Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genes & Proteins In Grapevine

  • C. Tesniere
  • P. Abbal

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol: NAD oxidoreductase; EC is a dimeric-zinc enzyme which catalyses the inter-conversion of acetaldehyde to ethanol, using NAD/NADH as a cofactor. This is the terminal step of glycolysis, leading to fermentative metabolism in anaerobic conditions. In this context, the evolution of this enzyme’s activity, and gene expression have been widely investigated in response to anaerobiosis in the plant kingdom, especially in organs such as roots, tubers, seeds and fruit (Kadowaki et al. 1988, Matton et al. 1990, Sun Chen and Chase 1993, Millar et al. 1994, Ke et al. 1994, Chung and Ferl 1999). ADH activity is generally low under normal oxygen tension, but strongly increases when the absence of oxygen leads to ethanolic fermentation. It appears to play an important role in the plant response to anaerobiosis, as ADH induction was generally detected in organs adapted to this stress. In maize, Gerlach et al. (1983) showed that ADH is fundamental to anaerobic survival for ADH null mutants. Paul and Ferl (1991) described the enhanced transcription of two genes responsible for an increased ADH synthesis. During oxygen deprivation, the assumed role of ADH is to reduce toxic acetaldehyde to ethanol and to recycle NADH to NAD, thereby allowing anaerobic glycolysis to be used as an energy-generating pathway. It could also be involved in cytoplasmic homeostasis, as the level of ADH activity is tightly regulated by pH, and as uncontrolled cytoplasmic acidosis is lethal (Roberts et al. 1984). ADH has also been implicated in the response to a wide range of other stresses, elicitors and also to abscisic acid (Christie et al. 1991, Constabel et al. 1990, Jarillo et al. 1993, Matton et al. 1990, de Bruxelles et al. 1996, Peters and Frenkel 2004).


Alcohol Dehydrogenase Grape Berry Berry Development Grapevine Genome Linalool Oxide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Artsaenko O, Peisker M, Nieden U, Fiedler U Weiler EW Müntz K, Conrad U (1995) Expression of a single-chain Fv antibody against abscisic acid creates a wilty phenotype in transgenic tobacco. Plant J 8:745-750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. de Bruxelles GL, Peacock WJ, Dennis ES, Dolferus, R (1996) Abscisic acid induces the alcohol dehydrogenase gene in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 111:381-391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bicsak TA, Kann LR, Reiter A, Chase TJ (1982) Tomato alcohol dehydrogenase: purification and substrate specificity. Arch Biochem Biophys 216:605-615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonghi C, Ramina A, Ruperti B, Vidrih R, Tonutti P (1999) Peach fruit ripening and quality in relation to picking time, and hypoxic and high CO2 short-term postharvest treatments. Postharvest Biol Technol 16:213-222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chervin C, El-Kereamy A, Roustan JP, Latche A, Lamon J, Bouzayen M (2004) Ethylene seems required for the berry development and ripening in grape, a non-climacteric fruit. Plant Sci 167:1301-1305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Christie PJ, Hahn M, Walbot V (1991) Low-temperature accumulation of alcohol dehydrogenase-1 mRNA and protein activity in maize and rice seedlings. Plant Physiol 95:699-706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chung HJ, Ferl RJ (1999) Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase expression in both shoots and roots is conditioned by root growth environment. Plant Physiol 121:429-436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coombe BG, Hale CR (1973) The hormone content of ripening grape berries and the effect of growth substance treatments. Plant Physiol 51:629-634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Conley TR, Peng HP, Shih MC (1999) Mutations affecting induction of glycolytic and fermentative genes during germination and environmental stresses in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 119:599-608PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Constabel CP Matton DP, Brisson N (1990) Concurrent synthesis and degradation of alcohol dehydrogenase in elicitor-treated and wounded potato tubers. Plant Physiol 94:887-891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dennis ES, Gerlach WL, Pryor AJ, Bennetzen JL, Inglis A, Llewellyn D, Sachs MM, Ferl RJ, Peacock WJ (1984) Molecular analysis of the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1) gene of maize., Nucleic Acids Res 12:3983-4000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dennis ES, Sachs MM, Gerlach WL, Finnegan EJ, Peacock WJ (1985) Molecular analysis of the alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (Adh2) gene of maize. Nucleic Acids Res 13:727-743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Echeverria G, Graell J, Lopez ML, Lara, I (2004) Volatiles production, quality and aroma-related enzyme activities during maturation of Fuji apples. Postharvest Biol Technol 31 217-227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fuchs EE, Livingston NJ, Abrams SR, Rose PA (1999) Structure-activity relationships of ABA analogs based on their effects on the gas exchange of clonal white spruce (Picea glauca) emblings. Physiol Plant 105 246-256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fulcrand H, Doco T, Es-Safi N, Cheynier V, Moutounet M (1996) Study of the acetaldehyde induced polymerization of flavan-3-ols by liquid chromatography ion spray mass spectrophotometry. J Chrom 752:85-91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fukuda T, Yokoyama J, Nakamura T, Song IJ, Ito T, Ochiai T, Kanno A, Kameya T, Maki M (2005) Molecular phylogeny and evolution of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) genes in legumes. BMC Plant Biol 5:6, 1-10Google Scholar
  17. Gerlach WL, Lörz H, Sachs MM, Llewellyn D, Pryor AJ, Dennis ES, Peacock WJ (1983) The alcohol dehydrogenase genes of maize: a potential gene transfer system in plants. In: Nagley P, Linnane A, Peacock WJ, Pateman J (eds) Manipulation and Expression of Genes in Eukaryotes. Academic Press, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  18. Graber JH, Cantor CR, Mohr SC, Smith TF (1999) In silico detection of control signals: mRNA 3’-end-processing sequences in diverse species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:14055-14060PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gregerson R, McLean M, Beld M, Gerats, AG, Strommer J (1991) Structure, expression, chromosomal location and product of the gene encoding ADH1 in Petunia. Plant Mol Biol 17:37-48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gregerson RG, Cameron L McLean M, Dennis P, Strommer J (1993) Structure, expression, chromosomal location and product of the gene encoding Adh2 in Petunia. Genetics 133:999-1007PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hart RP, McDevitt MA, Nevins JR (1985) Poly(A) site cleavage in a HeLa nuclear extract is dependent on downstream sequences. Cell:43:677-683PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ingersoll JC, Rothenberg M, Liedl BE, Folkerts K Garvin D, Hanson MR, Doyle JJ, Mutschler MA (1994) A novel anther-expressed adh-homologous gene in Lycopersicon esculentum. Plant Mol Biol 26:1875-1891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jaillon O, Aury JM, Noel B, et al. (2007) The grapevine genome sequence suggests ancestral hexaploidization in major angiosperm phyla. Nature 449:463-467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jarillo JA, Leyva A, Salinas J, Martinez-Zapater JM (1993) Low temperature induces the accumulation of alcohol dehydrogenase mRNA in Arabidopsis thaliana, a chilling-tolerant plant. Plant Physiol 101:833-837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kadowaki HI, Matsuoka M, Murai N, Harada K (1988) Induction of two alcohol dehydrogenase polypeptides in rice roots during anaerobiosis. Plant Sci 54 29-36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ke D, Yahia E, Mateos M, Kader AA (1994) Ethanolic fermentation of Bartlett pears as influenced by ripening stage and atmospheric composition. J Am Soc Hort Sci 119:976-982Google Scholar
  27. Kimmerer TW, Stringer MA (1988) Alcohol dehydrogenase and ethanol in the stems of trees, Plant Physiol 87:693-697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kleczkowski LA, Geisler M, Ciereszko I, Johansson H (2004) UDP-Glucose pyrophosphorylase An old protein with new tricks. Plant Physiol 134:912-918PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lelievre JM, Latche A, Bouzayen M, Pech JC (1997) Ethylene and fruit ripening. Physiol Plant 101:727-739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Longhurst T, Lee E, Hinde R, Brady C, Speirs J (1994) Structure of the tomato Adh2 gene and Adh2 pseudogenes, and a study of Adh2 gene expression in fruit. Plant Mol Biol 26:1073-1084PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Magel E, Abdel-Latif A, Hampp R (2001) Non-structural carbohydrates and catalytic activities of sucrose metabolizing enzymes in trunks of two Juglans species and their role in heartwood formation. Holzforsch 55:135-145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Manriquez D, El-Sharkawy I, Flores FB, El-Yayaoui F, Regad F, Bouzayen M, Latché A, Pech JC (2006) Two highly divergent alcohol dehydrogenases of melon exhibit fruit ripeningspecific expression and distinct biochemical characteristics. Plant Mol Biol 61:675-685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Matton DP, Constabel P, Brisson N (1990) Alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression in potato following elicitor and stress treatment. Plant Mol Biol 14:775-783PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Millar AA, Olive MR, Dennis ES (1994) The expression and anaerobic induction of alcohol dehydrogenase in cotton. Biochem Genet 32 279-300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Molina I, Nicolas M, Crouzet J (1986) Grape alcohol dehydrogenase I isolation and characterization, Am J Enol Vitic 37:169-173Google Scholar
  36. Morgan PW, Drew MC (1997) Ethylene and plant responses to stress. Physiol Plant 100:620-630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Morton BR, Gaut BS, Clegg MT (1996) Evolution of alcohol dehydrogenase genes in the palm and grass families. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:11735-11739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Paul AL, Ferl RJ (1991) Adh1 and Adh2 regulation. Maydica 36:129-134Google Scholar
  39. Peng HP, Chan CS, Shih MC, Yang SF (2001) Signalling events in the hypoxic induction of alcohol dehydrogenase gene in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 126:742-749PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Peters JS, Frenkel C (2004) Relationship between alcohol dehydrogenase activity and low temperature in two maize genotypes, Silverado F1 and Adh1-Adh2 doubly null. Plant Physiol Biochem 42:841-846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Roberts JK, Callis J, Jardetzky O Walbot V, Freeling M (1984) Cytoplasmic acidosis as a determinant of flooding intolerance in plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:6029-6033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Roe B, Davis PL, Bruemmer JH (1984) Pyruvate metabolism during maturation of Hamlin oranges. Phytochemistry 23:713-717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rothnie HM, Reid J, Hohn T (1994) The contribution of AAUAAA and the upstream element UUUGUA to the efficiency of mRNA 3’-end formation in plants. EMBO J 13:2200-2210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Sanfacon H, Brodmann P, Hohn T (1991) A dissection of the cauliflower mosaic virus polyadenylation signal. Genes Dev 5:141-149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sang T, Donoghue MJ, Zhang D (1997) Evolution of alcohol dehydrogenase gene in paeonies (Paeonia): phylogenetic relationships of putative nonhybrid species. Mol Biol Evol 14:994-1007PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Sarni-Manchado P, Verries C, Tesniere C (1997) Molecular characterization and structural analysis of one alcohol dehydrogenase gene (GV-Adh1) expressed during ripening of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L) berry. Plant Sci 125:177-187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sauvage FX, Pradal M, Chatelet P, Tesniere C (2007) Proteome changes in leaves from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L) transformed for alcohol dehydrogenase activity. J Agric Food Chem 55:2597-2603PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sheets M, Ogg S, Wickens M (1990) Point mutations in AAUAAA and poly(A) addition site: effects on the accuracy and efficiency of cleavage and polyadenylation in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res 18:5799-5805PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Small RL, Wendel JF (2000) Copy number lability and evolutionary dynamics of the Adh gene family in diploid and tetraploid cotton (Gossypium). Genetics 155:1913-1926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Speirs J, Lee E, Holt K, Yong-Duk K, Steele Scott N, Loveys B, Schuch W (1998) Genetic manipulation of alcohol dehydrogenase levels in ripening tomato fruit affects the balance of some flavor aldehydes and alcohols. Plant Physiol 117:1047-1058PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Stuart KL, Coke LB (1975) The effect of vomifoliol on stomatal aperture. Planta 122:307-310 Sun Chen ARC, Chase TJ (1993) Alcohol dehydrogenase 2 and pyruvate decarboxylase induction in ripening and hypoxic tomato fruit. Plant Physiol Biochem 31:875-885Google Scholar
  52. Tadege M, Kuhlemeier C (1997) Aerobic fermentation during tobacco pollen development. Plant Mol Biol 35:343-354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tesniere C, Verries C (2000) Molecular cloning and expression of cDNAs encoding alcohol dehydrogenases from Vitis vinifera L during berry development. Plant Sci 157:77-88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tesniere C, Verries C (2001) Alcohol dehydrogenase: a molecular marker in grapevine In: Roubelakis-Angelakis KA (ed) Molecular Biology and Biotechnology of the Grapevine. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  55. Tesniere C, Pradal M, El-Kereamy A, Torregrosa L, Chatelet P, Roustan JP, Chervin C (2004) Involvement of ethylene signalling in a non-climacteric fruit : new elements regarding the regulation of ADH expression in grapevine. J Exp Bot 55:2235-2240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tesniere C, Khabaya B, Chatelet P, Torregrosa L (2005) Effect of different 3΄flanking regions on the activity of the Vitis vinifera alcohol dehydrogenase 2 promoter. Vitis 44:1-4Google Scholar
  57. Tesniere C, Davies C, Sreekantan L, Bogs J, Thomas M, Torregrosa L (2006a) Analysis of the transcript levels of VvAdh1, VvAdh2 and VvGrip4, three genes highly expressed during Vitis vinifera berry development. Vitis 45:75-79Google Scholar
  58. Tesniere C, Torregrosa L, Pradal M, Souquet JM Gilles C, Dos Santos K, Chatelet C, Gunata Z (2006b) Effects of genetic manipulation of alcohol dehydrogenase levels on the response to stress and the synthesis of secondary metabolites in grapevine leaves. J Exp Bot 57:91-99Google Scholar
  59. Torregrosa L, Verries C, Tesniere C (2002) Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L) promoter analysis by biolistic- mediated transient transformation of cell suspensions. Vitis 41:27-32Google Scholar
  60. Torregrosa L, Pradal M, Souquet, JM, Rambert M Gunata Z, Tesniere C (2008) Manipulation of VvAdh to investigate its function in grape berry development. Plant Sci 174:149-155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. van Eldik RGJ, Ruiter K, van Herpen MMA, Schrauwen JAM, Wullems GJ (1997) Induced ADH gene expression and enzyme activity in pollinated pistils of Solanum tuberosum. Sex Plant Reprod 10:107-109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. van der Straeten D, Rodrigues Pousada RA, Gielen J, Van Montagu M (1991) Tomato alcohol dehydrogenase Expression during fruit ripening and under hypoxic conditions. FEBS Lett 295:39-42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Verries C, Bes C, This P, Tesniere C (2000) Cloning and characterization of Vine-1, a LTR-retrotransposon like element in Vitis vinifera L and other Vitis species. Genome 43:366-379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Verries C, Pradal M, Chatelet P, Torregrosa L, Tesniere C (2004) Isolation and analysis of the promoter of VvAdh2, a grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) ripening-related gene. Plant Sci 167:1067-1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Winterhalter P, Schreier P (1995) The generation of norisoprenoid volatiles in starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.): a review. Food Rev Int 11:237-254CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Tesniere
    • 1
  • P. Abbal
    • 1
  1. 1.INRAMontpellier Cedex 1France

Personalised recommendations