Advertisement

Fetal Behavioral States

  • Alessandra Piontelli
  • Florinda Ceriani
  • Isabella Fabietti
  • Roberto Fogliani
  • Elisa Restelli
  • Alessandra Kustermann
Chapter

Abstract

Main points: historical survey, sleep in children and premature infants, fetal micro-awakenings are not wakefulness, fetal ocular motions building blocks of the visual system, development of behavioral states, and differences and similarities with neonatal states

Keywords

Premature Infant Behavioral State Fetal State Quiet Wakefulness Fetal Heart Rate Pattern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Heraclitus. Brooks Haxton (trans) (2000) Fragments: the wisdom of Heraclitus. Fragment 90. Viking Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hippocrates. Jones WHS (trans) (1923) On dreams. Loeb Classical Library, vol. IV. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gallop D (1991) Aristotle on sleep and dreams. Broadview Press, PeterboroughGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Virgil DJ (trans) (2014) The Aeneid. Book V. Harvard Classics, HarvardGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fyodor Dostoyewsky. Garnett C (trans) (2005) The Brothers Karamazov. Dover Publications, Mineola, p 790Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Freud S (1900) The interpretation of dreams. Standard edn vols 4 and 5. Hogarth Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aserinsky E, Kleitman N (1953) Regularly occurring periods of eye motility, and concomitant phenomena, during sleep. Science 118:273–274CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dement W, Kleitman N (1957) The relation of eye movements during sleep to dream activity: an objective method for the study of dreaming. J Exp Psychol 55:543–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wolff PH (1959) Observations on newborn infants. Psychosom Med 21(2):110–118Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wolff PH (1966) The causes, controls and organization of behavior in the neonate. Psychol Issues 5:1–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dreyfus-Brisac C, Monod N (1965) Sleep of premature and full-term neonates – a polygraphic study. Proc R Soc Med 58:6–7PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Parmalee AH et al (1967) Sleep states in premature infants. Dev Med Child Neurol 9:70–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Prechtl HFR (1974) The behavioural states of the newborn infant (a review). Brain Res 76(2):185–212CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dreyfus-Brisac C (1964) The electroencephalogram of the premature infant and full-term newborn. Normal and abnormal development of waking and sleeping patterns. In: Kellaway P, Petersenn I (eds) Neurological and electroencephalographic correlative studies in infants. Grune & Stratton, New York, pp 186–207Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Curzi-Dascalova L et al (1988) Development of sleep states in normal premature and full-term newborns. Dev Psychobiol 21:431–444CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nijhuis JG et al (1982) Are there behavioural states in the human fetus? Early Hum Dev 6(2):177–195CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mellor DJ et al (2005) The importance of ‘awareness’ for understanding fetal pain. Brain Res Rev 49:455–471CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zeeman A (1997) Persistent vegetative state. Lancet 350:795–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zeeman A (2001) Consciousness. Brain 124:1263–1289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McNamara F et al (2002) Spontaneous arousal activity in infants during NREM and REM sleep. J Physiol 538:263–269CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rigatto H et al (1986) Fetal breathing and behavior measured through a double-wall Plexiglass window in sheep. J Appl Physiol 61:160–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Joffe S et al (1980) Sleep, wakefulness and the monosynaptic reflex in fetal and newborn lambs. Pflugers Archiv 388(2):149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Parkes MJ (1992) Fetal behavioral states: sleep and wakefulness? Q J Exp Psychol B 44:231–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Crossley KJ et al (1997) Suppression of arousal by progesterone in fetal sheep. Reprod Fertil Dev 9(8):767–773CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Obal FJ, Krueger JM (2003) Biochemical regulation of non-rapid-eye-movements sleep. Front Biosci 8:520–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Porkka-Heiskanen T et al (2002) Adenosine and sleep. Sleep Med Rev 6:321–332CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Miller WL (1998) Steroid hormone biosynthesis and actions in the materno-feto-placental unit. Clin Perinatol 25:799–817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Paul SM, Purdy RH (1992) Neuroactive steroids. FASEB J 6:2311–2322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lee B et al (2012) Prostaglandin D synthase in the prenatal ovine brain and effects of its inhibition with selenium chloride on fetal sleep/wake activity in utero. J Neurosci 22:5679–5686Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Adamsons KJ, Towell ME (1965) Thermal homeostasis in the fetus and newborn. Anesthesiology 26:531–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gluckman PD et al (1993) The effect of cooling on breathing and shivering in unanaesthetized fetal lambs in utero. J Physiol 343:496–506Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Birnholz JC (1981) The development of human fetal eye movement pattern. Science 213:679CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bridgeman B (1983) Phasic eye movement control appears before tonic control in human fetal development. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 24(5):658–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Haganu IL et al (2006) Retinal waves trigger spindle bursts in the neonatal Rat visual cortex. J Neurosci 6(25):6728–6736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Baguma-Nibasheka M et al (2007) Fetal ocular movements and retinal cell differentiation: analysis employing DNA microarrays. Histol Histopathol 21(12):1331–1337Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Balabam E et al (2012) Waking-like brain function in embryos. Curr Biol 22:852–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lesku JA et al (2009) Phylogeny and ontogeny of sleep. In: Stickgold R, Walker M (eds) The neuroscience of sleep. Academic, Oxford, pp 61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cirelli C, Tononi G (2011) Molecular neurobiology of sleep. In: Winken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of clinical neurology. Elsevier, New York, pp 191–203Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Karlsonn KAE et al (2011) Dynamics of sleep-wake cyclicity across the fetal period in sheep (Ovis aries). Dev Psychobiol 53:89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ben-Ari Y et al (2007) GABA: a pioneer transmitter that excites immature neurons and generates primitive oscillations. Physiol Rev 87:1215–1284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Iber C et al (2007) ASSM manual for scoring sleep. American Academy of Sleep Medicine, WestchesterGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Piontelli A (2007) On the beginning of human fetal behavior. In: Mancia M (ed) Psychoanalysis and neurosciences. Springer, Milan, pp 413–442Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Piontelli A (2010) Development of normal fetal movements: the first 25 weeks of gestation. Springer, MilanoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Scher MS et al (2005) Cyclicity of neonatal sleep behaviors at 25 to 30 weeks’ postconceptional age. Pediatr Res 57(6):879–882CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Robertson SS et al (1982) Human fetal movements: spontaneous oscillations near on cycle per minute. Science 218:1327–1330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Purpura DP (1974) Introductory remarks on sleep ontogenesis. In: Petre-Quadrens O, Schlag JD (eds) Basic sleep mechanisms. Academic, New York, pp 150–174Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Alajuanine TH, Gastaut H (1955) La syncinésie-sursaut et l’épilepsie-sursaut a dechlanchement sensorial ou sensitive inopiné. Rev Neurol 93:29–41Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lydic R, Baghdoyan AH (2002) Neurochemical evidence for cholinergic modulation of sleep and breathing. In: Carley D, Radulovacki M (eds) Sleep related breathing disorders. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 57–91Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Llinàs RR, Terzuolo CA (1964) Mechanisms of supraspinal actions upon spinal cord activities. J Neurophysiol 27:579–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jouvet M (1962) Recherches sur les structures nerveuses et les mécanismes responsables des différentes phases du sommeil physiologique. Arch Ital Biol 100:125–206PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandra Piontelli
    • 1
  • Florinda Ceriani
    • 1
  • Isabella Fabietti
    • 1
  • Roberto Fogliani
    • 1
  • Elisa Restelli
    • 1
  • Alessandra Kustermann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Maternal/Fetal Medicine Clinica MangiagalliFondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico University of MilanMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations