Νormal Bone Marrow: Anatomy, Function, Conversion, and Reconversion

  • Lia Angela Moulopoulos
  • Vassilis Koutoulidis


Bone marrow is the organ responsible for blood cell production in humans. It is also the fourth largest organ of the body by weight, following bone, muscle, and fat [1]. It is estimated that, in humans, bone marrow accounts for approximately 4–5 % of the total body weight [2, 3]. Marrow is soft and pulpy and fills the osseous medullary cavities. The latter consist of multiple small spaces between trabeculae and larger cavities within the shafts of long bones. Although the evolutionary processes that led to confinement of hematopoiesis to the osseous medullary cavities are not yet fully understood, there is a rapidly evolving field of research examining the close association between skeletal and hematopoietic tissue (e.g., the role of endosteal osteoblasts in regulating the hematopoietic microenvironment through their interaction with hematopoietic stem cells) [4, 5].


Blood Cell Production Nutrient Artery Yellow Marrow Hematopoietic Microenvironment Bone Marrow Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Italia 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.1st Department of RadiologyUniversity of Athens School of MedicineAthensGreece

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