• Giuseppe TridenteEmail author


Ranibizumab (Lucentis®, Genentech, Novartis) is a recombinant humanized IgG1k monoclonal Fab fragment binding to human vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). In June 2006, FDA approved ranibizumab for intravitreal (IVI) treatment of neovascular age-related (wet) macular degeneration (AMD). In March 2007, EMEA granted approval for the same indication. In June 2010, on the basis of additional data, FDA extended the indication to macular edema following retinal vein occlusion (RVO), and in October 2012 to the treatment of patients with diabetic macular edema (DME).


Intravitreal Injection Macular Hole Diabetic Macular Edema Retinal Vein Occlusion Cystoid Macular Edema 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material

307171_1_En_34_MOESM1_ESM.xls (71 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLS 72 kb)


  1. 1.
    Ranibizumab (Lucentis®) BLA125156 Medical Review FDA, June 2006Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ranibizumab (Lucentis®) WC500043550 Scientific Discussion EMEA Mar 2007Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ranibizumab (Lucentis®) WC500043546 EPAR Annex I, EMEA Aug 2009Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ranibizumab (Lucentis®) WC5000101009 Assessment Report ranibizumab (AMD) WC5000101009 EMEA Assessment Report (DME), Oct 2010Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ranibizumab (Lucentis®) WC5000107807 EMEA Assessment Report (RVO), Mar 2011Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ranibizumab (Lucentis®) AusPAR for ranibizumab, ARTG: 125968, 148325, TGA, Nov 2011Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ranibizumab (Lucentis®) Prescribing Information, Genentech, Aug 2012Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cruess AF, Berger A, Colleaux K et al (2012) Canadian expert consensus: optimal treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Can J Ophthalmol 47:227–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Carmelier P and Jain RK (2011) Molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of angiogenesis. Nature 473: doi: 10.1038/nature10144
  10. 10.
    Chang J-H, Garg NK, Lunde E et al (2012) Corneal neovascularization: an anti-VEGF therapy review. Surv Ophthalmol 57:415–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    DeNiro M, Al-Mohanna F (2011) Reversal of retinal vascular changes associated with ocular neovascularization by small molecules: progress toward identifying molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. Open Diabetes J 4:75–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Parmeggiani F, Romano MR, Costagliola C et al (2012) Mechanism of inflammation in age-related macular degeneration. Mediators Inflamm. doi: 10.1155/2012/546786 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Costagliola C, Agnifili L, Arcidiacono B et al (2012) Systemic thromboembolic adverse events in patients treated with intravitreal anti-VEGF drugs for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Expert Opin Biol Ther 12:1299–1313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stewart MW (2012) The expanding role of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors in ophthalmology. Mayo Clin Proc 67:77–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Finger RP, Wiedemann P, Blumhagen F et al (2012) Treatment patterns, visual acuity and quality-of-life outcomes of the WAVE study—A noninterventional study of ranibizumab treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in Germany. Acta Ophthalmol. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-3768.2012.02493.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Silva R, Axer-Siegel R, Eldem B et al (2012) The SECURE study: long-term safety of ranibizumab 0.5 mg in neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.07.026 Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chen Y, Han F (2012) Profile of ranibizumab: efficacy and safety for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration. Therap Clin Risk Manag 8:343–351Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Singer MA, Awh CC, Sadda SV et al (2012) HORIZON: an open-label extension trial of ranibizumab for choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 119:1175–1183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bressler NM, Boyer DS, Williams DF et al (2012) Cerebrovascular accidents in patients treated for choroidal neovascularization with ranibizumab in randomized controlled trials. Retina 32:1821–1828Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ho AC, Scott IU, Kim SJ et al (2012) Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor pharmacotherapy for diabetic macular edema. Ophthalmology 119:2179–2188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ford J, Elders A, Shyangdan D et al (2012) The relative clinical effectiveness of ranibizumab and bevacizumab in diabetic macular edema: an indirect comparison in a systematic review. BMJ 345:e5182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fung AE, Rosenfeld PJ, Reichel E et al (2006) The international intravitreal bevacizumab safety survey: using the internet to assess drug safety worldwide. Br J Ophthalmol 90:1344–1349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang H, Sun X, Liu K et al (2012) Intravitreal ranibizumab (lucentis) for the treatment of diabetic macular edema: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical control trials. Curr Eye Res 37:661–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Campochiaro PA, Heier JS, Feiner L et al (2010) Ranibizumab for macular oedema following BRVO: six-month primary end point results of a phase 3 study. Ophthalmology 117:1102–1112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Varma R, Bressler NM, Suñer I et al (2012) Improved vision-related function after ranibizumab for macular edema after retinal vein occlusion. Results from the BRAVO and CRUISE trials. Ophthalmology 119:2108–2118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Martin DF, Maguire MG, Fine SL et al (2012) Ranibizumab and bevacizumab for treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology 119:1388–1398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sharma S, Johnson D, Abouammoh M et al (2012) Rate of serious adverse effects in a series of bevacizumab and ranibizumab injections. Can J Ophthalmol 47:275–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Carneiro AM, Mendonça LS, Falcão MS et al (2012) Comparative study of I + PRN ranibizumab versus bevacizumab in the clinical setting. Clin Ophthalmol 6:1149–1157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chakravarthi U, Harding SP, Rogers CA et al (2012) Ranibizumab versus bevacizumab to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration. One-year findings from the IVAN randomized trial. Ophthalmology 119:1399–1411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schumcker C, Ehlken C, Agostini HT et al (2012) A safety review and meta-analyses of bevacizumab and ranibizumab: off-label versus goldstandard. PLoS ONE 7:e42701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wehrli SJ, Tawse K, Levin MH et al (2012) A lack of delayed intraocular pressure elevation in patients treated with intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Retina 32:1295–1301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yeh S, Albini TA, Moshfeghi A et al (2012) Uveitis, the comparison of age-related macular degeneration treatments trials (CATT), and intravitreal biologics of ocular inflammation. Am J Ophthalmol 154:429–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fernandez M, Gil M, Gomez-Ulla F et al (2012) Verteporfin photodynamic therapy combined with intravitreal ranibizumab for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Controversy concerning long-term followup. Case Rep Med doi: 10.1155/2012/897097
  34. 34.
    Nemoto R, Miura M, Iwasaki T et al (2012) Two-year follow-up of ranibizumab combined with photodynamic therapy for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy. Clin Ophthalmol 6:1633–1638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Saito M, Iida T and Kano M (2012) Two-year results of combined intravitreal anti-VEGF agents and photodynamic therapy for retinal angiomatous proliferation. Jpn J Ophthalmol doi:  10.1007/s10384-012-0215-7
  36. 36.
    Marcus Dm, Singh H, Lott MN et al (2012) Intravitreal ranibizumab for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in non-Asian patients. Retina 0:1–13Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Iacono P, Battaglia Parodi M, Papayannis A et al (2012) Intravitreal ranibizumab versus bevacizumab for treatment of myopic choroidal neovascularization. Retina 32:1539–1546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zebardast N, Adelman RA (2012) Intravitreal ranibizumab for treatment of choroidal neovascularization secondary to angioid streaks in pseudoxanthoma elasticum: five-year follow-up. Semin Ophthalmol 27:61–64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Campbell RJ, Gill SS, Bronskill SE et al (2012) Adverse events with intravitreal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors: nested case control studies. BMJ 345:e4203. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e4203 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ehlken C, Martin G, Stahl A et al (2012) Reduction of endothelial growth factor A in human breast milk after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab but not ranibizumab. Arch Ophthalmol 130:1226–1227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Martinez de la Casa JM, Ruiz-Calvo A, Saenz-Frances F et al (2012) Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness changes in patients with age-related macular degeneration treated with intravitreal ranibizumab. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53:6214–6218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nishimura T, Machida S, Harada T et al (2012) Retinal ganglion cell function repeated intravitreal injections of ranibizumab in patients with age-related macular degeneration. Clin Ophthalmol 6:1073–1082PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Elman MJ, Qin H, Aiello LP et al (2012) Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular edema with prompt versus deferred laser treatment. Ophthalmology 119:2312–2318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fung AT, Kumar N, Vance SK et al (2012) Pilot study to evaluate the role of high-dose ranibizumab 2.0 mg in the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration in patients with persistent/recurrent macular fluid <30 days following treatment with intravitreal anti-VEGF therapy (the LAST study) Eye 26:1181–1187Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jutley G, Shona OA, Cheong Leen R et al (2012) Response to ranibizumab following tachyphylaxis to bevacizumab in a patient with radiation maculopathy following stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy for optic nerve meningioma. Arch Ophthalmol 130:1466–1470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wu WK, Liewellyn OP, Bates DO et al (2010) IL-10 regulation of macrophage VEGF production is dependent on macrophage polarization and hypoxia. Immunobiology 215:796–803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kaiser PK, Cruess AF, Bogaert P et al (2012) Balancing risk in ophthalmic prescribing: assessing the safety of anti-VEGF therapies and the risk associated with unlicensed medicines. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 250:1563–1571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of VeronaVeronaItaly

Personalised recommendations