Metabolic Alterations

  • Christian Delles
  • Anna F. DominiczakEmail author


The prevalence of obesity is steadily increasing in Western societies, and currently about a third of the US population are obese [ 1]. Similarly, hypertension is a worldwide phenomenon that affects both developed and developing countries, and about a quarter of the world's population has elevated blood pressure [ 2]. If two highly prevalent conditions co-exist, it is very likely that many patients are affected by both. In addition to the statistical odds, there are, however, also causal relationships between metabolic disorders, obesity, and hypertension [ 3]. These pathophysiological mechanisms and their implications on patients with hypertension will be the subject of this chapter (Fig.  3.1).


Hypertension  Metabolic syndrome  Sympathetic nervous system   Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system  Inflammation  


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical SciencesUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUK

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