Advertisement

Genetica en de ontwikkeling van kinderen

Chapter
  • 13k Downloads

Genetische invloeden en omgevingsinvloeden

Cognitieve vaardigheden, emotionele en gedragsproblemen laten al bij jonge kinderen grote individuele verschillen – of variatie – zien, en deze verschillen vertonen tijdens de kindertijd een sterke mate van continuïteit. De oorzaken van variatie in emotionele en gedragsproblemen liggen zowel aan genetische verschillen als aan niet-genetische verschillen tussen kinderen en ook bij de continuïteit van emotionele en gedragsproblemen spelen beide factoren een rol. Deze genetische en omgevingsinvloeden kunnen echter een verschillend effect hebben op emotionele en gedragsproblemen over de leeftijd. Vaak zorgt genetische aanleg voor stabiliteit, terwijl invloed uit de omgeving juist zorgt voor verandering. Dit hoofdstuk bespreekt de verschillende onderzoeksdesigns om inzicht te krijgen in de mate van erfelijkheid en de kracht van invloeden uit de omgeving. Tevens worden de verschillende mechanismen voor samenspel van genen en omgeving, zoals gen-omgevingcorrelatie en gen-omgevinginteractie beschreven. De onderzoeksmethoden worden geïllustreerd aan de hand van resultaten van het grootschalige longitudinale onderzoek naar de ontwikkeling van gedrag en gedrags- en emotionele problemen van het Nederlands Tweelingen Register. Het hoofdstuk wordt afgesloten met implicaties van resultaten van gedragsgenetisch onderzoek voor de klinische praktijk, gevolgd door een korte blik op de toekomst.

Literatuur

  1. Achenbach, T. M., McConaughy, S. H. & Howell, C. T. (1987). Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: Implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 213–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T.M. (1991). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 and 1991 Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T.M. (1992). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist/2-3 and 1992 Profile. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.Google Scholar
  4. Bailey, A., Palferman, S., Heavey, L. & Le Couteur, A. (1998). Autism: the phenotype in relatives. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 28, 369–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bartels, M., Cacioppo, J.J., van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M. & Boomsma, D.I. (2013). Exploring the Association Between Well-Being and Psychopathology in Adolescents. Behavior Genetics, 43(3), 177–190.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bartels, M., Boomsma, D.I., Rietveld, M.J.H., van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M., Hudziak, J.J. & van den Oord, E.J.C.G. (2004). Disentangling Genetic, Environmental, and Rater Effects on Internalizing and Externalizing Problem Behavior in 10-year-old Twins. Twin Research, 7(2), 162–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bartels, M., Hudziak, J.J., Van den Oord, E.J.C.G., Van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M., Rietveld, M.J.H. & Boomsma, D.I. (2003). Co-occurrence of Aggressive Behavior and Rule-Breaking Behavior at Age 12: Multi-Rater Analyses. Behavior Genetics, 33(5), 607–621.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belsky, J. & Pluess, M. (2009). Beyond diathesis stress: differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135(6), 885–908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bolton, P., Macdonald, H., Pickles, A., Rios, P., Goode, S., Crowson, M., Bailey, A. & Rutter, M. (1994). A Case - Control Family History Study of Autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 35, 877–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boomsma D., Busjahn A. & Peltonen L. (2002). Classical twin studies and beyond. Nature Reviews Genetics. 3(11), 872–882.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boomsma D.I., van Beijsterveldt C.E.M., Rietveld M.J., Bartels M. & van Baal G.C (2001). Genetics mediate relation of birth weight to childhood IQ. BMJ, 323(7326), 1426–1427.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boomsma D.I., Koopmans J.R., Van Doornen L.J. & Orlebeke J.F. (1994). Genetic and social influences on starting to smoke: a study of Dutch adolescent twins and their parents. Addiction, 89(2), 19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boomsma, D.I. & Verhulst, F.C. (1995). Genetisch onderzoek naar psychopathologie bij jonge tweelingen. In: Hoogduin, C.A.L., Schnabel, P., Vandereyken, W., van der Velden, K., Verhuls, F.C. (Eds). Jaarboek voor psychiatrie and psychotherapie, vol. 5, pp. 91–102. Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum, Houten/Diegem.Google Scholar
  14. Boomsma, D. I., Wijmenga, C., Slagboom, P.E., Swertz, M.A., Karssen, L.C., Abdellaoui, A., Ye, K., Guryev, V., Vermaat, M., van Dijk, F., Francioli, L.C., Hottenga, J.J., Laros, J.F.J., Li, Q., Li, Y., Cao, H., Chen, R., Du, Y., Li, N., Cao, S., van Setten, J., Menelaou, A., Pulit, S.L., Hehir-Kwa, J.Y., Beekman, M., Elbers, C.C., Byelas, H., de Craen, A.J.M., Deelen, P., Dijkstra, M., den Dunnen, J.T., de Knijff, P., Houwing-Duistermaat, J., Koval, V., Estrada, K., Hofman, A., Kanterakis, A., van Enckevort, D., Mai, H., Kattenberg, M., van Leeuwen, E.M.,  Neerincx, P.B.T., Oostra, B., Rivadeneira, F., Suchiman, E.H.D., Uitterlinden, A.G., Willemsen, G., Wolffenbuttel, B.H., Wang,, J., de Bakker, P.I.W., van Ommen, G.J.  & van Duijn, C.M. (2013). The Genome of the Netherlands: design, and project goals. European Journal of Human Genetics, 22(2), 221–227.Google Scholar
  15. Caspi A., Moffitt T.E., Cannon M., McClay J., Murray R., Harrington H., Taylor A., Arseneault L., Williams B., Braithwaite A., Poulton R. & Craig I.W. (2005). Moderation of the effect of adolescent-onset cannabis use on adult psychosis by a functional polymorphism in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene: longitudinal evidence of a gene X environment interaction. Biological Psychiatry 15, 57(10), 1117–1127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Costello E.J., Mustillo S., Erkanli A., Keeler G. & Angold A (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 837–844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, S. Hong Lee, S. Ripke, B.M. Neale, S.V. Faraone, S.M. Purcell, D.I. Boomsma, E.J.C de Geus, J.J. Hottenga, C.M. Middeldorp, G.W. Montgomery, M.C. Neale, B.W.J.H. Penninx, D. Posthuma, G. Willemsen, N. Craddock, P.F. Sullivan, J.W. Smoller, K.S. Kendler, N.R. Wray and others (2013). Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs. Nature Genetics, 45(9), 984–994.Google Scholar
  18. Derks E.M., Hudziak J.J., Dolan C.V., Ferdinand R.F. & Boomsma D.I. (2006) The relations between DISC-IV DSM diagnoses of ADHD and multi-informant CBCL-AP syndrome scores. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 47, 116–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eaves, L. J., Silberg, J. L., Hewitt, J. K., Rutter, M., Meyer, J. M., Neale, M. C., & Pickles, A. (1993). Analyzing twin resemblance in multisymptom data: Genetic application of a latent class model for symptoms of conduct disorder in juvenile boys. Behavioral Genetics, 23, 5–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Estourgie-Van Burk, G.F.,  Bartels, M.,  van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.,  Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.  & Boomsma, D.I. (2006). Body size in five-year-old twins: heritability and comparison to singleton standards. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9(5), 646–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Freund J., Brandmaier A.M., Lewejohann L., Kirste I., Kritzler M., Krüger A., Sachser N., Lindenberger U. & Kempermann G. (2013). Emergence of Individuality in Genetically Identical Mice. Science 340(6133), 756–759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Glasner, T.J., van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M., Willemsen, G. & Boomsma, D.I. (2013). Meerling geboorten in Nederland. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 157(A5962), 1–5.Google Scholar
  23. Goriely A., McGrath J.J., Hultman C.M., Wilkie A.O. & Malaspina D. (2013). "Selfish spermatogonial selection": a novel mechanism for the association between advanced paternal age and neurodevelopmental disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(6), 599–608.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Haberstick B.C., Schmitz S., Young S.E. & Hewitt J.K. (2005). Contributions of genes and environments to stability and change in externalizing and internalizing problems during elementary and middle school. Behavioral Genetics., 35(4), 381–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hofstra, M.B., Van der Ende, J., & Verhulst, F.C. (2000). Continuity and Change of Psychopathology From Childhood into Adulthood: A 14-Year Follow-Up Study.Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 850–858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jacob, T., Waterman, B., Heath, A. C., True, W., Bucholz, K. K., Haber, R., Scherrer, J. & Fu, Q. (2003). Genetic and environmental effects on offspring alcoholism: new insights using an off-spring-of-twins design. Archives of General Psychiatry 60, 1265–1272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kan, K-J., Dolan, C.V., Nivard, M.G., Middeldorp, C.M., van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M., Willemsen, G., & Boomsma, D.I. (2013). Genetic and Environmental Stability in Attention Problems Across the Lifespan: Evidence From the Netherlands Twin Register.Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(1),12–25.Google Scholar
  28. Kerr, D., Leve, L. D., Harold, G. T., Natsuaki, M., Neiderhiser, J., Shaw, D. S., & Reiss, D. (2013). Influences of biological and adoptive mothers’ depression and antisocial behavior on adoptees’ early behavior trajectories. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41, 723–734.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Klahr A.M. & Burt S.A. (2013). Elucidating the Etiology of Individual Differences in Parenting: A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Genetic Research. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 544–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Koopmans J.R. & Boomsma D.I. (1996). Familial resemblances in alcohol use: genetic or cultural transmission? Journal of Stud Alcohol. 57(1), 19–28.Google Scholar
  31. Knopik V.S., Heath A.C., Jacob T., Slutske W.S., Bucholz K.K., Madden P.A., Waldron M. & Martin N.G. (2006). Maternal alcohol use disorder and offspring ADHD: disentangling genetic and environmental effects using a children-of-twins design. Psychological Medicine 31, 1–11.Google Scholar
  32. Lehn M.S., Derks E.M., Hudziak J.J., Heutink P., van Beijsterveldt C.E.M. & Boomsma D.I. (2007). Attention problems and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in discordant and concordant monozygotic twins: Evidence of environmental mediators. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(1), 83–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lichtenstein P., Carlström E., Råstam M., Gillberg C. & Anckarsäter H. (2010). The genetics of autism spectrum disorders and related neuropsychiatric disorders in childhood. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 167(11), 1357–1363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. O’Connor T.G., Deater-Deckard K., Fulker D., Rutter M. & Plomin R. (1998). Genotype-environment correlations in late childhood and early adolescence: antisocial behavioral problems and coercive parenting. Developmental Psychology, 34, 970–981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Plomin R., DeFries J.C. & Loehlin J.C. (1977). Genotype-environment interaction and correlation in the analysis of human behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 309–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Posthuma D., De Geus E.J., Bleichrodt N., Boomsma D.I. (2000). Twin-singleton differences in intelligence? Twin Research, 3(2), 83–87.Google Scholar
  37. Rapee, R. M. (1997). Potential role of childrearing practices in the development of anxiety and depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 17(1), 47–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Reiss D., Neiderhiser J.M., Hetherington E. & Plomin R. (2000) The relationship code: Deciphering genetic and social influences on adolescent development. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  39. Rietveld M.J.H., Hudziak J.J., Bartels M., van Beijsterveldt C.E.M. & Boomsma D.I. (2004) Heritability of attention problems in children: longitudinal results from a study of twins, age 3 to 12. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(3), 577–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ripke S., O’Dushlaine C., Chambert K., Moran J.L. & Kähler A.K. (2013). Genome-wide association analysis identifies 13 new risk loci for schizophrenia Nature Genetics 45(10), 1150–1159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rutter, M. (2000). Genetic studies of autism: From the 1970 s into the millennium. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 3–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rutter, M. (2006). Genes and behavior: nature–nurture interplay explained. Blackwell Publishing, Malden.Google Scholar
  43. Scarr S. & McCartney K. (1983). How people make their own environments: a theory of genotype greater than environment effects. Child Development 54, 424–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Strachan, T. & Read, A.P. (1999). Human Molecular Genetics. BIOS Scientific Publishers Limited. UK.Google Scholar
  45. Van der Aa, N., Rebollo-Mesa, I., N.I., Willemsen, G., Boomsma, D.I. & Bartels, M. (2009). Frequency of truancy at high school: evidence for genetic and twin specific shared environmental influences. Journal of Adolescent Health, 45(6), 579–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Van Dongen J., Slagboom P.E., Draisma H.H.M., Martin N.G. & Boomsma D.I. (2012). The continuing value of twin studies in the omics era. Nature Reviews Genetics, 13(9), 640–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Van den Oord, E.J.C.G.., Koot, H.M., Boomsma, D.I., Verhulst, F.C. & Orlebeke, J.F. (1995). A twin-singleton comparison of problem behaviour in 2-3-year-olds. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36(3), 449–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Van den Oord E.J.C.G. & Rowe D.C. (1997). Continuity and change in children’s social maladjustment: a developmental behavior genetic study. Developmental Psychology, 33, 319–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Van den Oord E.J.C.G., Pickles, A. & Waldman, I.D. (2003). Normal variation and abnormality: an empirical study of the liability distributions underlying depression and delinquency. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(2), 190–192.Google Scholar
  50. Van Os J., Rutten B.P. & Poulton R. (2008). Gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia: review of epidemiological findings and future directions. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34(6), 1066–1082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wankerl M., Wüst S. & Otte C. (2010). Current developments and controversies: does the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) modulate the association between stress and depression? Current Opinion Psychiatry, 23(6), 582–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Watson J.D., Crick F.H. (1953). Molecular structure of nucleic acids. A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nature, 171, 737–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wong C.C., Meaburn E.L., Ronald A., Price T.S., Jeffries A.R., Schalkwyk L.C., Plomin R. & Mill J. (2013). Methylomic analysis of monozygotic twins discordant for autism spectrum disorder and related behavioural traits. Molecular Psychiatry. 23, 1–9.Google Scholar
  54. Wood, J., McLeod, B. D., Sigman, M., Hwang, W. -C., & Chu, B. C. (2003). Parenting and childhood anxiety: Theory, empirical findings, and future directions. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 134–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zwijnenburg P.J., Meijers-Heijboer H. & Boomsma D.I. (2010) Identical but not the same: the value of discordant monozygotic twins in genetic research. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 153(6), 1134–1149.Google Scholar

Aanbevolen literatuur: Voor meer informatie over Gedragsgenetica:

  1. Plomin, R., DeFries, J.C., Knopik, V.S., and Neiderhiser, J.M. (2013). Behavioral Genetics (6e druk). Worth Publishers and W.H. Freeman and Company, New York; ISBN-13: 978-1-4292-4215-8.Google Scholar
  2. Carey, G. (2003). Human Genetics for the Social Sciences. SAGE Publications. ISBN: 0-7619-2345-4 Zie ook: http://psych.colorado.edu/~carey/hgss/.
  3. Boomsma, D.I. (2008). Tweelingonderzoek. Wat meerlingen vertellen over de mens. VU Uitgeverij. ISBN: 978-90-8659-080–3Google Scholar

Voor meer informatie over moleculaire genetica:

  1. Strachan and Read (2011). Human Molecular Genetics. 4 th edition. Garland Sciences ISBN: 978-0-815-34149–9Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Bohn Stafleu van Loghum 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.afdeling Biologische PsychologieUniversiteit AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations