• Carlo Nicola De Cecco
  • Marco Rengo
Part of the A-Z Notes in Radiological Practice and Reporting book series (AZRPR)

Heart Failure

  • Clinical syndrome characterized by dyspnea and/or fatigue on exertion or at rest with evidence of fluid retention in the context of a structural or functional cardiac disorder.

  • Clinical diagnosis can be made with Framingham criteria.

Table 1

NYHA criteria

NYHA functional class

Class I

No limitation during ordinary activity

Class II

Slight limitation by shortness of breath and/or fatigue during moderate exertion or stress

Class III

Symptoms with minimal exertion that interfere with normal daily activity

Class IV

Inability to carry out any physical activity


Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Situs Inversus Hypertensive Heart Disease Basal Septum Alcohol Septal Ablation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Suggested Reading

  1. Hunt SA et al (2005) ACC/AHA 2005 guideline update for the diagnosis and management of chronic heart failure in the adult. Circulation 112:e154–e235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Maron BJ et al (2013) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Lancet 381:242–255CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Warnes CA et al (2008) ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease. Circulation 118:e714–e833CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlo Nicola De Cecco
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marco Rengo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and PathologySapienza University of Rome-Polo PontinoLatinaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Radiology and Radiological SciencesMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

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