Whiplash-Associated Autonomic Effects
There is some evidence available indicating that autonomic disturbances are present in chronic WAD. Impaired peripheral vasoconstrictor responses have been demonstrated in both acute and chronic whiplash, but the relationship of these changes to the clinical presentation of whiplash or outcomes following injury is not clear. Gaab et al.  have shown reduced reactivity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, a closely interacting system to the autonomic system, in a small sample of participants with chronic WAD. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction has been found to be present in other painful musculoskeletal conditions such as chronic low back pain, fibromyalgia, and cervicobrachialgia.
KeywordsChronic Fatigue Syndrome Whiplash Injury Median Longitudinal Fasciculus Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction Pupil Constriction
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