrier N, Ageorges A, Ribes F, Kuapunyakoon T (2006) Influence of ethylene on sucrose accumulation in grape berry. Am J Enol Vitic 57:511-513Google Scholar
  16. Conde C, Silva P, Fontes N, Dias ACP, Tavares RM, Sousa MJ, Agasse A, Delrot S, Gerós H (2007) Biochemical changes throughout grape berry development and fruit and wine quality. Food 1:1-22Google Scholar
  17. Coombe BG (1976) Development of fleshy fruits. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 27:207-228Google Scholar
  18. Coombe BG (1995) Adoption of a system for identifying grapevine growth stages. Aust J Grape Wine Res 1:100-110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coombe BG, Hale CR (1973) Hormone content of ripening grape berries and effects of growth substance treatments. Plant Physiol 51:629-634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davies C, Boss PK, Robinson SP (1997) Treatment of grape berries, a nonclimacteric fruit with a synthetic auxin, retards ripening and alters the expression of developmentally regulated genes. Plant Physiol 115:1155-1161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Davies C, Robinson SP (1996) Sugar accumulation in grape berries - Cloning of two putative vacuolar invertase cDNAs and their expression in grapevine tissues. Plant Physiol 111:275-283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davies C, Robinson SP (2000) Differential screening indicates a dramatic change in mRNA profiles during grape berry ripening. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding putative cell wall and stress response proteins. Plant Physiol 122:803-812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davies C, Wolf T, Robinson SP (1999) Three putative sucrose transporters are differentially expressed in grapevine tissues. Plant Sci 147:93-100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. De Smet I, Jurgens G (2007) Patterning the axis in plants-auxin in control. Curr Opin Genet Dev 17:337-343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Delgado R, Martin P, del Alamo M, Gonzalez MR (2004) Changes in the phenolic composition of grape berries during ripening in relation to vineyard nitrogen and potassium fertilisation rates. J Sci Food Agric 84:623-630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Delker C, Raschke A, Quint M (2008) Auxin dynamics:the dazzling complexity of a small molecule’s message. Planta 227:929-941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Deluc LG, Grimplet J, Wheatley MD, Tillett RL, Quilici DR, Osborne C, Schooley DA, Schlauch KA, Cushman JC, Cramer GR (2007) Transcriptomic and metabolite analyses of Cabernet Sauvignon grape berry development. BMC Genomics 8:doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-429Google Scholar
  28. Deytieux-Belleau C, Gagne S, L’Hyvernay A, Doneche B, Geny L (2007) Possible roles of both abscisic acid and indol-acetic acid in controlling grape berry ripening process. J Int Sci Vigne Vin 41:141-148Google Scholar
  29. Deytieux C, Geny L, Lapaillerie D, Claverol S, Bonneu M, Doneche B (2007) Proteome analysis of grape skins during ripening. J Exp Bot 58:1851-1862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dieier LP, Hunter JJ, Ruffner HP (1998) Invertase activity, grape berry development and cell compartmentation. Plant Physiol Biochem 36:865-872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dokoozlian NK, Moriyama MM, Ebisuda MC (1994) Forchlorfenuron, CPPU, increases the berry size and delays the maturity of Thompson Seedless table grapes. Proc Int Symp Table Grape Production:63-68Google Scholar
  32. During H, Alleweldt G, Koch R (1978) Studies on hormonal control of ripening in berries and grape vines. Acta Hort 80:397-405Google Scholar
  33. El-Kereamy A, Chervin C, Roustan JP, Cheynier V, Souquet JM, Moutounet M, Raynal J, Ford C, Latche A, Pech JC, Bouzayen M (2003) Exogenous ethylene stimulates the long-term expression of genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berries. Physiol Plant 119:175-182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Finkelstein RR, Rock CD (2002) Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Response. In: Sommerville CR, Meyerowitz EM (Ed) The Arabidopsis Book., American Society of Plant Biologists, Rockville, MDGoogle Scholar
  35. Fujita A, Goto-Yamamoto N, Aramaki I, Hashizume K (2006) Organ-specific transcription of putative flavonol synthase genes of grapevine and effects of plant hormones and shading on flavonol biosynthesis in grape berry skins. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70:632-638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gazzarrini S, McCourt P (2003) Cross-talk in plant hormone signalling: What Arabidopsis mutants are telling us. Ann Bot 91:605-612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Giribaldi M, Perugini L, Sauvage FX, Schubert A (2007) Analysis of protein changes during grape berry ripening by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF. Proteomics 7:3154-3170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Given NK, Venis MA, Grierson D (1988) Hormonal-regulation of ripening in the strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit. Planta 174:402-406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Goda H, Shimada Y, Asami T, Fujioka S, Yoshida S (2002) Microarray analysis of brassinosteroid- regulated genes in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 130:1319-1334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Grimplet J, Deluc LG, Tillett RL, Wheatley MD, Schlauch KA, Cramer GR, Cushman JC (2007) Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling in grape berry tissues. BMC Genomics 8:doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-187Google Scholar
  41. Hale CR (1968) Growth and senescence of grape berry. Aust J Agric Res 19:939-945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hale CR, Coombe BG (1974) Abscisic acid:an effect on the onset of ripening of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). Royal Soc N Z Bull 12:831-836Google Scholar
  43. Hale CR, Coombe BG, Hawker JS (1970) Effects of ethylene and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid on ripening of grapes. Plant Physiol 45:620-623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Han DH, Lee CH (2004) The effects of GA3, CPPU and ABA application on the quality of Kyoho (Vitis vinifera L. x V. labrusca L.) grape. Acta Hortcult 640:193–197Google Scholar
  45. Haubrick LL, Assmann SM (2006) Brassinosteroids and plant function:some clues, more puzzles. Plant Cell Environ 29:446-457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hiratsuka S, Onodera H, Kawai Y, Tatsuya K, Itoh H, Wada R (2001) Enzyme activity changes during anthocyanin synthesis in ‘Olympia’ grape berries. Sci Horticult 90:255–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Huber DJ (2008) Suppression of ethylene responses through application of 1-methylcyclopropene: A powerful tool for elucidating ripening and senescence mechanisms in climacteric and non-climacteric fruits and vegetables. HortScience 43:106-111Google Scholar
  48. Iannetta PPM, Laarhoven LJ, Medina-Escobar N, James EK, McManus MT, Davies HV, Harren, FJM (2006) Ethylene and carbon dioxide production by developing strawberries show a correlative pattern that is indicative of ripening climacteric fruit. Physiol Plant 127:247-259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Inaba A, Ishida M, Sobajima Y (1976) Changes in endogenous hormone concentrations during berry development in relation to ripening of Delaware grapes. J Japan Soc Hort Sci 45:245-252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jeong ST, Goto-Yamamoto N, Kobayashi S, Esaka A (2004) Effects of plant hormones and shading on the accumulation of anthocyanins and the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in grape berry skins. Plant Sci 167:247-252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kataoka I, Kubo Y, Tomana T (1984) Effects of temperature, cluster shading and some growth regulators on L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and anthocyanin accumulation in black grapes. Memoirs of the College of Agriculture, Kyoto University 124:35-44Google Scholar
  52. Kataoka I, Sugiura A, Utsunomiya N, Tomana T (1982) Effect of abscisic-acid and defoliation on anthocyanin accumulation in Kyoho grapes (Vitis-vinifera L. X labruscana BAILEY). Vitis 21:325-332Google Scholar
  53. Katz E, Lagunes PM, Riov J, Weiss D, Goldschmidt EE (2004) Molecular and physiological evidence suggests the existence of a system II-like pathway of ethylene production in nonclimacteric Citrus fruit. Planta 219:243-252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kondo S, Kawai M (1998) Relationship between free and conjugated ABA levels in seeded and gibberellin-treated seedless, maturing Pione grape berries. J Am Soc Hort Sci 123:750-754Google Scholar
  55. Kraeva E,ary C, Carbonneau A, Deloire A (1998) Salicylic acid treatment of grape berries retards ripening. Vitis 37:143-144Google Scholar
  56. Lin SF, Walsh CS (2008) Studies of the tree factor and its role in the maturation and ripening of “Gala” and “Fuji” apples. Postharvest Biol Technol 48:99-106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Manning K, Davies C, Bowen HC, White PJ (2001) Functional characterization of two ripeningrelated sucrose transporters from grape berries. Ann Bot 87:125-129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Matsushima J, Hiratsuka S, Taniguchi N, Wada R, Suzaki N (1989) Anthocyanin accumulation and sugar content in the skin of grape cultivar Olympia treated with ABA. J Japan Soc Hort Sci 58:551-555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McGlasson WB, Dostal HC, Tigchelaar EC (1975) Comparison of propylene-induced responses of immature fruit in normal and RIN mutant tomatoes. Plant Physiol 55:218-222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mori, K, Sugaya, S, Gemma, H (2005) Decreased anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape berries grown under elevated night temperature condition. Sci Hortic 105:319-330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nomura T, Sato T, Bishop GJ, Kamiya Y, Takatsuto S, Yokota T (2001) Accumulation of 6- deoxocathasterone and 6-deoxocastasterone in Arabidopsis, pea and tomato is suggestive of common rate-limiting steps in brassinosteroid biosynthesis. Phytochemistry 57:171-178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Okamoto G, Kuwamura T, Hirano K (2004) Effects of water deficit stress on leaf and berry ABA and berry ripening in Chardonnay grapevines (Vitis vinifera). Vitis 43:15-17Google Scholar
  63. Ollat N, Diakou-Verdin P, Carde JP, Barrieu F, Gaudillere JP, Moing A (2002) Grape berry development: A review. J Int Sci Vigne Vin 36:109-131Google Scholar
  64. Pan QH, Li MJ, Peng CC, Zhang N, Zou X, Zou KQ, Wang XL, Yu XC, Wang XF, Zhang DP (2005) Abscisic acid activates acid invertases in developing grape berry. Physiol Plant 125:157-170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Peppi MC, Fidelibus MW (2008) Effects of Forchlorfenuron and abscisic acid on the quality of ‘Flame’ grapes. HortScience 43:173-176Google Scholar
  66. Peppi MC, Fidelibus MW, Dokoozlian N (2006) Abscisic acid application timing and concentration affect firmness, pigmentation, and color of ‘flame seedless’ grapes. HortScience 41:1440-1445Google Scholar
  67. Peppi MC, Fidelibus MW, Dokoozlian NK (2007) Application timing and concentration of abscisic acid affect the quality of Redglobe grapes. J Horticult Sci Biotechnol 82:304-310Google Scholar
  68. Perez FJ, Gomez M (2000) Possible role of soluble invertase in the gibberellic acid berry-sizing effect in Sultana grape. Plant Growth Regul 30:111-116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pilati S, Perazzolli M, Malossini A, Cestaro A, Dematte L, Fontana P, Dal Ri A, Viola R, Velasco R, Moser C (2007) Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of grapevine berry ripening reveals a set of genes similarly modulated during three seasons and the occurrence of an oxidative burst at véraison. BMC Genomics 8:doi:10.1186/1471-2164-8-428Google Scholar
  70. Pirie A, Mullins MG (1976) Changes in anthocyanin and phenolics content of grapevine leaf and fruit tissues treated with sucrose, nitrate, and abscisic acid. Plant Physiol 58:468-472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Retamales J, Bangerth F, Cooper T, Callejas R (1995) Effects of CPPU and GA3 on fruit quality of Sultanina table grape. Acta Hort 394:149-157Google Scholar
  72. Reynolds AG, Wardle DA, Zurowski C, Looney NE (1992) Phenylureas CPPU and Thidiazuron affect yield components, fruit composition, and storage potential of 4 seedless grape selections. J Am Soc Hort Sci 117:85-89Google Scholar
  73. Robinson SP, Jacobs AK, Dry IB (1997) A class IV chitinase is highly expressed in grape berries during ripening. Plant Physiol 114:771-778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rolland F, Moore B, Sheen J (2002) Sugar sensing and signalling in plants. Plant Cell 14:S185-S205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Rook F, Hadingham S, Li Y, Bevan MW (2006) Sugar and ABA response pathways and the control of gene expression. Plant Cell Environ 29:426-434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Roubelakis-Angelakis KA, Kliewer WM (1986) Effects of exogenous factors on phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and accumulation of anthocyanins and total phenolics in grape berries. Am J Enol Vitic 37:275-280Google Scholar
  77. Saltveit ME (1993) Internal carbon-dioxide and ethylene levels in ripening tomato fruit attached to or detached from the plant. Physiol Plant 89:204-210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sato A, Yamada M, Iwanami H, Mitani M (2004) Quantitative and instrumental measurements of grape flesh texture as affected by gibberellic acid application. J Jap Soc Horticult Sci 73:7-11Google Scholar
  79. Scienza A, Miravalle R, Visai C, Fregoni M (1978) Relationships between seed number, gibberellin and abscisic-acid levels and ripening in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries. Vitis 17:361-368Google Scholar
  80. Seymour GB (1993) Bananat. In: Seymour GB, Taylor JE, Tucker GA (ed) Biochemistry of Fruit Ripening. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  81. Shiozaki S, Kamata Y, Ogata T, Horiuchi S, Kawase K (1999) Localization of abscisic acid in grape berry by immunohistochemical techniques. J Japan Soc Hort Sci 68:1-9Google Scholar
  82. Shiozaki S, Miyagawa T, Ogata T, Horiuchi S, Kawase K (1997) Differences in cell proliferation and enlargement between seeded and seedless grape berries induced parthenocarpically by gibberellin. J Hort Sci 72:705-712Google Scholar
  83. Soar CJ, Speirs J, Maffei SM, Loveys BR (2004) Gradients in stomatal conductance, xylem sap ABA and bulk leaf ABA along canes of Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz: molecular and physiological studies investigating their source. Funct Plant Biol 31:659-669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Symons GM, Davies C, Shavrukov Y, Dry IB, Reid JB, Thomas MR (2006) Grapes on steroids. Brassinosteroids are involved in grape berry ripening. Plant Physiol 140:150-158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Szyjewicz E, Rosner N, Kliewer WM (1984) Ethephon ((2-Chloroethyl)phosphonic acid, Ethrel, CEPA) in viticulture-a review. Am J Enol Vitic 35:117-123Google Scholar
  86. Terrier N, Glissant D, Grimplet J, Barrieu F, Abbal P, Couture C, Ageorges A, Atanassova R, Leon C, Renaudin JP, Dedaldechamp F, Romieu C, Delrot S, Hamdi S (2005) Isogene specific oligo arrays reveal multifaceted changes in gene expression during grape berry (Vitis vinifera L.) development. Planta 222:832-847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tesniere C, Pradal M, El-Kereamy A, Torregrosa L, Chatelet P, Roustan JP, Chervin C (2004) Involvement of ethylene signalling in a non-climacteric fruit: new elements regarding the regulation of ADH expression in grapevine. J Exp Bot 55:2235-2240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Teszlak P, Gaal K, Pour Nikfardjam MS (2005) Influence of grapevine flower treatment with gibberellic acid (GA3) on polyphenol content of Vitis vinifera L. wine. Anal Chim Acta 543:275-281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tira-Umphon A, Roustan JP, Chervin C (2007) The stimulation by ethylene of the UDP glucoseflavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) in grape tissues is independent from the MybA transcription factors. Vitis 46:210-211Google Scholar
  90. Trainotti L, Pavanello A, Casadoro G (2005) Different ethylene receptors show an increased expression during the ripening of strawberries:does such an increment imply a role for ethylene in the ripening of these non-climacteric fruits? J Exp Bot 56:2037-2046PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tucker GA (1993) Introduction. Seymour GB, Taylor JE, Tucker GA (ed) Biochemistry of Fruit Ripening. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  92. Vandenbussche F, Van Der Straeten D (2007) One for all and all for one:Cross-talk of multiple signals controlling the plant phenotype. J Plant Growth Regul 26:178-187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Verries C, Pradal M, Chatelet P, Torregrosa L, Tesniere C (2004) Isolation and analysis of the promoter of VvAdh2, a grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) ripening-related gene. Plant Sci 167:1067-1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wang HC, Huang HB, Huang XM (2007) Differential effects of abscisic acid and ethylene on the fruit maturation of Litchi chinensis Sonn. Plant Growth Regul 52:189-198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wang ZY, Seto H, Fujioka S, Yoshida S, Chory J (2001) BRI1 is a critical component of a plasma-membrane receptor for plant steroids. Nature 410:380-383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Waters DLE, Holton TA, Ablett EM, Lee LS, Henry RJ (2005) cDNA microarray analysis of developing grape ( Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz) berry skin. Funct Integr Genomics 5:40-58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Weaver RJ (1962) The effect of benzo-thiazole-2-oxyacetic acid on maturation of seeded varieties of grape. Am J Enol Vitic 13:141-149Google Scholar
  98. Weaver RJ, Singh IS (1978) Occurrence of endogenous ethylene and effect of plant growth regulators on ethylene production in grapevine. Am J Enol Vitic 29:282-285Google Scholar
  99. Wen PF, Chen JY, Kong WF, Pan QH, Wan SB, Huang WD (2005) Salicylic acid induced the expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene in grape berry. Plant Sci 169:928-934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Yakushiji H, Morinaga K, Kobayashi S (2001) Promotion of berry ripening by 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid in Kyoho grapes. J Japan Soc Hort Sci 70:185-190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Yu XC, Li MJ, Gao GF, Feng HZ, Geng XQ, Peng CC, Zhu SY, Wang XJ, Shen YY, Zhang DP (2006) Abscisic acid stimulates a calcium-dependent protein kinase in grape berry. Plant Physiol 140:558-579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zabadal TJ, Bukovac MJ (2006) Effect of CPPU on fruit development of selected seedless and seeded grape cultivars. HortScience 41:154-157Google Scholar
  103. Zhang DP, Zhang ZL, Chen J, Jia WS (1999) Specific abscisic acid-binding sites in mesocarp of grape berry: Properties and subcellular localization. J Plant Physiol 155:324-331Google Scholar
  104. Zhang XR, Luo GG, Wang RH, Wang J, Himelrick DG (2003) Growth and developmental responses of seeded and seedless grape berries to shoot girdling. J Am Soc Hort Sci 128:316-323Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Davies
    • 1
  • C. Böttcher
    • 1
  1. 1.Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research OrganisationPlant IndustryGlen OsmondAustralia

Personalised recommendations