The Production of Flavour & Aroma Compounds in Grape Berries

  • J.D. Dunlevy
  • C.M. Kalua
  • R.A. Keyzers
  • P.K. Boss

Wine is a complex mixture where the flavour and aroma compounds have multiple origins. The odour active components of wine can be traced to the direct contribution of compounds from grapes, oak and fermentation microbes. However, this complexity is multiplied by molecular transformations that can be catalysed by enzymes during the wine-making process or spontaneous chemical transitions that can occur in the wine matrix. Nevertheless, there is evidence that compounds derived from the grape berries are important contributors to the sensory attributes of wine. First, wines from different varieties have a fundamentally different array of flavour/aroma compounds which give them their typical character. This effect is determined solely by the difference in the genomes of the varieties. Second, seasonal and regional differences can be observed in the sensory properties of wines made from grapes of the same variety. These viticultural and environmental variables could alter grape composition by altering gene expression, but also may impact on compound stability.


Aroma Compound Agric Food White Wine Grape Berry Grape Variety 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arn H, Acree TE (1998) Flavornet: a database of aroma compounds based on the odor potency in natural products. In: Contis ET, Ho CT, Mussinan CJ, Parliament TH, Shahidi F, Spanier AM (eds) Food Flavors: Formation, Analysis and Packaging Influences. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed MA, El-Mawla A, Beerhues L (2002) Benzoic acid biosynthesis in cell cultures of Hypericum androsaemum. Planta 214: 727-733Google Scholar
  3. Allen MS, Lacey MJ, Boyd S (1994) Determination of methoxypyrazines in red wines by stableisotope dilution gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 42: 1734-1738Google Scholar
  4. Allen MS, Lacey MJ, Harris RLN, Brown WV (1991) Contribution of methoxypyrazines to Sauvignon blanc wine aroma. Am J Enol Vitic 42: 109-112Google Scholar
  5. Angerosa F (2002) Influence of volatile compounds on virgin olive oil quality evaluated by analytical approaches and sensor panels. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 104: 639-660Google Scholar
  6. Aparicio R, Morales MT (1998) Characterization of olive ripeness by green aroma compounds of virgin olive oil. J Agric Food Chem 46: 1116-1122Google Scholar
  7. Arimura G, Kost C, Boland W (2005) Herbivore-induced, indirect plant defenses. Biochim Biophys Acta 1734: 91-111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Arimura G, Ozawa R, Kugimiya S, Takabayashi J, Bohlmann J (2004) Herbivore-induced defense response in a model legume. Two-spotted spider mites induce emission of (E)-β-ocimene and transcript accumulation of (E)-β-ocimene synthase in Lotus japonicus. Plant Physiol 135: 1976-1983PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Aubert C, Baumann S, Arguel H (2005) Optimization of the analysis of flavor volatile compounds by liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME). Application to the aroma analysis of melons, peaches, grapes, strawberries, and tomatoes. J Agric Food Chem 53: 8881-8895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bailly S, Jerkovic V, Marchand-Brynaert J, Collin S, (2006) Aroma extraction dilution analysis of Sauternes wines. Key role of polyfunctional thiols. J Agric Food Chem 54: 7227-7234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Basantani M, Srivastava A (2007) Plant glutathione transferases - a decade falls short. Can J Bot 85: 443-456Google Scholar
  12. Baumes R, Wirth J, Bureau S, Gunata Y, Razungles A (2002) Biogeneration of C-13- norisoprenoid compounds: experiments supportive for an apo-carotenoid pathway in grapevines. Anal Chim Acta 458: 3-14Google Scholar
  13. Belancic A, Agosin E (2007) Methoxypyrazines in grapes and wines of Vitis vinifera cv. Carmenere. Am J Enol Vitic 58: 462-469Google Scholar
  14. Bick JA, Lange BM (2003) Metabolic cross talk between cytosolic and plastidial pathways of isoprenoid biosynthesis: unidirectional transport of intermediates across the chloroplast envelope membrane. Arch Biochem Biophys 415: 146-154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Boatright J, Negre F, Chen XL, Kish CM, Wood B, Peel G, Orlova I, Gang D, Rhodes D, Dudareva N (2004) Understanding in vivo benzenoid metabolism in petunia petal tissue. Plant Physiol 135: 1993-2011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bohlmann J, Meyer-Gauen G, Croteau R (1998) Plant terpenoid synthases: Molecular biology and phylogenetic analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:4126-4133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Boss PK, Dunlevy J, Cox A, Tomas A, Nicholson E, Krake L, Davies C (2008) The pathways to a greater understanding of grape flavour development. In: Blair R, Williams P, Pretorius S (eds) Proceedings of the 13th Australian Wine Industry Technical ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  18. Botella-Pavia P, Besumbes O, Phillips MA Carretero-Paulet L, Boronat A, Rodriguez- Concepcion M (2004) Regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants: evidence for a key role of hydroxymethylbutenyl diphosphate reductase in controlling the supply of plastidial isoprenoid precursors. Plant J 40:188-199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bouchilloux P, Darriet P, Dubourdieu D, Henry R, Reichert S, Mosandl A (2000) Stereodifferentiation of 3-mercapto-2-methylpropanol in wine. Eur Food Res Technol 210:349-352Google Scholar
  20. Bouchilloux P, Darriet P, Henry R, Lavigne-Cruege V, Dubourdieu D (1998) Identification of volatile and powerful odorous thiols in Bordeaux red wine varieties. J Agric Food Chem 46:3095-3099Google Scholar
  21. Bouvier F, Suire C, Mutterer J, Camara B (2003) Oxidative remodeling of chromoplast carotenoids: Identification of the carotenoid dioxygenase CsCCD and CsZCD genes involved in crocus secondary metabolite biogenesis. Plant Cell 15:47-62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bureau SM, Baumes RL, Razungles AJ (2000) Effects of vine or bunch shading on the glycosylated flavor precursors in grapes of Vitis vinifera L cv Syrah. J Agric Food Chem 48:1290– 1297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Buttery RG, Seifert RM, Guadagni DG, Ling LC (1969) Characterization of some volatile constituents of bell peppers. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society, AG73Google Scholar
  24. Buttery RG, Seifert RM, Guadagni DG, Ling LC (1971) Characterization of additional volatile components of tomato. J Agric Food Chem 19:524-529Google Scholar
  25. Buttery RG, Teranishi R, Ling LC (1988) Identification of damascenone in tomato volatiles. Chemi Ind 7:238Google Scholar
  26. Buttery RG, Teranishi R, Ling LC, Turnbaugh J G (1990) Quantitative and sensory studies on tomato paste volatiles. J Agric Food Chem 38:336-340Google Scholar
  27. Callao MP, Borras JM, Lopez A, Rius FX (1991) Influence of the state of ripeness of Chardonnay grapes on wine composition. 2. Alcohols, aldehydes and acetoin. Acta Alimentaria 20: 253- 260Google Scholar
  28. Carretero-Paulet L, Ahumada I, Cunillera N, Rodriguez-Concepcion M, Ferrer A, Boronat A, Campos N (2002) Expression and molecular analysis of the Arabidopsis DXR gene encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase the first committed enzyme of the 2-Cmethyl- D-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway. Plant Physiol 129:1581-1591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Chapman DM, Thorngate JH, Matthews MA, Guinard JX, Ebeler SE (2004) Yield effects on 2- methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentration in Cabernet Sauvignon using a solid phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. J Agric Food Chem 52:5431-5435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Charles-Bernard M, Roberts DD, Kraehenbuehl K (2005) Interactions between volatile and nonvolatile coffee components. 2. Mechanistic study focused on volatile thiols. J Agric Food Chem 53:4426-4433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Chkaiban L, Botondi R, Bellicontro A, De Santis D, Kefalas P, Mencarelli F (2007) Influence of postharvest water stress on lipoxygenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities and on the composition of some volatile compounds of gewurztraminer grapes dehydrated under controlled and uncontrolled thermohygrometric conditions. Aust J Grape Wine Res 13:142-149Google Scholar
  32. Coelho E, Rocha SM, Delgadillo I, Coimbra M A (2006) Headspace-SPME applied to varietal volatile components evolution during Vitis vinifera L cv ‘Baga’ ripening. Anal Chim Acta 563:204-214Google Scholar
  33. Costantini V, Bellincontro A, De Santis D, Botondi R, Mencarelli F (2006) Metabolic changes of Malvasia grapes for wine production during postharvest drying. J Agric Food Chem 54:3334– 3340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cullere L, Escudero A, Cacho J, Ferreira, V (2004) Gas chromatography-olfactometry and chemical quantitative study of the aroma of six premium quality Spanish aged red wines. J Agric Food Chem 52:1653-1660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cunningham FX (2002) Regulation of carotenoid synthesis and accumulation in plants. Pure Appl Chem 74:1409-1417Google Scholar
  36. Davis EM, Croteau R (2000) Cyclization enzymes in the biosynthesis of monoterpenes sesquiterpenes and diterpenes. In: Leeper FJ, Vederas JC (eds) Biosynthesis: Aromatic Polyketides Isoprenoids Alkaloids, Springer-Verlag BerlinGoogle Scholar
  37. de Boubee DR, Van Leeuwen C, Dubourdieu D (2000) Organoleptic impact of 2-methoxy-3- isobutylpyrazine on red Bordeaux and Loire wines. Effect of environmental conditions on concentrations in grapes during ripening. J Agric Food Chem 48:4830-4834Google Scholar
  38. De Moraes CM, Mescher MC, Tumlinson JH (2001) Caterpillar-induced nocturnal plant volatiles repel conspecific females. Nature 410:577-580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Demmig Adams B, Gilmore AM, Adams WW (1996) Carotenoids. 3. In vivo functions of carotenoids in higher plants. FASEB J 10:403-412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. des Gachons CP, Tominaga T, Dubourdieu D (2002) Sulfur aroma precursor present in Sglutathione conjugate form: Identification of S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-glutathione in must from Vitis vinifera L cv Sauvignon blanc. J Agric Food Chem 50:4076-4079Google Scholar
  41. des Gachons CP, Van Leeuwen C, Tominaga T, Soyer JP, Gaudillere JP, Dubourdieu D (2005) Influence of water and nitrogen deficit on fruit ripening and aroma potential of Vitis vinifera L cv Sauvignon blanc in field conditions. J Sci Food Agric 85:73-85Google Scholar
  42. Dimitriadis E, Williams PJ (1984) The development and use of a rapid analytical technique for estimation of free and potentially volatile monoterpene flavorants of grapes. Am J Enol Vitic 35:66-71Google Scholar
  43. Dixon J, Hewett EW (2000) Factors affecting apple aroma/flavour volatile concentration: a review. NZ J Crop Hort Sci 28:155-173Google Scholar
  44. Dudareva N, Andersson S, Orlova I, Gatto N, Reichelt M, Rhodes D, Boland W, Gershenzon J (2005) The nonmevalonate pathway supports both monoterpene and sesquiterpene formation in snapdragon flowers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:933-938PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dudareva N, Martin D, Kish CM, Kolosova N, Gorenstein N, Faldt J, Miller B, Bohlmann J (2003) (E)-β-Ocimene and myrcene synthase genes of floral scent biosynthesis in snapdragon: function and expression of three terpene synthase genes of a new terpene synthase subfamily. Plant Cell 15:1227-1241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Dudareva N, Negre F, Nagegowda DA, Orlova I (2006) Plant volatiles: Recent advances and future perspectives. Crit Rev Plant Sci 25:417-440Google Scholar
  47. Dudareva N, Pichersky E, Gershenzon J (2004) Biochemistry of plant volatiles. Plant Physiol 135:1893-1902PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Ebang-Oke J-P, De Billerbeck GM, Ambid C (2003) Temporal expression of the Lis gene from Vitis vinifera L cv Muscat de Frontignan. In: Le Quere J-L, Etievant PX (eds) Flavour Research at the Dawn of the Twenty-first Century. Proceeding of the 10th Weurman Flavour Research Symposium, Lavoisier, ParisGoogle Scholar
  49. Engelberth J, Alborn HT, Schmelz EA, Tumlinson JH (2004) Airborne signals prime plants against insect herbivore attack. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:1781-1785PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Enjuto M, Lumbreras V, Marin C, Boronat A (1995) Expression of the Arabidopsis Hmg2 gene encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme-A reductase is restricted to meristematic and floral tissues. Plant Cell 7:517-527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Escudero A, Campo E, Farina L, Cacho J, Ferreira V (2007) Analytical characterization of the aroma of five premium red wines. Insights into the role of odor families and the concept of fruitiness of wines. J Agric Food Chem 55:4501-4510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Estevez JM, Cantero A, Reindl A, Reichler S, Leon P (2001) 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase, a limiting enzyme for plastidic isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants. J Biol Chem 276:22901-22909PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Esti M, Tamborra P (2006) Influence of winemaking techniques on aroma precursors. Anal Chim Acta 563:173-179Google Scholar
  54. Ferreira V, Lopez R, Cacho JF (2000) Quantitative determination of the odorants of young red wines from different grape varieties. J Sci Food Agric 80:1659-1667Google Scholar
  55. Ferreira V, Ortin N, Cacho JF (2007) Optimization of a procedure for the selective isolation of some powerful aroma thiols - Development and validation of a quantitative method for their determination in wine. J Chromatogr A 1143:190-198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Ferreira V, Ortin N, Escudero A, Lopez R, Cacho J (2002) Chemical characterization of the aroma of Grenache rose wines: Aroma extract dilution analysis, quantitative determination and sensory reconstitution studies. J Agric Food Chem 50:4048-4054PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Feussner I, Wasternack C (2002) The lipoxygenase pathway. Annu Rev Plant Biol 53:275-297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Francis IL, Newton JL (2005) Determining wine aroma from compositional data. Aust J Grape Wine Res 11:114-126Google Scholar
  59. Francis IL, Sefton MA, Williams PJ (1992) Sensory descriptive analysis of the aroma of hydrolyzed precursor fractions from Semillon, Chardonnay and Sauvignon blanc grape juices. J Sci Food Agric 59:511-520Google Scholar
  60. Gallois A, Kergomard A, Adda J (1988) Study of the biosynthesis of 3-isopropyl-2- methoxypyrazine produced by Pseudomonas taetrolens. Food Chem 28:299-309Google Scholar
  61. Gardner HW (1991) Recent investigations into the lipoxygenase pathway of plants. Biochim Biophys Acta 1084:221-239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Gardner HW, Grove MJ, Salch YP (1996) Enzymic pathway to ethyl vinyl ketone and 2-pentenal in soybean preparations. J Agric Food Chem 44:882-886Google Scholar
  63. Gershenzon J, Dudareva N (2007) The function of terpene natural products in the natural world Nat Chem Biol 3:408-414Google Scholar
  64. Goiris K, De Ridder M, De Rouck G, Boeykens A, Van Opstaele F, Aerts G, De Cooman L, De Keukeleire D (2002) The oxygenated sesquiterpenoid fraction of hops in relation to the spicy hop character of beer. J Inst Brewing 108:86-93Google Scholar
  65. Gomez-Miguez MJ, Cacho JF, Ferreira V, Vicario IM, Heredia FJ (2007) Volatile components of Zalema white wines. Food Chem 100:1464-1473Google Scholar
  66. Gunata YZ, Bayonove CL, Baumes RL, Cordonnier RE (1985) The aroma of grapes. 1. Extraction and determination of free and glycosidically bound fractions of some grape aroma components. J Chromatogr A 331:83-90Google Scholar
  67. Guterman I, Masci T, Chen, XL, Negre F, Pichersky E, Dudareva N, Weiss D, Vainstein A (2006) Generation of phenylpropanoid pathway-derived volatiles in transgenic plants: Rose alcohol acetyltransferase produces phenylethyl acetate and benzyl acetate in petunia flowers. Plant Mol Biol 60:555-563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Guth H (1997) Quantitation and sensory studies of character impact odorants of different white wine varieties. J Agric Food Chem 45:3027-3032Google Scholar
  69. Hampel D, Mosandl A, Wust M (2005) Induction of de novo volatile terpene biosynthesis via cytosolic and plastidial pathways by methyl jasmonate in foliage of Vitis vinifera L. J Agric Food Chem 53:2652-2657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Hashizume K, Samuta T (1999) Grape maturity and light exposure affect berry methoxypyrazine concentration. Am J Enol Vitic 50:194-198Google Scholar
  71. Hashizume K, Tozawa K, Endo M, Aramaki I (2001a) S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent Omethylation of 2-hydroxy-3-alkylpyrazine in wine grapes: A putative final step of methoxypyrazine biosynthesis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65:795-801Google Scholar
  72. Hashizume K, Tozawa K, Hiraga Y, Aramaki I (2001b) Purification and characterization of a it methyltransferase capable of methylating 2-hydroxy-3-alkylpyrazine from Vitis vinifera L (cv Cabernet Sauvignon). Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65:2213-2219Google Scholar
  73. Hatanaka A (1993) The biogeneration of green odor by green leaves. Phytochemistry 34:1201– 1218Google Scholar
  74. Hertweck C, Jarvis AP, Xiang LK, Moore BS, Oldham NJ (2001) A mechanism of benzoic acid biosynthesis in plants and bacteria that mirrors fatty acid β-oxidation. Chembiochem 2:784– 786PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hertweck C, Moore BS (2000) A plant-like biosynthesis of benzoyl-CoA in the marine bacterium Streptomyces maritimus. Tetrahedron 56:9115-9120Google Scholar
  76. Holland D. Larkov O, Bar-Ya’Akov I, Bar E, Zax A, Brandeis E, Ravid U, Lewinsohn E (2005) Developmental and varietal differences in volatile ester formation and acetyl-CoA:alcohol acetyl transferase activities in apple (Malus domestica Borkh) fruit. J Agric Food Chem 53:7198– 7203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Howell KS, Klein M, Swiegers JH, Hayasaka Y, Elsey GM, Fleet GH, Hoj PB, Pretorius IS, Lopes MAD (2005) Genetic determinants of volatile-thiol release by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:5420-5426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Howitt C A, Pogson B J (2006) Carotenoid accumulation and function in seeds and non-green tissues. Plant Cell Environ 29:435-445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Humphreys JM, Chapple C (2002) Rewriting the lignin roadmap. Curr Opin Plant Biol 5:224-229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Jaillon O, Aury JM, Noel B, Policriti A, Clepet C, Casagrande A, Choisne N, Aubourg S, Vitulo N, Jubin C, Vezzi A, Legeai F, Hugueney P, Dasilva C, Horner D, Mica E, Jublot D, Poulain J, Bruyere C, Billault A, Segurens B, Gouyvenoux M, Ugarte E, Cattonaro F, Anthouard V, Vico V, Del Fabbro C, Alaux M, Di Gaspero G, Dumas V, Felice N, Paillard S, Juman I, Moroldo M, Scalabrin S, Canaguier A, Le Clainche I, Malacrida G, Durand E, Pesole G, Laucou V, Chatelet P, Merdinoglu D, Delledonne M, Pezzotti M, Lecharny A, Scarpelli C, Artiguenave F, Pe ME, Valle G, Morgante M, Caboche M, Adam-Blondon AF, Weissenbach J, Quetier F, Wincker P (2007) The grapevine genome sequence suggests ancestral hexaploidization in major angiosperm phyla. Nature 449:463-465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Janusz A, Capone DL, Puglisi CJ, Perkins MV, Elsey GM, Sefton MA (2003) (E)-1-(2,3,6- trimethylphenyl)buta-1,3-diene:A potent grape-derived odorant in wine. J Agric Food Chem 51:7759-7763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Jayanty S, Song J, Rubinstein NM, Chong A, Beaudry RM (2002) Temporal relationship between ester biosynthesis and ripening events in bananas. J Am Soc Hort Sci 127:998-1005Google Scholar
  83. Jorgensen U, Hansen M, Christensen LP, Jensen K, Kaack K (2000) Olfactory and quantitative analysis of aroma compounds in elder flower (Sambucus nigra L) drink processed from five cultivars. J Agric Food Chem 48:2376-2383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kalua CM, Allen MS, Bedgood DR, Bishop AG, Prenzler PD, Robards K (2007) Olive oil volatile compounds, flavour development and quality: A critical review. Food Chem 100:273-286Google Scholar
  85. Kaminaga Y, Schnepp J, Peel G, Kish CM, Ben-Nissan G, Weiss D, Orlova I, Lavie O, Rhodes D, Wood K, Porterfield DM, Cooper AJL, Schloss JV, Pichersky E, Vainstein A, Dudareva N (2006) Plant phenylacetaldehyde synthase is a bifunctional homotetrameric enzyme that catalyzes phenylalanine decarboxylation and oxidation. J Biol Chem 281:23357-23366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Karapinar M, Aktug SE (1987) Inhibition of foodborne pathogens by thymol eugenol menthol and anethole. Int J Food Microbiol 4:161-166Google Scholar
  87. Kloer DP, Schulz GE (2006) Structural and biological aspects of carotenoid cleavage. Cell Mol Life Sci 63:2291-2303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Koeduka T, Fridman E, Gang DR, Vassao DG, Jackson BL, Kish CM, Orlova I, Spassova SM, Lewis NG, Noel JP, Baiga TJ, Dudareva N, Pichersky E (2006) Eugenol and isoeugenol, characteristic aromatic constituents of spices are biosynthesized via reduction of a coniferyl alcohol ester. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:10128-10133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kolosova N, Gorenstein N, Kish CM, Dudareva N (2001) Regulation of circadian methyl benzoate emission in diurnally and nocturnally emitting plants. Plant Cell 13:2333-2347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kotseridis Y, Baumes R (2000) Identification of impact odorants in Bordeaux red grape juice In the commercial yeast used for its fermentation and in the produced wine. J Agric Food Chem 48:400-406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kotseridis Y, Baumes RL, Bertrand A, Skouroumounis GK (1999) Quantitative determination of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in red wines and grapes of Bordeaux using a stable isotope dilution assay. J Chromatogr A 841:229-237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Lacey MJ, Allen MS, Harris RLN, Brown WV (1991) Methoxypyrazines in Sauvignon blanc grapes and wines. Am J Enol Vitic 42:103-108Google Scholar
  93. Laule O, Furholz A, Chang HS, Zhu T, Wang X, Heifetz PB, Gruissem W, Lange BM (2003) Crosstalk between cytosolic and plastidial pathways of isoprenoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:6866-6871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Leete E, Bjorklund JA, Reineccius GA, Cheng TB (1992) Biosynthesis of 3-isopropyl-2- methoxypyrazine and other alkylpyrazines: widely distributed flavour compounds. In: Patterson RLS, Charlwood BV, MacLeod G, Williams AA (eds) Bioformation of Flavours. The Royal Society of Chemistry, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  95. Leitereg TJ, Guadagni DG, Harris J, Mon TR, Teranish R (1971) Evidence for difference between odours of optical isomers (+)-carvone and (-)-carvone. Nature 230:455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Lewinsohn E, Sitrit Y, Bar E, Azulay Y, Ibdah M, Meir A, Yosef E, Zamir D, Tadmor Y (2005) Not just colors - carotenoid degradation as a link between pigmentation and aroma in tomato and watermelon fruit. Trends Food Sci Technol 16:407-415Google Scholar
  97. Lois LM, Rodriguez-Concepcion M, Gallego F, Campos N, Boronat A (2000) Carotenoid biosynthesis during tomato fruit development: regulatory role of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase. Plant J 22:503-513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Lopez R, Aznar M, Cacho J, Ferreira V (2002) Determination of minor and trace volatile compounds in wine by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. J Chromatogr A 966:167-177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Loscos N, Hernandez-Orte P, Cacho J, Ferreira, V (2007) Release and formation of varietal aroma compounds during alcoholic fermentation from nonfloral grape odorless flavor precursors fractions. J Agric Food Chem 55:6674-6684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Luan F, Hampel D, Mosandl A, Wust M (2004) Enantioselective analysis of free and glycosidically bound monoterpene polyols in Vitis vinifera L cvs Morio Muscat and Muscat Ottonel: Evidence for an oxidative monoterpene metabolism in grapes. J Agric Food Chem 52:2036– 2041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Luan F, Mosandl A, Degenhardt A, Gubesch M, Wust M (2006) Metabolism of linalool and substrate analogs in grape berry mesocarp of Vitis vinifera L cv Morio Muscat: demonstration of stereoselective oxygenation and glycosylation. Anal Chim Acta 563:353-364Google Scholar
  102. Luan F, Mosandl A, Munch A, Wust M (2005) Metabolism of geraniol in grape berry mesocarp of Vitis vinifera L cv Scheurebe:demonstration of stereoselective reduction E/Z-isome-rization, oxidation and glycosylation. Phytochemistry 66:295-303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Luan F, Wust M (2002) Differential incorporation of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose into (3S)-linalool and geraniol in grape berry exocarp and mesocarp. Phytochemistry 60:451-459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Lucker J, Bowen P, Bohlmann J (2004) Vitis vinifera terpenoid cyclases:functional identification of two sesquiterpene synthase cDNAs encoding (+)-valencene synthase and (-)-germacrene D synthase and expression of mono- and sesquiterpene synthases in grapevine flowers and berries. Phytochemistry 65:2649-2659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Maga JA, Lorenz K (1973) Taste threshold values for phenolic acids which can influence flavor properties of certain flours grains and oilseeds. Cereal Science Today 18:326-330Google Scholar
  106. Martin DM, Bohmann J (2004) Identification of Vitis vinifera (-)-α-terpineol synthase by in silico screening of full-length cDNA ESTs and functional characterization of recombinant terpene synthase. Phytochemistry 65:1223-1229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Mathieu S, Terrier N, Procureur J, Bigey F, Gunata Z (2005) A Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase from Vitis vinifera L: functional characterization and expression during grape berry development in relation to C13-norisoprenoid accumulation. J Exp Bot 56:2721-2731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Matsui K (2006) Green leaf volatiles:hydroperoxide lyase pathway of oxylipin metabolism. Curr Opin Plant Biol 9:274-280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Matteo JJ, Jiminez M (2000) Monoterpenes in grape juice and wines. J Chromatogr A 881:557– 567Google Scholar
  110. Meinwald J, Erickson K, Hartshor M, Meinwald YC, Eisner T (1968) Defensive mechanisms of arthropods. 23. An allenic sesquiterpenoid from grasshopper Romalea microptera. Tetrahedron Lett 2959-2962Google Scholar
  111. Mestres M, Busto O, Guasch J (2000) Analysis of organic sulfur compounds in wine aroma. J Chromatogr A 881:569-581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Mihara S, Masuda H, Nishimura O, Tateba H (1990) Determination of the enantiomeric composition of 2-methoxy-3-(1’-methylpropyl)pyrazine from galbanum oil using achiral and chiral lanthanide shift-reagents. J Agric Food Chem 38:465-467Google Scholar
  113. Mita G, Quarta A, Fasano P, De Paolis A, Di Sansebastiano GP, Perrotta C, Iannacone R, Belfield E, Hughes R, Tsesmetzis N, Casey R, Santino A (2005) Molecular cloning and characterization of an almond 9-hydroperoxide lyase. A new CYP74 targeted to lipid bodies. J Exp Bot 56:2321-2333Google Scholar
  114. Morales MT, Luna G, Aparicio R (2005) Comparative study of virgin olive oil sensory defects. Food Chem 91:293-301Google Scholar
  115. Moreira N, Mendes F, Pereira O, De Pinho PG, Hogg T, Vasconcelos I (2002) Volatile sulphur compounds in wines related to yeast metabolism and nitrogen composition of grape musts. Anal Chim Acta 458:157-167Google Scholar
  116. Mottram DS, Madruga MS, Whitfield FB (1995) Some novel meatlike aroma compounds from the reactions of alkanediones with hydrogen-sulfide and furanthiols. J Agric Food Chem 43:189-193Google Scholar
  117. Murray KE, Shipton J, Whitfiel FB (1970) 2-Methoxypyrazines and flavour of green peas (Pisum sativum). Chem Ind 27:897-898PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Murray KE, Whitfield F B (1975) Occurrence of 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines in raw vegetables. J Sci Food Agric 26:973-986Google Scholar
  119. Noordermeer MA, Veldink GA, Vliegenthart JFG (1999) Alfalfa contains substantial 9- hydroperoxide lyase activity and a 3Z:2E-enal isomerase. FEBS Lett 443:201-204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Nykanen L (1986) Formation and occurrence of flavor compounds in wine and distilled alcoholic beverages. Am J Enol Vitic 37:84-96Google Scholar
  121. Ohkama-Ohtsu N, Zhao P, Xiang CB, Oliver DJ (2007) Glutathione conjugates in the vacuole are degraded by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase GGT3 in Arabidopsis. Plant J 49:878-888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Oliveira C, Ferreira AC, Costa P, Guerra J, De Pinho PG (2004) Effect of some viticultural parameters on the grape carotenoid profile. J Agric Food Chem 52:4178-4184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Palomo ES, Diaz-Maroto MC, Vinas MAG, Soriano-Perez A, Perez-Coello MS (2007) Aroma profile of wines from Albillo and Muscat grape varieties at different stages of ripening. Food Control 18:398-403Google Scholar
  124. Parker M, Pollnitz AP, Cozzolino D, Francis IL, Herderich MJ (2007) Identification and quantification of a marker compound for Pepper aroma and flavor in Shiraz grape berries by combination of chemometrics and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 55:5948-5955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Parr WV, Green JA, White KG, Sherlock RR (2007) The distinctive flavour of New Zealand Sauvignon blanc: Sensory characterisation by wine professionals. Food Quality Preference 18:849-861Google Scholar
  126. Pelusio F, Nilsson T, Montanarella L, Tilio R, Larsen B, Facchetti S, Madsen JO (1995) Headspace solid-phase microextraction analysis of volatile organic sulfur-compounds in black-andwhite truffle aroma. J Agric Food Chem 43:2138-2143Google Scholar
  127. Perez AG, Sanz C, Olias R, Rios JJ, Olias JM (1996) Evolution of strawberry alcohol acyltransferase activity during fruit development and storage. J Agric Food Chem 44:3286-3290Google Scholar
  128. Pichersky E, Noel JP, Dudareva N (2006) Biosynthesis of plant volatiles: Nature’s diversity and ingenuity. Science 311:808-811PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Pickering GJ, Karthik A, Inglis D, Sears M, Ker K (2007) Determination of ortho- and retronasal detection thresholds for 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine in wine. J Food Sci 72:S468-S472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Pineau B, Barbe JC, Van Leeuwen C, Dubourdieu D (2007) Which impact for β-damascenone on red wines aroma? J Agric Food Chem 55:4103-4108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Puglisi CJ, Daniel MA, Capone DL, Elsey GM, Prager RH, Sefton MA (2005) Precursors to damascenone: Synthesis and hydrolysis of isomeric 3,9-dihydroxymegastigma-4,6,7-trienes. J Agric Food Chem 53:4895-4900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Puglisi C, J Elsey GM, Prager RH, Skouroumounis GK, Sefton MA (2001) Identification of a precursor to naturally occurring β-damascenone. Tetrahedron Lett 42:6937-6939Google Scholar
  133. Querol J, Campos N, Imperial S, Boronat A, Rodriguez-Concepcion M (2002) Functional analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana GCPE protein involved in plastid isoprenoid biosynthesis. FEBS Letts 514:343-346Google Scholar
  134. Rapp A (1998) Volatile flavour of wine: Correlation between instrumental analysis and sensory perception. Nahrung-Food 42:351-363Google Scholar
  135. Razungles A, Gunata Z, Pinatel S, Baumes R, Bayonove C (1993) Quantitative studies on terpenes, norisoprenoides and their precursors in several varieties of grapes. Sciences Des Aliments 13:59-72Google Scholar
  136. Richards TA, Dacks JB, Campbell SA, Blanchard JL, Foster PG, McLeod R, Roberts CW (2006) Evolutionary origins of the eukaryotic shikimate pathway: gene fusions, horizontal gene transfer and endosymbiotic replacements. Eukaryotic Cell 5:1517-1531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Rocha SM, Coutinho P, Delgadillo I, Cardoso AD, Coimbra MA (2005) Effect of enzymatic aroma release on the volatile compounds of white wines presenting different aroma potentials. J Sci Food Agric 85:199-205Google Scholar
  138. Rodriguez-Concepcion M, Boronat A (2002) Elucidation of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis in bacteria and plastids. A metabolic milestone achieved through genomics. Plant Physiol 130:1079-1089Google Scholar
  139. Rohdich F, Wungsintaweekul J, Eisenreich W, Richter G, Schuhr CA, Hecht S, Zenk MH, Bacher A (2000a) Biosynthesis of terpenoids: 4-diphosphocytidyl-2C-methyl-D-erythritol synthase of Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:6451-6456Google Scholar
  140. Rohdich F, Wungsintaweekul J, Luttgen H, Fischer M, Eisenreich W, Schuhr CA, Fellermeier M, Schramek N, Zenk MH, Bacher A (2000b) Biosynthesis of terpenoids: 4-diphosphocytidyl-2- C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase from tomato. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:8251-8256Google Scholar
  141. Sala C, Busto O, Guasch J, Zamora F (2004) Influence of vine training and sunlight exposure on the 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines content in musts and wines from the Vitis vinifera variety Cabernet Sauvignon. J Agric Food Chem 52:3492-3497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Sala C, Busto O, Guasch J, Zamora F (2005) Contents of 3-alkyl-2-meithoxypyrazines in musts and wines from Vitis vinifera variety Cabernet Sauvignon: influence of irrigation and plantation density. J Sci Food Agric 85:1131-1136Google Scholar
  143. Salas JJ, Sanchez J, Ramli US, Manaf AM, Williams M, Harwood JL (2000) Biochemistry of lipid metabolism in olive and other oil fruits. Prog Lipid Res 39:151-180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Salas JJ, Williams M, Harwood JL, Sanchez J (1999) Lipoxygenase activity in olive (Olea europaea) fruit. J Am Oil Chem Soc 76:1163-1168Google Scholar
  145. Schaller H, Grausem B, Benveniste P, Chye ML, Tan CT, Song CT, Chua NH (1995) Expression of the Hevea brasiliensis (H.B.K.) Müll. Arg. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase- 1 in tobacco results in sterol overproduction. Plant Physiol 109:761-770Google Scholar
  146. Schneider R, Charrier F, Razungles A, Baumes R (2006) Evidence for an alternative biogenetic pathway leading to 3-mercaptohexanol and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one in wines. Anal Chim Acta 563:58-64Google Scholar
  147. Schreier P (1979) Flavor composition of wines – review. CRC Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 12:59-111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Schreier P, Drawert F, Junker A (1976) Identification of volatile constituents from grapes. J Agric Food Chem 24:331-336Google Scholar
  149. Schwab W, Davidovich-Rikanati R, Lewinsohn E (2008) Biosynthesis of plant-derived flavor compounds. Plant J 54:712-732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Schwartz SH, Qin XQ, Zeevaart JAD (2001) Characterization of a novel carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase from plants. J Biol Chem 276:25208-25211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Schwender J, Muller C, Zeidler J, Lichlenthaler HK (1999) Cloning and heterologous expression of a cDNA encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase of Arabidopsis thaliana. FEBS Letters 455:140-144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Sefton MA (1998) Hydrolytically-released volatile secondary metabolites from a juice sample of Vitis vinifera grape cvs Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. Aust J Grape Wine Res 4:30-38Google Scholar
  153. Sefton MA, Francis IL, Williams PJ (1993) The volatile composition of Chardonnay juices - a study by flavor precursor analysis. Am J Enol Vitic 44:359-370Google Scholar
  154. Sefton MA, Francis IL, Williams PJ (1994) Free and bound volatile secondary metabolites of Vitis vinifera grape cv Sauvignon blanc J Food Sci 59:142-147Google Scholar
  155. Sefton MA, Francis IL, Williams PJ (1996) The free and bound volatile secondary metabolites of Vitis vinifera grape cv Semillon. Aust J Grape Wine Res:179-183Google Scholar
  156. Segurel MA, Razungles AJ, Riou C, Salles M, Baumes RL (2004) Contribution of dimethyl sulfide to the aroma of Syrah and Grenache noir wines and estimation of its potential in grapes of these varieties. J Agric Food Chem 52:7084-7093PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Seifert RM, Buttery RG, Guadagni DG, Black DR, Harris JG (1970) Synthesis of some 2- methoxy-3-alkylpyrazines with strong bell-pepper-like odors. J Agric Food Chem 18:246-&Google Scholar
  158. Seigler DS (1995) Plant Secondary Metabolism. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston Semmelroch P, Grosch W (1996) Studies on character impact odorants of coffee brews. J Agric Food Chem 44:537-543Google Scholar
  159. Sharon-Asa L, Shalit M, Frydman A, Bar E, Holland D, Or E, Lavi U, Lewinsohn E, Eyal Y (2003) Citrus fruit flavor and aroma biosynthesis: isolation, functional characterization and developmental regulation of Cstps1, a key gene in the production of the sesquiterpene aroma compound valencene. Plant J 36:664-674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Siebert TE, Smyth HE, Capone DL, Neuwohner C, Pardon KH, Skouroumounis GK, Herderich M, Sefton MA, Pollnitz AP (2005) Stable isotope dilution analysis of wine fermentation products by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Anal Bioanal Chem 381:937-947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Simkin AJ, Schwartz SH, Auldridge M, Taylor MG, Klee HJ (2004a) The tomato carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 genes contribute to the formation of the flavor volatiles β-ionone pseudoionone and geranylacetone. Plant J 40:882-892Google Scholar
  162. Simkin AJ, Underwood BA Auldridge M, Loucas HM Shibuya K, Schmelz E, Clark DG, Klee HJ (2004b) Circadian regulation of the PhCCD1 carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase controls emission of β-ionone, a fragrance volatile of petunia flowers. Plant Physiol 136:3504-3514 Simpson RF (1978) 1,1,6-Trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene - important contributor to bottle aged bouquet of wine. Chem Ind 1:37Google Scholar
  163. Skouroumounis GK, Sefton MA (2000) Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of alcohols and their β-Dglucopyranosides. J Agric Food Chem 48:2033-2039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Strauss CR, Dimitriadis E, Wilson B, Williams PJ (1986a) Studies on the hydrolysis of 2 megastigma- 3,6,9-triols rationalizing the origins of some volatile C-13 norisoprenoids of Vitis vinifera grapes. J Agric Food Chem 34:145-149Google Scholar
  165. Strauss CR, Wilson B, Gooley PR, Williams PJ (1986b) Role of monoterpenes in grape and wine flavor. ACS Symposium Series 317:222-242Google Scholar
  166. Suzuki M, Kamide Y, Nagata N, Seki H, Ohyama K, Kato H, Masuda K, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Yoshida S, Muranaka T (2004) Loss of function of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase 1 (HMG1) in Arabidopsis leads to dwarfing early senescence and male sterility and reduced sterol levels. Plant J 37:750-761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Swiegers JH, Bartowsky EJ, Henschke PA, Pretorius IS (2005) Yeast and bacterial modulation of wine aroma and flavour. Aust J Grape Wine Res 11:139-173Google Scholar
  168. Swiegers JH, Pretorius IS (2007) Modulation of volatile sulfur compounds by wine yeast. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 74:954-960PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Tesniere C, Verries C (2000) Molecular cloning and expression of cDNAs encoding alcohol dehydrogenases from Vitis vinifera L during berry development. Plant Sci 157:77-88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Tesniere CM, Romieu C, Vayda ME (1993) Changes in the gene-expression of grapes in response to hypoxia. Am J Enol Vitic 44:445-451Google Scholar
  171. Tholl D, Chen F, Petri J, Gershenzon J, Pichersky E (2005) Two sesquiterpene synthases are responsible for the complex mixture of sesquiterpenes emitted from Arabidopsis flowers. Plant J 42:757-771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Tholl D, Kish CM, Orlova I, Sherman D, Gershenzon J, Pichersky E, Dudareva N (2004) Formation of monoterpenes in Antirrhinum majus and Clarkia breweri flowers involves heterodimeric geranyl diphosphate synthases. Plant Cell 16:977-992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Tieman D, Taylor M, Schauer N, Fernie AR, Hanson AD, Klee HJ (2006) Tomato aromatic amino acid decarboxylases participate in synthesis of the flavor volatiles 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylacetaldehyde. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:8287-8292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Tominaga T, Blanchard L, Darriet P, Dubourdieu D (2000) A powerful aromatic volatile thiol, 2- furanmethanethiol, exhibiting roast coffee aroma in wines made from several Vitis vinifera grape varieties. J Agric Food Chem 48:1799-1802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Tominaga T, Des Gachons CP, Dubourdieu D (1998a) A new type of flavor precursors in Vitis vinifera L cv Sauvignon blanc: S-cysteine conjugates. J Agric Food Chem 46:5215-5219Google Scholar
  176. Tominaga T, Dubourdieu D (2006) A novel method for quantification of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol and 2-furanmethanethiol in wines made from Vitis vinifera grape varieties. J Agric Food Chem 54:29-33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Tominaga T, Murat ML, Dubourdieu D (1998b) Development of a method for analyzing the volatile thiols involved in the characteristic aroma of wines made from Vitis vinifera L cv Sauvignon blanc. J Agric Food Chem 46:1044-1048Google Scholar
  178. Tominaga T, Niclass Y, Frerot E, Dubourdieu D (2006) Stereoisomeric distribution of 3- mercaptohexan-1-ol and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate in dry and sweet white wines made from Vitis vinifera (var Sauvignon blanc and Semillon). J Agric Food Chem 54:7251-7255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Torregrosa L, Pradal M, Souquet JM, Rambert M, Gunata Z, Tesniere C (2008) Manipulation of VvAdh to investigate its function in grape berry development. Plant Sci 174:149-155Google Scholar
  180. Tressl R, Drawert F (1973) Biogenesis of banana volatiles. J Agric Food Chem 21:560-565Google Scholar
  181. Ulrich D, Hoberg E, Bittner T, Engewald W, Meilchen K (2001) Contribution of volatile compounds to the flavor of cooked asparagus. Eur Food Res Technol 213:200-204Google Scholar
  182. Vancanneyt G, Sanz C, Farmaki T, Paneque M, Ortego F, Castanera P, Sanchez-Serrano JJ (2001) Hydroperoxide lyase depletion in transgenic potato plants leads to an increase in aphid performance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:8139-8144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Versini G, Rapp A, Marais J, Mattivi F, Spraul M (1996) A new 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2- dihydronaphthalene (TDN) precursor isolated from Riesling grape products: Partial structure elucidation and possible reaction mechanism. Vitis 35:15-21Google Scholar
  184. Vogel JT, Tan BC, McCarty DR, Klee HJ (2008) The carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 enzyme has broad substrate specificity, cleaving multiple carotenoids at two different bond positions. J Biol Chem 283:11364-11373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Voirin SG, Baumes RL, Bitteur SM, Gunata ZY, Bayonove CL (1990) Novel monoterpene disaccharide glycosides of Vitis vinifera grapes. J Agric Food Chem 38:1373-1378Google Scholar
  186. Wakabayashi H, Wakabayashi M, Eisenreich W, Engel KH (2004) Stereochemical course of the generation of 3-mercaptohexanal and 3-mercaptohexanol by β-lyase-catalyzed cleavage of Scysteine conjugates. J Agric Food Chem 52:110-116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Walton NJ, Narbad A, Faulds CB,Williamson G (2000) Novel approaches to the biosynthesis of vanillin. Curr Opin Biotechnol 11:490-496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Williams P, Strauss C, Wilson B, Dimitriadis E (1985) Origins of some volatile monoterpenes and nor-isoprenoids in grapes and wine - biosynthetic and biogenetic considerations. In: Berger R, Nitz S, Schreier P (eds) Topics in Flavour Research. Eichborn Verlag Marzling- Hangenham GermanyGoogle Scholar
  189. Williams PJ, Sefton MA, Francis IL (1992) Glycosidic precursors of varietal grape and wine flavor. In: Teranishi R, Takeoka GR, Güntert M (eds) Flavor Precursors - Thermal and Enzymatic Conversions, American Chemical Society, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  190. Williams PJ, Sefton MA, Wilson B (1989) Nonvolatile conjugates of secondary metabolites as precursors of varietal grape flavor components. ACS Symposium Series 388:35-48Google Scholar
  191. Williams PJ, Strauss CR, Wilson B (1980) New linalool derivatives in Muscat of Alexandria grapes and wines. Phytochemistry 19:1137-1139Google Scholar
  192. Williams PJ, Strauss CR, Wilson B, Massy-Westropp RA (1982) Novel monoterpene disaccharide glycosides of Vitis vinifera grapes and wines. Phytochemistry 21:2013-2020Google Scholar
  193. Wilson B, Strauss CR, Williams PJ (1984) Changes in free and glycosidically bound monoterpenes in developing muscat grapes. J Agric Food Chem 32:919-924Google Scholar
  194. Winterhalter P, Schreier P (1994) C13-norisoprenoid glycosides in plant tissues: an overview on their occurrence, composition and role as flavour precursors. Flavour Fragrance J 9:281-287Google Scholar
  195. Wood C, Siebert TE, Parker M, Capone DL, Elsey GM, Pollnitz AP, Eggers M, Meier M, Vossing T, Widder S, Krammer G, Sefton MA, Herderich MJ (2008) From wine to pepper: Rotundone an obscure sesquiterpene is a potent spicy aroma compound. J Agric Food Chem 56:3738-3744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Wu Z, Robinson DS, Hughes RK, Casey R, Hardy D, West SI (1999) Co-oxidation of β-carotene catalyzed by soybean and recombinant pea lipoxygenases. J Agric Food Chem 47:4899-4906PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • J.D. Dunlevy
    • 1
  • C.M. Kalua
    • 2
  • R.A. Keyzers
    • 2
  • P.K. Boss
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Biological Sciences, Flinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Food Futures Flagship and Plant IndustryCommonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research OrganisationGlen OsmondAustralia

Personalised recommendations