• Carlo Nicola De Cecco
  • Marco Rengo
Part of the A-Z Notes in Radiological Practice and Reporting book series (AZRPR)


  • Can pace and sense in one, two, or three chambers.

  • Two types of lead: unipolar or bipolar.

  • International codes: first letter, chamber paced (V = ventricle, A = atrium, D = dual); second letter, chamber sensed (V = ventricle, A = atrium, D = dual); third letter, how the device responds to the event (I = inhibits, T = triggers, D = dual, O = nothing). A fourth letter can be present to describe added features.

  • Ventricular lead placed most commonly in RV apex, RVOT, or on septum.

  • Atrial lead placed in the right atrial appendage.

  • Indications: (1) symptomatic complete heart block; (2) symptomatic second-degree heart block; (3) bifascicular block with intermittent third-degree block, second-degree block, or BBB; (4) trifascicular block with intermittent third-degree or second-degree block; (5) symptomatic sinus node dysfunction; (6) symptomatic chronotropic incompetence; (7) carotid sinus hypersensitivity; (8) sustained VT caused by pauses; (9) drugs that result in symptomatic...


Pulmonary Artery Pulmonary Vein Pericardial Effusion Common Trunk Myocardial Perfusion Reserve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Suggested Reading

  1. Alter P et al (2013) MR, CT, and PET imaging in pericardial disease. Heart Fail Rev 18:289–306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhattacharyya A et al (2012) Peripartum cardiomyopathy: a review. Tex Heart Inst J 39:8–16PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Buckley O et al (2011) Cardiac masses, part 2: key imaging features for diagnosis and surgical planning. Am J Roentgenol 197:W842–W851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  5. Ko SM, Song MG, Hwang HK (2012) Bicuspid aortic valve: spectrum of imaging findings at cardiac MDCT and cardiovascular MRI. Am J Roentgenol 198:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Marietta S et al (2011) CT perfusion: ready for prime time. Curr Cardiol Rep 13:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. McLaughlin VV et al (2006) Pulmonary arterial hypertension. Circulation 114:1417–1431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Salerno M et al (2009) Noninvasive assessment of myocardial perfusion. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2:412–424CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Schwitter J et al (2008) MR-IMPACT: comparison of perfusion-cardiac magnetic resonance with single-photon emission computed tomography for the detection of coronary artery disease in a multicentre, multivendor, randomized trial. Circulation 29:480–489Google Scholar
  10. Warnes CA et al (2008) ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines for the management of adults with congenital heart disease. Circulation 118:e714–e833CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlo Nicola De Cecco
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marco Rengo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and PathologySapienza University of Rome-Polo PontinoLatinaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Radiology and Radiological SciencesMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

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