MC in Pediatric Ultrasound and in the Study of Vesicoureteral Reflux: “Cystosonography”



Ultrasound contrast agent introduced into the bladder is a viable alternative to radiological contrast in the evaluation of ureteral reflux and in the evaluation of the child. It can easily be used to identify the contrast that may flow back into the kidneys.


Vesicoureteral Reflux Neurogenic Bladder Ultrasound Contrast Agent Sulfur Hexafluoride Radiological Contrast 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Berrocal T, Gayá F, Arjonilla A, Lonergan GJ (2001) Vesicoureteral reflux: diagnosis and grading with echo-enhanced cystosonography versus voiding cystourethrography. Radiology 221:359–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Claudon M, Cosgrove D, Albrecht T et al (2008) Guidelines and good clinical practice recommendations for contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), update 2008. Ultrashall Med 29:28–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Darge K (2008) Voiding urosonography with ultrasound contrast agents for the diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux in children. Pediatr Radiol 38(1):40–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Darge K (2010) Voiding urosonography with US contrast agent for the diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux in children: an update. Pediatr Radiol 40(6):956–962PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Esposito F, Di Serafino M, Mercogliano F et al (2012) Ultrasound contrast media in paediatric patients: is it an off-label use? Regulatory requirements and radiologist’s liability. Radiol Med 117:148–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Faizah M, Kanaheswari Y, Thambidorai C, Zulfiqar M (2011) Echocontrast cystosonography versus micturating cystourethrography in the detection of vesicoureteric reflux. Biomed Imaging Interv J 7:e7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McCarville MB (2008) New frontiers in pediatric oncologic imaging. Cancer Imaging 8(1): 87–92. Published online 25 March 2008. doi:  10.1102/1470-7330.2008.0012 PMCID: PMC2324372 9Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Miele V, Buffa V, Stasolla A et al (2004) Contrast enhanced ultrasound with second generation contrast agent in traumatic liver lesions. Radiol Med 108:82–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Otukesh H, Hoseini R, Behzadi AH et al (2011) Accuracy of cystosonography in the diagnosis of vesicourethral reflux in children. J Kidney Dis Transpl 22:488–491Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Piscaglia F, Nolsøe C, Dietrich CF et al (2012) The EFSUMB guidelines and recommendations on the clinical practice of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS): update 2011 on non-hepatic applications. Ultraschall Med 33:33–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Riccabona M, Avni FE, Blickman JG et al (2008) Imaging recommendations in paediatric uroradiology: minutes of the ESPR workgroup session on urinary tract infection, fetal hydronephrosis, urinary tract ultrasonography and voiding cystourethrography, Barcelona, Spain, June 2007. Pediatr Radiol 38(2):138–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Valentino M, Serra C, Pavlica P et al (2008) Blunt abdominal trauma: diagnostic performance of contrast enhanced US in children—initial experience. Radiology 246:903–909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ospedale S.Camillo-ForlaniniRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations