Advertisement

Beoordeling van gangbare en minder gangbare vermageringsdiëten en voedingsadviezen

(augustus 2013)
  • E.M.H. Mathus-Vliegen

Abstract

Obesitas is een chronische, niet te genezen metabole ziekte van overmatige vetopslag met vele tegenregulatiemechanismen die afvalpogingen dwarsbomen. De boodschap dat 5–10 procent gewichtsverlies, mits langdurig behouden, gezondheidswinst oplevert, is niet populair bij personen met overgewicht die de diëtist als hulpverlener benaderen. De diëtist moet zich telkens realiseren dat energie-inneming voor 47 procent wordt ondergerapporteerd en lichamelijke activiteit voor 51 procent wordt overgerapporteerd. Ook moet de diëtist een antwoord hebben op de vele feiten en fabels die opduiken als het afvallen niet (meer) lukt. Populaire diëten die met veel tromgeroffel en aandacht in de pers gebracht worden, zijn vaak op halve waarheden gebaseerd. De diëtist heeft tot taak populaire diëten te beoordelen op de juistheid van de achterliggende beweringen en de voorschriften te toetsen aan de eisen die aan een goed vermageringsdieet moeten worden gesteld. Het doel van dit hoofdstuk is de diëtist te wapenen met de kennis om feiten van fabels te scheiden.

Referenties

  1. Alraei RG. Herbal and dietary supplements for weight loss. Top Clin Nutr 2010; 25(2): 136–150.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson JW, Konz EC, Frederich RC, Wood CL. Long-term weight loss maintenance: a meta-analysis of US studies. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 74: 579–584.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson JW, Luan J, Hoie LH. Structured weight loss programs: meta-analysis of weight loss at 24 weeks and assessment of effect of intervention intensity. Adv Ther 2004; 21: 61–75.Google Scholar
  4. Astrup A, Grunwald GK, Melanson EL, Saris WH, Hill JO. The role of low-fat diets in body weight control: a meta-analysis of ad libitum dietary intervention studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000; 24: 1545–1552.Google Scholar
  5. Astrup A, Rössner S. Lessons from obesity management programs: greater initial weight loss improves long-term maintenance. Obes Rev 2000; 1: 17–19.Google Scholar
  6. Avenell A, Broom J, Brown TJ, Poobalan A, Aucott L, Stearns SC, e.a. Systematic review of the long-term effects and economic consequences of treatments for obesity and implications for health improvement. Health Technol Assess 2004; 8: iii-182.Google Scholar
  7. Avenell A, Brown TJ, McGee MA, Campbell MK, Grant AM, Broom J, e.a. What are the long-term benefits of weight reducing diets in adults? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Hum Nutr Diet 2004; 17: 317–335.Google Scholar
  8. Ayyad C, Andersen T. Long-term efficacy of dietary treatment of obesity: a systematic review of studies published between 1931 and 1999. Obes Rev 2000; 1: 113–119.Google Scholar
  9. Belza A, Frandsen E, Kondrup J. Body fat loss achieved by stimulation of thermogenesis by a combination of bioactive food ingredients: a placebo-controlled, double-blind 8-week intervention in obese subjects. Int J Obes (Lond) 2007; 31(1): 121–130.Google Scholar
  10. Bravata DM, Sanders L, Huang J, Krumholz HM, Olkin I, Gardner CD, e.a. Efficacy and safety of low-carbohydrate diets: a systematic review. JAMA 2003; 289: 1837–1850.Google Scholar
  11. Bray GA, Popkin BM. Dietary fat intake does affect obesity! Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68: 1157–1173.Google Scholar
  12. CBO. Kwaliteitsinstituut voor de Gezondheidszorg CBO. Richtlijn Diagnostiek en behandeling van obesitas bij volwassenen en kinderen. 2008.Google Scholar
  13. Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, Salker HP, Schaefer EJ. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease reduction. JAMA 2005; 293: 45–53.Google Scholar
  14. Dansinger ML, Tatsioni A, Wong JB, Chung M, Balk EM. Meta-analysis: the effect of dietary counseling for weight loss. Ann Intern Med 2007; 147: 41–50.Google Scholar
  15. Ditschuneit HH, Flechtner-Mors M. Value of structured meals for weight management: risk factors and long-term weight maintenance. Obes Res 2001; 9(Suppl. 4): 284S-289S.Google Scholar
  16. Douketis JD, Macie C, Thabane L, Williamson DF. Systematic review of long-term weight loss studies in obese adults: clinical significance and applicability to clinical practice. Int J Obes 2005; 29: 1153–1167.Google Scholar
  17. Flechtner-Mors M, Ditschuneit HH, Johnson TD, Suchard MA, Adler G. Metabolic and weight loss effects of long-term dietary intervention in obese patients: four-year results. Obes Res 2000; 8: 399–402.Google Scholar
  18. Foster GD, Wadden TA, Vogt RA, Brewer G. What is reasonable weight loss? Patients’ expectations and evaluations of obesity treatment outcomes. J Consul Clin Psychol 1997; 65: 79–85.Google Scholar
  19. Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, Makris AP, Rosenbaum DL, Brill C, e.a. Weight and metabolic outcomes after 2 years in a low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diet: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2010; 153: 147–157.Google Scholar
  20. Freedman MR, King J, Kennedy E. Popular diets: a scientific review. Obes Res 2001; 9(Suppl. 1): 1S-40S.Google Scholar
  21. Gardner CD, Kiazand A, Alhassan S, Kim S, Stafford RS, Balise RR, e.a. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A to Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. JAMA 2007; 297: 969–977.Google Scholar
  22. Glenny AM, O"Meara S, Melville A, Sheldon TA, Wilson C. The treatment and prevention of obesity: a systematic review of the literature. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1997; 21: 715–737.Google Scholar
  23. Govers E, Brouwer IA, Kuijper LA, Visscher TLS, Seidel JC. Gewichtsverlies na een jaar en gewichtsbehoud na vier jaar na behandeling door de diëtist. Ned Tijdschr Voeding Diet 2009; 64: 51–56.Google Scholar
  24. Halton TL, Hu FB. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: a critical review. J Am Coll Nutr 2004; 23: 373–385.Google Scholar
  25. Heshka S, Anderson JW, Atkinson RL, Greenway FL, Hill JO, Phinney SD, e.a. Weight loss with self-help compared with a structured commercial program. A randomized trial. JAMA 2003; 289: 1792–1798.Google Scholar
  26. Hession M, Rolland C, Kulkarni U, Wise A, Broom J. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities. Obes Rev 2009; 10: 36–50.Google Scholar
  27. Heymsfield SB, Mierlo CA van, Knaap HC van der, Heo M, Frier HI. Weight management using a meal replacement strategy: meta and pooling analysis from six studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2003; 27: 537–549.Google Scholar
  28. Jebb SA, Ahern AL, Olson AD, Aston LM, Holzapfel C, Stoll J, e.a. Primary care referral to a commercial provider for weight loss treatment versus standard care: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2011; 378: 1485–1492.Google Scholar
  29. Jolly K, Lewis A, Beach J, Denley J, Adab P, Deeks JJ, e.a. Comparison of range of commercial or primary care led weight reduction programmes with minimal intervention control for weight loss in obesity: Lighten Up randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2011; 343: d6500 (doi:10.1136/bmj.d6500).Google Scholar
  30. Kennedy ET, Bowman SA, Spence JT, Freedman M, King J. Popular diets: correlation to health, nutrition, and obesity. JADA 2001; 101; 411–420.Google Scholar
  31. Larsen TM, Dalskov SM, Baak M van, Jebb SA, Papadaki A, Pfeiffer AF, e.a. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 2102–2113.Google Scholar
  32. Lean MEJ. Clinical Handbook of Weight Management (p. 1–113). London: Martin Dunitz, 1998.Google Scholar
  33. Lichtman SW, Pisarska K, Berman ER, Pestone M, Dowling H, Offenbacher E e.a. Discrepancy between self-reported and actual caloric intake and exercise in obese subjects. N Engl J Med 1992; 327: 1893–1898.Google Scholar
  34. Mathus-Vliegen EMH. Voeding en gezondheid – streefgewicht bij obesitas niet realistisch; wel gezondheidswinst door matige stabiele gewichtsreductie. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2003; 147: 1168–1172.Google Scholar
  35. McMillan-Price J, Petocz P, Atkinson F, O’neill K, Samman S, Steinbeck K, e.a. Comparison of 4 diets of varying glycemic load on weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction in overweight and obese young adults: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 1466–1475.Google Scholar
  36. Mustajoki P, Pekkarinen T. Very low energy diets in the treatment of obesity. Obes Rev 2001; 2: 61–72.Google Scholar
  37. National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. The Evidence Report. Obes Res 1998; 6(Suppl. 2): 1S-209S.Google Scholar
  38. Nederlandse Hartstichting. Over gewicht en hart- en vaatziekten. Den Haag 1995; 1–224.Google Scholar
  39. Nordmann AJ, Nordmann A, Briel M, Keller U, Yancy WS, Jr., Brehm BJ, e.a. Effects of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166: 285–293.Google Scholar
  40. Onakpoya IJ, Wider B, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Food supplements for body weight reduction: a systematic review of systematic reviews. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2011; 19(2): 239–244.Google Scholar
  41. Papadaki A, Linardakis M, Larsen TM, Baak MA van, Lindroos AK, Pfeiffer AF, e.a. The effect of protein and glycemic index on children"s body composition: the DiOGenes randomized study. Pediatrics 2010; 126: e1143-e1152.Google Scholar
  42. Phung OJ, Baker WL, Matthews LJ, Lanosa M, Thorne A, Coleman CI. Effect of green tea catechins with or without caffeine on anthropometric measures: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91(1): 73–81.Google Scholar
  43. Pirozzo S, Summerbell C, Cameron C, Glasziou P. Advice on low-fat diets for obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; (2): CD003640.Google Scholar
  44. Sacks FM, Bray GA, Carey VJ, Smith SR, Ryan DH, Anton SD, e.a. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. New Engl J Med 2009; 360: 859–877.Google Scholar
  45. Saris WH. Very-low-calorie diets and sustained weight loss. Obes Res 2001; 9(Suppl. 4): 295S-301S.Google Scholar
  46. Scientific Cooperation SCOOP task 7.3. Collection of data on products intended for use in very-low-calorie-diets. 2002.Google Scholar
  47. Shai I, Schwarzfuchs D, Henkin Y, Shahar DR, Witkow S, Greenberg I, e.a. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 229–241.Google Scholar
  48. Sjöström L, Narbro K, Sjöström CD, Karason K, Larsson B, Wedel H, e.a. Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects. N Engl J Med 2007; 357(8): 741–752.Google Scholar
  49. Steyer TE, Ables A. Complementary and alternative therapies for weight loss. Prim Care 2009; 36(2): 395–406.Google Scholar
  50. Summerbell CD, Watts C, Higgins JPT, Garrow JP. Randomised controlled trial of novel, simple, and well supervised weight reducing diets in outpatients. BMJ 1998: 317: 1487–1489.Google Scholar
  51. Thomas DE, Elliott EJ, Baur L. Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for overweight and obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; (3): CD005105.Google Scholar
  52. Truby H, Baic S, Looy A de, Fox KR, Livingstone MB, Logan CM, e.a. Randomised controlled trial of four commercial weight loss programmes in the UK: initial findings from the BBC ‘diet trials’. BMJ 2006; 332 (7553): 1309–1314.Google Scholar
  53. Tsai AG, Wadden TA. The evolution of very-low-calorie diets: an update and meta-analysis. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006; 14: 1283–1293.Google Scholar
  54. Wadden TA, Butryn ML, Wilson C. Lifestyle modification for the management of obesity. Gastroenterology 2007; 132: 2226–2238.Google Scholar
  55. Williamson DF, Pamuk E, Thun M, Flanders D, Byers T, Heath C. Prospective study of intentional weight loss and mortality in never-smoking overweight US white women aged 40–64 years. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 141 (12): 1128–1141.Google Scholar
  56. World Health Organization. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity; 3–5 juni 1997, Genève, Zwitserland. WHO/NUT/NCD/98.1; 1998: 1–276.Google Scholar
  57. Yu-Poth S, Zhao G, Etherton T, Naglak M, Jonnalagadda S, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of the National Cholesterol Education Program"s Step I and Step II dietary intervention programs on cardiovascular disease risk factors: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69: 632–646.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Bohn Stafleu van Loghum, onderdeel van Springer Media 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • E.M.H. Mathus-Vliegen
    • 1
  1. 1.afdeling Maag-Darm-LeverziektenAcademisch Medisch CentrumAmsterdam

Personalised recommendations