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  • Carlo Nicola De Cecco
  • Marco Rengo
Chapter
Part of the A-Z Notes in Radiological Practice and Reporting book series (AZRPR)

Acute Coronary Syndrome

  • Term used to describe a constellation of symptoms resulting from acute myocardial ischemia.

  • Two major groups: (1) ST elevation myocardial infarct (STEMI) and (2) non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI and unstable angina).

  • Treatments: (1) STEMI, reperfusion therapy; (2) NSTEMI, not treated with thrombolysis.

Adenosine

  • Vasodilator agent used in myocardial stress perfusion.

  • Most commonly used stress agent due to its ultrashort half-life (<10 s).

  • Dose: 140 μg/kg/min for 3–6 min.

  • Caffeine or other methylxanthines should be avoided for 24 h before the administration.

  • Contraindications: (1) high-grade AV block; (2) asthma or COPD; (3) sinus bradycardia; (4) systemic hypotension (BP < 90 mmHg); (5) severe carotid stenosis.

  • Side effects: transient heart block, transient hypotension, transient tachycardia, bronchospasm.

  • Antagonist: aminophylline, 50–100 mg over 1 min, injection can be repeated up to 250 mg total dose.

  • See also “ Perfusion imaging, myocardial”.

ALARA...

Keywords

Aortic Valve Aortic Dissection Fabry Disease Left Ventricular Assist Device Bicuspid Aortic Valve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Suggested Reading

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  3. Buckley O et al (2011a) Cardiac masses, part 1: imaging strategies and technical considerations. Am J Roentgenol 197:W837–W841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  12. Johnston KW et al (1991) Suggested standards for reporting on arterial aneurysms. Subcommittee on Reporting Standards for Arterial Aneurysms, Ad Hoc Committee on Reporting Standards, Society for Vascular Surgery and North American Chapter, International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery. J Vasc Surg 13:452–458CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Khoo JP et al (2012) Stress cardiovascular MR in routine clinical practice: referral patterns, accuracy, tolerance, safety and incidental findings. Br J Radiol 85:e851–e857PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ko SM, Song MG, Hwang HK (2012) Bicuspid aortic valve: spectrum of imaging findings at cardiac MDCT and cardiovascular MRI. Am J Roentgenol 198:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  16. Tobis J et al (2012) Percutaneous treatment of patent foramen ovale and atrial septal defects. J Am Coll Cardiol 60:1722–1732CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlo Nicola De Cecco
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marco Rengo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and PathologySapienza University of Rome-Polo PontinoLatinaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Radiology and Radiological SciencesMedical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

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