Swallowing, Sucking, and Mouthing

  • Alessandra Piontelli
  • Florinda Ceriani
  • Isabella Fabietti
  • Roberto Fogliani
  • Elisa Restelli
  • Alessandra Kustermann


Main points: swallowing and sucking as separate phenomena, their progressive integration with each other and with breathing, functions during late pregnancy, mouthing and similarities with nonnutritive sucking, swallowing, and sucking and mouthing indicators of state


Amniotic Fluid Lower Esophageal Sphincter Tongue Motion Amniotic Fluid Index Amniotic Fluid Volume 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    de Vries JIP et al (1982) The emergence of fetal behaviour: qualitative aspects. Early Hum Dev 7:301–322CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mizuno K, Ueda A (2003) The maturation and coordination of sucking, swallowing, and respiration in preterm infants. J Pediatr 142:36–40CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lau C et al (1997) Oral feeding in low birth weight infants. J Pediatr 130:561–569CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Miller JL et al (2003) Emergence of oropharyngeal, laryngeal and swallowing activity in the developing fetal upper aerodigestive tract: an ultrasound evaluation. Early Hum Dev 71(1):61–87CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Piontelli A (2010) Development of normal human fetal movements: the first 15 weeks of gestation. Springer, MilanoCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Richards DS, Farah LA (1994) Sonographic visualization of the fetal upper airway. Obstet Gynecol 4:21–23Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Abadie V et al (1999) Succion-déglutition-ventilation et genes du dévelopement du tronc cerebral. Arch Pediatr 6:1043–1047CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Da Costa SP et al (2008) Sucking and swallowing in infants and diagnostic tools. J Perinatol 28(4):247–257CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barlow SM (2009) Central pattern generation involved in oral respiratory control for feeding in the term infant. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 17:187–193CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lau C, Hurst N (1999) Oral feeding in infants. Curr Probl Pediatry 29:105Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Avery JK, ElNesr N (2001) General human development. In: Avery JK, Steele PF (eds) Oral development and histology, 3rd edn. Thieme Medical Publishers, New York, pp 2–20Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Achiron R et al (1997) Development of the fetal tongue between 14 and 26 weeks of gestation: in utero ultrasonographic measurements. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 9(1):39–41CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Savkovich A et al (2010) Age characteristics of the larynx in infants during the first year of life. Period Biol 112(N. 1):75–82Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    McFarland DH et al (1994) Effects of posture on the coordination of respiration and swallowing. J Neurophysiol 72:24–31Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Amaizu N et al (2008) Maturation of oral feeding in preterm infants. Acta Paediatr 97:61–69CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Van Woerden EE et al (1988) Fetal mouth movements during behavioural states 1F and 2F. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 29:97–105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Miller JR, Seon MK (2007) Preliminary ultrasound observations of lingual movement patterns during nutritive versus non-nutritive sucking in a premature infant. Dysphagia 22:150–160CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reissland N et al (2012) Prenatal mouth movements: can we identify co-ordinated fetal mouth and lip actions necessary for feeding? Int J Pediatr 2012:1–6Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wolff PH (1968) The serial organization of sucking in the young infant. Pediatrics 42:943–956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    El-Haddad MA et al (2004) In utero development of fetal thirst and appetite: potential for programming. J Soc Gynecol Investig 11(3):123–130CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Barr RA et al (1994) Effects of intra-oral sucrose on crying, mouthing and hand-mouth contact in newborn and six-week-old infants. Dev Med Child Neurol 36:608–618CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D’Elia A et al (2001) Spontaneous motor activity in normal fetuses. Early Hum Dev 65:139–147CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wolff PH (1966) The causes, controls and organization of behavior in the neonate, vol 5(1), Psychological issues monograph series. International Universities Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Medoff-Cooper B et al (2009) Sucking behavior of preterm neonates as a predictor of developmental outcomes. J Dev Behav Pediatr 30(1):16–22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bradley RM, Mistretta CM (1975) Fetal sensory receptors. Physiol Rev 55:352–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mistretta CM, Bradley RM (1986) Development of the sense of taste. In: Bass EM (ed) Handbook of behavioral neurobiology, vol 8, Developmental psychobiology and developmental neurobiology. Plenum Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ross MG, Beall MH (2013) Amniotic fluid dynamics. In: Creasy R et al (eds) Creasy & Resnik’s maternal-fetal medicine: principles and practice, 7th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 47–52Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Couture A (2008) Fetal gastrointestinal tract: US and MR. In: Couture A et al (eds) Gastrointestinal tract sonography in fetuses and children. Springer, Berlin, pp 5–18Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lotgering FK, Wallenburg HCS (1986) Mechanisms of production and clearance of amniotic fluid. Semin Perinatol 10:94–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mulvihill SJ et al (1986) Trophic effect of amniotic fluid on fetal gastrointestinal development. J Surg Res 40(4):291–296CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Underwood MA et al (2005) Amniotic fluid not just fetal urine anymore. J Perinatol 25:341–348CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Adamson TM et al (1973) The production and composition of lung liquid in the in-utero foetal lamb. In: Comline RS et al (eds) Foetal and neonatal physiology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gilbert WM, Brace RA (1989) The missing link in amniotic fluid volume regulation: intramembranous absorption. Obstet Gynecol 74:748–755PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandra Piontelli
    • 1
  • Florinda Ceriani
    • 1
  • Isabella Fabietti
    • 1
  • Roberto Fogliani
    • 1
  • Elisa Restelli
    • 1
  • Alessandra Kustermann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Maternal/Fetal Medicine Clinica MangiagalliFondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico University of MilanMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations