• Carlo Nicola De Cecco
  • Marco Rengo
Part of the A-Z Notes in Radiological Practice and Reporting book series (AZRPR)

Early Gadolinium Enhancement

  • Useful to assess cardiac thrombus and no-reflow phenomenon.

  • 2–5 min after contrast medium administration.

  • Inversion time: 460 ms.

  • Cardiac planes: 4CH, 2CH, LVOT ± SA.

Ebstein’s Anomaly

  • Characteristics: congenital malformation with dysplasia of the tricuspid valve and abnormal attachment of the tricuspid leaflets (septal and inferior) leading to an apical displacement of the valve, resulting in atrialization of the right ventricle and a small RV chamber with significant tricuspid regurgitation.

  • Associated with pulmonary stenosis/atresia, VSD, and ASD.

  • Ebstein’s anomaly when the AV valve offset is >8 mm/m2 or >15 mm; otherwise talk about dysplastic tricuspid valve.

  • MR: (1) Measure offset between AV valves plane in the 4-chamber view; (2) degree of RV atrialization; (3) RV volumes and function; (4) severity of tricuspid regurgitation.


  • ECG interpretation during MR examination is limited due to the magnetohydrodynamic effects.

  • ECG aspects that can be...


Stent Graft Mitral Valve Prolapse Restrictive Cardiomyopathy Streptococcus Viridans Embolic Protection Device 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Suggested Reading

  1. Entrikin DW et al (2012) Imaging of infective endocarditis with cardiac CT angiography. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr 6:399–405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Kiefer TL et al (2012) Infective endocarditis: a comprehensive overview. Rev Cardiovasc Med 13:e105–e120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Warnes CA et al (2008) ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease. Circulation 118:e714–e833CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlo Nicola De Cecco
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marco Rengo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and PathologySapienza University of Rome-Polo PontinoLatinaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Radiology and Radiological SciencesMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

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